生態系の変化と公衆衛生<br>Ecosystem Change and Public Health : A Global Perspective

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生態系の変化と公衆衛生
Ecosystem Change and Public Health : A Global Perspective

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 480 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780801865824
  • DDC分類 614.4

基本説明

Covers such topics as global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, water resources management, and ecology and infectious disease.

Full Description


"The purpose of this textbook on global ecosystem change and human health is twofold:(1) to raise awareness of changes in human health related to global ecosystem change and (2) to expand the scope of the traditional curriculum in environmental health to include the interactions of major environmental forces and public health on a global scale."-from the IntroductionEcosystem Change and Public Health focuses on how human health is affected by global ecosystem changes. It is the first textbook devoted to this emerging field, offering a global perspective on research methods and emphasizing empirical investigations of health outcomes in combination with integrated assessment for policy development. The book covers such topics as global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, water resources management, and ecology and infectious disease. Case studies of cholera, malaria, the effects of water resources, and global climate change and air pollution illustrate the analysis and methodology. The book also includes a resource center describing places to start searches on the World Wide Web, guidelines for finding and evaluating information, suggested study projects, and strategies for encouraging communication among course participants.

Table of Contents

        List of Contributors                       xiii
Foreword xv
Carlos Morel
Preface and Acknowledgments xvii
Introduction: How to Use This Book xix
Purpose xix
The Target Audience xx
Multiple Ways to Use the Chapters xx
Electronic References and Information Literacy xxi
The Format of Suggested Study Projects xxii
Conclusion xxiii
PART I: APPROACHES 1 (162)
Information on Issues of Global Change 3 (14)
Erika G. Feulner
The Interaction of Natural and 4 (1)
Anthropogenic Dynamics
Research Infrastructures 5 (3)
The Decline of Natural Resources 8 (3)
Air and Climate
Water
Land
Energy
Population Growth 11 (3)
Urbanization
Migration
Economic Development 14 (2)
Industrialization
Agricultural Development
Conclusion 16 (1)
Epidemiological Study Designs 17 (43)
Alfred A. Buck
Joan L. Aron
Descriptive Measures of Health Status 19 (6)
Analytical Approaches 25 (24)
Ecological Studies
Cross-sectional Studies
Case-control Studies
Cohort Studies
Special Issues for Studies of the
Transmission of Infectious Disease
Risks and Rates
Potential Sources of Error in
Epidemiological Studies
The Sequential Application of 49 (6)
Epidemiological Methods
Conclusion 55 (1)
Suggested Study Projects 55 (5)
Geographic Information Systems 60 (40)
Joan L. Aron
Gregory E. Glass
The Basic Components of Geographic 61 (4)
Information Systems
A Generalized Thematic Mapping System
Vector and Raster Data Formats
A Relational Database Management System
Related Technologies 65 (10)
Remote Sensing
The Global Positioning System
Geographic Base File Systems
Methods for Spatial Data Analysis 75 (9)
Map Generation
Map Analysis
Map Overlay and Comparison
The Quality of Data 84 (3)
Spatial Accuracy and Resolution
Temporal Accuracy and Resolution
Thematic Accuracy and Resolution
Consistency and Completeness
Issues in Implementation 87 (3)
Sources of Data
Computer Hardware and Software
Human Resources
Conclusion 90 (2)
Suggested Study Projects 92 (8)
The Science/Policy Interface 100 (16)
Jonathan M. Samet
Science/Policy Interfaces 101 (3)
Models and the Science/Policy Interface 104 (3)
Quantitative Risk Assessment 107 (5)
Risk Assessment and Global Ecosystem Change 112 (1)
Conclusion 113 (1)
Suggested Study Projects 113 (3)
Integrated Assessment 116 (47)
Joan L. Aron
J. Hugh Ellis
Benjamin F. Hobbs
The History of Integrated Assessment Models 119 (2)
The Building of Decision-Focused Integrated 121 (2)
Assessment Models
A Taxonomy of Approaches to Integrated 123 (13)
Assessment Modeling
Simulation versus Optimization
Linearity versus Nonlinearity
Single versus Multiple Objectives
Deterministic versus Stochastic Approaches
Static versus Dynamic Approaches
Visualization and System-User Dynamics
Integrated Assessment as a Participatory 136 (3)
Process
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of 139 (5)
Integrated Assessment
The Integrated Assessment of Ecosystem 144 (9)
Change and Public Health
The Building of a Framework
Multiple Benefits and Costs
The Placement of value on Benefits and
Costs
The Integrated Management of Ecosystems
and Public Health
Conclusion 153 (1)
Suggested Study Projects 154 (9)
PART II: ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES 163 (162)
Human Populations in the Shared Environment 165 (23)
Dennis C. Pirages
Paul J. Runci
Robert H. Sprinkle
Social Evolution, Progress, and the 165 (5)
Environment
The Effects of Industrialization
An Emerging Global System
Anthropogenic Changes and Future Human 170 (8)
Health
Food Production and Health in the
Less-Industrialized World
Human Population Movements
Urbanization and the Rise of Megacities
Demographic Change and Health in the
Industrialized World
International Cooperation for Global Public 178 (5)
Health
Conclusion 183 (1)
Suggested Study Projects 183 (5)
The Changing Chemistry of Earth's Atmosphere 188 (45)
Steven A. Lloyd
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion 190 (19)
The Development of the Stratospheric
Ozone Issue: Supersonic Transports
Another Threat to the Ozone Layer:
Chlorofluorocarbons
The Smoking Gun: The Antarctic Ozone Hole
The Global Extent of Stratospheric Ozone
Depletion
Ozone Loss in the Arctic
Modeling the Effects on Human Health of
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
The Effects of UV-B Radiation on Human
Skin
The Effects of UV-8 Radiation on the
Human Eye
Chlorofluorocarbon Regulation: An
International Policy Success Story
The Future of the Earth's Ozone Layer
Acid Deposition 209 (4)
The Consequences of Acid Precipitation
Atmospheric Aerosols
Urban Smog Formation / Tropospheric Ozone 213 (5)
Tropospheric Pollutants
Tropospheric Ozone Formation
Computer Modeling of Regional Air
Pollution
Enhanced Global Warming 218 (9)
Climate Control and Climate Change
Greenhouse Gases
Issues of Current Controversy
Feedback Mechanisms
Conclusion 227 (1)
Suggested Study Projects 227 (6)
An Earth Science Perspective on Global Change 233 (18)
George W. Fisher
The Energy Cycle 234 (3)
The Water Cycle 237 (5)
The Carbon Cycle 242 (4)
Ecosystem Dynamics 246 (2)
Conclusion: An Ecological Perspective on 248 (1)
Health
Suggested Study Projects 249 (2)
Water Resources Management 251 (32)
Nicolaas J. P. M. de Groot
The Hydrological Cycle 252 (2)
Determining How Much Water Is Available 254 (4)
The Quality of Water 258 (4)
Increasing Competition among Users of Fresh 262 (1)
Water
Human Intervention in the Terrestrial Water 263 (3)
Cycle
Agricultural Activities and Forest 266 (4)
Management
Agricultural Activities
Forest Management
Urban Activities 270 (3)
The Overexploitation of Groundwater 273 (1)
Resources
Pressure from Climatic Change 274 (5)
Precipitation and Evapotranspiration
The Rise in Sea Level
Conclusion 279 (1)
Suggested Study Projects 279 (4)
Ecology and Infectious Disease 283 (42)
Mark L. Wilson
Ecological Characteristics and Processes 285 (6)
Influencing Transmission
The Interaction of Abiotic and Biotic
Factors
Temporal and Spatial Scale and Variation
Ecological Zones and the Global
Distribution of Diseases
Population Ecology and Behavior
Immunity and Transmission
The Diversity and Complexity of
Transmission Cycles
Directly Transmitted Anthroponoses 291 (3)
Directly Transmitted Zoonoses 294 (4)
Environmental Factors Determining
Transmission
Reservoir Population Ecology and
Transmission
Indirectly Transmitted Anthroponoses 298 (4)
Environmental Factors Determining
Transmission
Human Ecology and Transmission
Indirectly Transmitted Zoonoses 302 (4)
Environmental Factors Determining
Transmission
The Ecology of Reservoir-Vector-Human
Interactions
Ecological Change and Emerging Diseases 306 (8)
Foundations of the Emergence of Disease
Newly Recognized Diseases
Expanding Distributions
Increased Local Incidence
Increased Severity, Duration, or
Resistance to Treatment
Evaluation of the Emergence of Disease
Implications for Control and Risk Reduction 314 (3)
Ecological Pattern, Uncertainty, and
Prediction
Treatment, Prevention, and Control
A Conceptual Framework for Integrated
Control
Knowledge and Research Needs 317 (2)
Ecoepidemiological Data
Directed Fundamental Research
New Perspectives and Methods
Conclusion 319 (1)
Suggested Study Projects 319 (6)
PART III: CASE STUDIES 325 (106)
Cholera and Global Ecosystems 327 (26)
Anwar Huq
R. Bradley Sack
Rita R. Colwell
The History of Cholera 328 (3)
The First Six Pandemics
The Seventh Pandemic and Early Signs of
an Eighth Pandemic
Old and New Beliefs about How Cholera Occurs 331 (1)
An Update on the Ecology of Vibrio cholerae 332 (6)
A Summary of the Descriptive 338 (1)
Epidemiological Aspects of Cholera
Geographic Examples of the Behavior of 339 (4)
Cholera
Bangladesh
Africa
Latin America
The United States and Australia
The Control of Cholera 343 (3)
Conclusion 346 (1)
Suggested Study Projects 347 (6)
Malaria and Global Ecosystem Change 353 (26)
Joan L. Aron
Clive J. Shiff
Alfred A. Buck
Malaria in Africa 357 (7)
Malaria in Zimbabwe
Malaria in Gambia and Niger
Malaria in Sri Lanka 364 (5)
Malaria in Brazil 369 (2)
Malaria in the United States 371 (2)
Conclusion 373 (1)
Suggested Study Projects 373 (6)
Global Climate Change and Air Pollution: 379 (30)
Interactions and Their Effects on Human Health
Jonathan A. Patz
John M. Balbus
A Historical Perspective on Air Pollution 380 (4)
From Local to Regional to Global
Transboundary Air Pollution
Trends in Air Pollutants and Greenhouse
Gases
Fossil Fuels: The Common Source of Air 384 (4)
Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases
Climate Change and Levels of Air Pollutants 388 (9)
Secondary Air Pollutants
The Influence of Weather on Ozone
Formation
The Influence of Weather on Ozone
Transport
The Health Effects of Ozone
Acid Rain
The Health Effects of Sulfur Dioxide
Potential Effects of Climate Change on
Air Pollution in the United States
Modeling Studies of Air Quality and
Climate Change
Climate Variability, Biomass, Air
Quality, and Health: Forest Fires and
Allergens
The Synergy between Heat Stress and 397 (2)
Pollutants Affecting Health
Possible Pathways of the Effect of Global 399 (2)
Climate Change on Public Health
The Rise in Temperature
Extremes in the Hydrological Cycle
The Rise in Sea Level
The Relationship with Stratospheric Ozone
Depletion
Conclusion 401 (1)
Suggested Study Projects 402 (7)
Too Little, Too Much: How the Quantity of 409 (22)
Water Affects Human Health
Les Roberts
Ulisses E. C. Confalonieri
Joan L. Aron
Extreme Water Scarcity and Mortality in a 410 (5)
Refugee Population in Goma, Zaire
Flooding and Health in Brazil 415 (4)
Consequences of the Diversion of Water 419 (7)
Ecological Deterioration on a Massive
Scale in the Aral Sea Basin
Exposure to Dust in the Great Basin
Unified Air Pollution Control District of
California
Conclusion 426 (1)
Suggested Study Projects 426 (5)
A Stimulating Inquiry: Textbooks and 431 (6)
Information Literacy in the internet Environment
Erika G. Feulner
The Traditional Role of the Textbook 431 (1)
Changes in the Learning Environment 431 (1)
The New Role of the Textbook 432 (1)
Mental Skills Development 433 (1)
Information Literacy on the Internet 433 (3)
Evaluating Information
Citing Electronic Information
Browsing the Web
Interactivity and Communication 436 (1)
B The Resource Center, compiled 437 (18)
Erika G. Feulner
Annotated Websites 438 (10)
U.S. Government Agencies
United States-based Organizations
International Organizations
Focus on Linkages
Reinforcement of Interdisciplinary
Perspectives
Topically Arranged Websites 448 (2)
Atmospheric Changes---Climate
Land Use---Agriculture
Water
Population---Urbanization-Migration
Environmental Policies
Chapters Listing URLs
Online Directories and Library Services 450 (5)
Directories
Library Services
List of Abbreviations 455 (6)
Glossary 461 (8)
Joan L. Aron
Mark L. Wilson
Index 469