In the last decade, the rates of enrolment and retention of many students of colour have declined. Access and completion rates for African-American, Hispanic, and Native American students have always lagged behind white and Asian students, as have those for low-income students and students with disabilities. Because students of colour often make up a much smaller percentage of students in studies, their experiences and needs are often lost and go undetected. As the authors note, the United States will become significantly less white over the next fifty years, so these issues are becoming more urgent. We must have institution-wide programs to improve the graduation rates of minority students. Pre-college preparation, admission policies, affirmative action, and financial aid are important factors, but campus-wide support, from the chancellor's office to the classroom, is critical to success. This "ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report" is intended as a reference for key stakeholders regarding the realities of and strategies for student retention. It is our hope that it will serve as a compass for those with the complex task of improving retention.
Foreword.Acknowledgments.Postsecondary Opportunity.The Growing Importance of a College Degree.Moving from Access to Success.Diagnosis by the Numbers: The Education Pipeline for Racial and Ethnic Minorities.Diversity 101: Affirmative Action in America.Why Students Leave College.Models of Student Progression.Factors Related to Retention.A Framework for Retention.A New Perspective on Student Integration.Three Forces Affecting Student Persistence and Achievement.The Model in Practice.Practical Implications of the Geometric Model.A Framework for Student Retention.Monitoring Students' Progress.Implementation and Leadership.Important Organizational Considerations in Developing an.Institution-Wide Retention Program Implementing Campus-Wide Programs.The Importance of Leadership on Student Retention.Final Thoughts.Appendix A: Promising College Student Retention Programs.Appendix B: Annotated Bibliography.References.Name Index.Subject Index.