Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology (Sage Foundations of Psychology Series)

Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology (Sage Foundations of Psychology Series)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 352 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780761942924
  • DDC分類 150.72

Table of Contents

Preface to the First Edition (Doing Psychology)    xi
Preface xiv
The Authors xvi
1 Introduction 1 (11)
'Why do I have to do this?' 1 (2)
The structure of this book and an overview 3 (5)
of the chapters
How to use this book 8 (3)
Discussion/essay questions 11 (1)
2 Research in Psychology: Objectives and 12 (22)
Ideals
What is psychological research and why do 12 (3)
it?
How does psychological research progress? 15 (5)
Principles of good research 20 (6)
Some notes of caution 26 (1)
Further reading 27 (1)
Objectives and ideals: A checklist for 27 (5)
research evaluation and improvement
Discussion/essay questions 32 (1)
Exercises 32 (2)
3 Research Methods
Psychological measurement 34 (9)
The experimental method 43 (8)
The quasi-experimental method 51 (3)
The survey method 54 (3)
The case-study method 57 (3)
Overview 60 (2)
Further reading 62 (1)
Research methods: A checklist for research 62 (3)
evaluation and improvement
Discussion/essay questions 65 (1)
Exercises 66 (1)
4 Experimental Design 67 (35)
Choosing an independent variable 68 (4)
Choosing a dependent variable 72 (3)
Choosing an experimental sample 75 (5)
Threats to internal validity 80 (9)
Threats to external validity 89 (6)
Further reading 95 (1)
Experimental design: A checklist for 95 (6)
research evaluation and improvement
Discussion/essay questions 101(1)
Exercise 101(1)
5 Survey Design 102(28)
The differences between surveys and 102(5)
experiments
Setting the question 107(1)
Finding a sample 108(5)
Types of survey 113(7)
Constructing a questionnaire 120(3)
Overview: Designing a survey 123(2)
Further reading 125(1)
Survey design: A checklist for research 125(4)
evaluation and improvement
Discussion/essay questions 129(1)
Exercises 129(1)
6 Descriptive Statistics 130(36)
Different forms of research data 131(3)
Describing a typical score: Measures of 134(7)
central tendency
The relationship between measures of 141(3)
central tendency and a response distribution
Describing the spread of scores: Measures 144(8)
of dispersion
Observed distributions and theoretical 152(10)
distributions: The difference between
samples and populations
Further reading 162(1)
Descriptive statistics: A checklist for 162(2)
research evaluation and improvement
Discussion/essay questions 164(1)
Exercises 165(1)
7 Some Principles of Statistical Inference 166(32)
Statistical inference 169(7)
Inferences about individual scores 176(4)
Inferences about means 180(10)
Overview 190(2)
Further reading 192(1)
Statistical inference: A checklist for 193(3)
research evaluation and improvement
Discussion/essay questions 196(1)
Exercises 196(2)
8 Examining Differences between Means: The 198(48)
t-test
Student's t-distribution 199(4)
Comparing the results for a single sample 203(2)
to a specific value
Within-subjects t-tests 205(4)
Between-subjects t-tests 209(6)
The controversy about what to do with 215(1)
t-values
Handling the results of t-tests: The 216(11)
hypothesis-testing approach
Other ways of handling the results of 227(7)
t-tests: Probability-level,
confidence-interval and effect-size
approaches
Some notes of caution 234(5)
Overview 239(1)
Further reading 239(1)
t-Tests: A checklist for research 240(4)
evaluation and improvement
Discussion/essay questions 244(1)
Exercises 244(2)
9 Examining Relationships between Variables: 246(27)
Correlation
Some basic principles of correlation 248(2)
The measurement of correlation 250(5)
Interpreting and making inferences about 255(4)
correlations
Some notes of caution 259(7)
Conclusion 266(1)
Further reading 266(1)
Correlations: A checklist for research 267(3)
evaluation and improvement
Discussion/essay questions 270(1)
Exercises 271(2)
10 Comparing Two or More Means by Analysing 273(43)
Variances: ANOVA
Analysing variances 274(3)
Comparing multiple means using one-way 277(6)
analysis of variance
Another way to explain analysis of 283(5)
variance: Sums of squares and mean squares
How big does a difference need to be? 288(4)
Significance testing and effect sizes
What does analysis of variance buy us? Some 292(1)
notes on comparing individual means
Using F-ratios with and without comparisons 293(3)
planned in advance
An introduction to analysis of variance 296(13)
with two independent variables
A final word 309(1)
Further reading 310(1)
ANOVA: A checklist for research evaluation 310(4)
and improvement
Discussion/essay questions 314(1)
Exercises 314(2)
11 Analysing other Forms of Data: Chi-square 316(37)
and Distribution-free Tests
Dealing with a single categorical variable 320(4)
that has two levels: The binomial test
Dealing with a single categorical variable 324(3)
that has more than two levels: The
chi-square test of goodness of fit
Examining the relationship between two 327(8)
categorical variables: The chi-square test
of independence for 2 x 2 tables
Distribution-free tests 335(2)
Examining differences between two groups 337(3)
with relaxed assumptions: The Mann-Whitney
test
Some options for other cases 340(3)
Overview and checklist 343(2)
Further reading 345(1)
Other forms of data: A checklist for 346
research evaluation and improvement
Discussion/essay questions 344
Practical problems 319(34)
12 Qualitative Methods
Standard and radical critiques of 353(8)
quantitative approaches
Methods of collecting qualitative data 361(3)
Some general principles for collecting and 364(4)
analysing qualitative data
Examples of qualitative research methods 368(20)
Critiques of qualitative methods 388(4)
Conclusion: The importance of responding to 392(1)
the challenge
Further reading 393(1)
Qualitative research: A checklist for 393(3)
research evaluation and improvement
Discussion/essay questions 396(1)
Practical problems 396(2)
13 Research Ethics 398(22)
Science and society 398(5)
Participation in research 403(8)
Research with animals 411(3)
Final comment 414(1)
Further reading 414(1)
Research ethics: A checklist for research 414(5)
evaluation and improvement
Discussion/essay questions 419(1)
14 Conclusion: Managing Uncertainty in 420(17)
Psychological Research
'Where has all this got us?' 420(1)
Managing uncertainty in psychological 420(9)
research
Final comment 429(1)
Further reading 430(1)
References 431(6)
Appendix A: Step-by-Step Guides to Key 437(14)
Statistical Tests
A.1 Working out a within-subjects t-test 437(2)
using the hyphothesis-testing method
A.2 Working out a between-subjects t-test 439(2)
using the hyphothesis-testing method
A.3 Working out a correlation using both 441(3)
hypothesis-testing and effect-size methods
A.4 Procedures for conducting one-way ANOVA 444(4)
with equal cell sizes
A.5 Procedures for conducting two-way ANOVA 448(3)
with equal cell sizes
Appendix B: Writing Research Reports in 451(26)
Psychology
Overview 451(1)
Basic structure 451(2)
The sections in detail 453(8)
General stylistic issues 461(2)
Presentational issues 463(6)
Further reading 469(1)
Sample laboratory report 469(8)
Appendix C: Statistical Tables 477(18)
Areas under the standard normal curve 477(4)
Critical values of the t-distribution 481(2)
Critical values of Pearson's r 483(2)
Critical values of the F-distribution 485(7)
Critical values of the x2-distribution 492(3)
Appendix D: Answers to Exercises 495(16)
Author Index 511(3)
Subject Index 514