犯罪学・刑事司法における調査実践(第2版)<br>The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice (2 PAP/CDR)

犯罪学・刑事司法における調査実践(第2版)
The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice (2 PAP/CDR)

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  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780761928775
  • DDC分類 364.072

基本説明

Contents: Science, Society and Criminological Research / The Process and Problems of Criminological Research / Conceptualization and Measurement / Sampling / Causation and Experimental Design / Survey Research / Qualitative Methods / Secondary Data Analysis / etc.

Table of Contents

About the Authors                                  xvii
Preface and Acknowledgments xix
Science, Society, and Criminological 1 (25)
Research
Reasoning About the Social World 3 (6)
Questions and Answers 3 (1)
Everyday Errors in Reasoning 4 (1)
Overgeneralization 5 (1)
Selective or Inaccurate Observation 5 (2)
Illogical Reasoning 7 (1)
Resistance to Change 7 (2)
The Social Science Approach 9 (6)
Motives for Criminological Research 9 (1)
Social Criminological Research in 10 (1)
Practice
Description: What Is the Magnitude of 11 (1)
Youth Violence?
Exploration: How Do Schools Respond to 12 (1)
Gun Violence?
Explanation: What Factors Are Related 13 (1)
to Youth Delinquency and Violence?
Evaluation: Do Violence Prevention 14 (1)
Programs in Schools Work?
Strengths and Limitations of Social 15 (2)
Research
Types of Research Methods 17 (3)
Quantitative and Qualitative Methods 18 (2)
Social Research Philosophies 20 (1)
Validity: The Goal of Social Research 21 (2)
Conclusion 23 (3)
Key Terms 23 (1)
Highlights 23 (1)
Exercises 24 (1)
Developing a Research Proposal 24 (1)
Web Exercises 25 (1)
Spss Exercises 25 (1)
The Process and Problems of Criminological 26 (36)
Research
Criminological Research Questions 28 (4)
Identifying Criminological Research 28 (1)
Questions
Refining Criminological Research 29 (1)
Questions
Evaluating Criminological Research 30 (1)
Questions
Feasibility 30 (1)
Social Importance 31 (1)
Scientific Relevance 31 (1)
The Role of Criminological Theory 32 (4)
Social Research Strategies 36 (14)
The Research Circle 36 (1)
Deductive Research 37 (6)
Inductive Research 43 (1)
A Qualitative Exploration of the 44 (1)
Response to Domestic Violence
Descriptive Research 45 (1)
Domestic Violence and the Research 45 (1)
Circle
Phase 1: Deductive Research 45 (2)
Phase 2: Deductive Research 47 (1)
Phase 3: Inductive Research 47 (2)
Phase 4: Deductive Research 49 (1)
Guidelines for Criminologists 50 (7)
Scientific Guidelines 50 (2)
Ethical Guidelines 52 (1)
Honesty and Openness 52 (1)
The Uses of Science 53 (2)
Research on People 55 (2)
Conclusion 57 (5)
Key Terms 58 (1)
Highlights 58 (1)
Exercises 59 (1)
Developing a Research Proposal 60 (1)
Web Exercises 60 (1)
Spss Exercises 61 (1)
Conceptualization and Measurement 62 (24)
Concepts 63 (4)
Conceptualization in Practice 64 (1)
Defining Substance Abuse 64 (1)
Defining Poverty 65 (1)
Defining Strain 65 (1)
Concepts and Variables 66 (1)
Measurement Operations 67 (1)
Evaluation of Measures 68 (9)
Measurement Validity 68 (2)
Face Validity 70 (1)
Content Validity 70 (1)
Criterion Validity 70 (1)
Construct Validity 71 (1)
Reliability 72 (1)
Test-Retest Reliability 72 (1)
Interitem Reliability (Internal 73 (1)
Consistency)
Alternate-Forms Reliability 74 (1)
Interobserver Reliability 74 (1)
Ways to Improve Reliability and Validity 74 (3)
Levels of Measurement 77 (6)
Nominal Level of Measurement 77 (2)
Ordinal Level of Measurement 79 (1)
Interval Level of Measurement 80 (1)
Ratio Level of Measurement 80 (1)
The Case of Dichotomies 81 (1)
Comparison of Levels of Measurement 82 (1)
Conclusion 83 (3)
Key Terms 83 (1)
Highlights 83 (1)
Exercises 84 (1)
Developing a Research Proposal 84 (1)
Web Exercises 85 (1)
Spss Exercises 85 (1)
Sampling 86 (37)
Sample Planning 87 (8)
Define Sample Components and the 87 (3)
Population
Evaluate Generalizability 90 (2)
Assess Population Diversity 92 (2)
Consider a Census 94 (1)
Sampling Methods 95 (16)
Probability Sampling Methods 97 (2)
Simple Random Sampling 99 (2)
Systematic Random Sampling 101 (1)
Stratified Random Sampling 102 (1)
Cluster Sampling 103 (2)
Nonprobability Sampling Methods 105 (1)
Availability Sampling 106 (1)
Quota Sampling 107 (1)
Purposive or Judgment Sampling 108 (1)
Snowball Sampling 109 (1)
Lessons About Sample Quality 109 (2)
Sampling Distributions 111 (5)
Estimating Sampling Error 112 (4)
Units of Analysis and Errors in Causal 116 (3)
Reasoning
Individual and Group Units of Analysis 116 (1)
The Ecological Fallacy and Reductionism 117 (2)
Conclusion 119 (4)
Key Terms 119 (1)
Highlights 120 (1)
Exercises 121 (1)
Developing a Research Proposal 122 (1)
Web Exercises 122 (1)
Spss Exercises 122 (1)
Causation and Experimental Designs 123 (48)
Causal Explanation 124 (1)
Criteria for Causal Explanation 125 (5)
Association 126 (1)
Time Order 127 (1)
Nonspuriousness 128 (1)
Mechanism 129 (1)
Context 130 (1)
Experimental Design and the Criteria for 131 (8)
Causation
Experimental and Comparison Groups 131 (1)
Pretest and Posttest Measures 132 (1)
Random Assignment 132 (4)
Experiment on Violent Responses to 136 (3)
Insults
Quasi-Experiments 139 (6)
Nonequivalent Control Group Designs 139 (3)
Before-and-After Designs 142 (1)
Ex Post Facto Control Group Designs 143 (2)
Validity in Experiments 145 (8)
Causal (Internal) Validity 145 (1)
Selection Bias 145 (1)
Endogenous Change 146 (1)
External Events 147 (1)
Contamination 148 (1)
Treatment Misidentification 149 (1)
Generalizability 150 (1)
Sample Generalizability 150 (1)
External Validity 151 (1)
Interaction of Testing and Treatment 152 (1)
Nonexperimental Research and Causation 153 (10)
Cross-Sectional Research Designs 153 (1)
Longitudinal Research Designs 154 (1)
Repeated Cross-Sectional Designs 155 (1)
Fixed-Sample Panel Designs 156 (2)
Event or Cohort-Based Designs 158 (1)
Comparison of Experimental and 159 (4)
Nonexperimental Designs
Ethical Issues in Experimental Research 163 (3)
Deception 163 (3)
Selective Distribution of Benefits 166 (1)
Conclusion 166 (5)
Key Terms 167 (1)
Highlights 168 (1)
Exercises 169 (1)
Developing a Research Proposal 169 (1)
Web Exercises 170 (1)
Spss Exercises 170 (1)
Survey Research 171 (47)
Survey Research in the Social Sciences 172 (4)
Attractive Features of Survey Research 173 (1)
Versatility 173 (1)
Efficiency 174 (1)
Generalizability 174 (1)
The Omnibus Survey 174 (2)
Questionnaire Development and Assessment 176 (2)
Maintain Consistent Focus 176 (1)
Build on Existing Instruments 176 (2)
Question Construction 178 (17)
Write Clear and Meaningful Questions 179 (1)
Avoid Confusing Phrasing 180 (1)
Avoid Vagueness 180 (2)
Avoid Negatives and Double Negatives 182 (1)
Avoid Double-Barreled Questions 183 (1)
Additional Guidelines for 183 (1)
Fixed-Response Questions
Response Choices Should Be Mutually 183 (1)
Exclusive
Make the Response Categories Exhaustive 184 (1)
Utilize Likert-Type Response Categories 185 (1)
Minimize Fence-Sitting and Floating 185 (1)
Utilize Filter Questions 186 (1)
Single or Multiple Questions? 186 (6)
Demographic Questions 192 (1)
Don't Forget to Pretest! 193 (2)
Organization of the Questionnaire 195 (4)
Survey Designs 199 (13)
Mailed, Self-Administered Surveys 200 (2)
Group-Administered Surveys 202 (1)
Surveys by Telephone 202 (1)
Reaching Sample Units 202 (1)
Maximizing Response to Phone Surveys 203 (3)
In-Person Interviews 206 (1)
Balancing Rapport and Control 207 (1)
Maximizing Response to Interviews 208 (1)
Electronic Surveys 209 (1)
Mixed-Mode Surveys 210 (1)
A Comparison of Survey Designs 210 (2)
Ethical Issues in Survey Research 212 (2)
Protection of Respondents 213 (1)
Confidentiality 213 (1)
Conclusion 214 (4)
Key Terms 215 (1)
Highlights 215 (1)
Exercises 216 (1)
Developing a Research Proposal 216 (1)
Web Exercises 217 (1)
Spss Exercises 217 (1)
Qualitative Methods 218 (39)
Fundamentals of Qualitative Methods 219 (4)
Origins of Qualitative Research 221 (1)
Case Study: Life in the Gang 221 (2)
Participant Observation 223 (14)
Choosing a Role 223 (1)
Complete Observation 224 (2)
Participation and Observation 226 (1)
Covert Participation 227 (1)
Entering the Field 228 (1)
Developing and Maintaining Relationships 229 (2)
Sampling People and Events 231 (2)
Taking Notes 233 (3)
Managing the Personal Dimensions 236 (1)
Intensive Interviewing 237 (6)
Establishing and Maintaining a 240 (1)
Partnership
Asking Questions and Recording Answers 240 (2)
Combining Participant Observation and 242 (1)
Intensive Interviewing
Focus Groups 243 (1)
Analysis of Qualitative Data 244 (7)
The Phases of Analysis 244 (2)
Use of Computers 246 (3)
Evaluation of Conclusions 249 (2)
Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research 251 (2)
Voluntary Participation 251 (1)
Subject Well-Being 252 (1)
Identity Disclosure 252 (1)
Confidentiality 253 (1)
Conclusion 253 (4)
Key Terms 254 (1)
Highlights 254 (1)
Exercises 255 (1)
Developing a Research Proposal 256 (1)
Web Exercises 256 (1)
Spss Exercises 256 (1)
Secondary Data Analysis 257 (25)
Analyzing Secondary Data 258 (2)
Case Study: Gender and Violent Offending 259 (1)
Historical Events Research 260 (3)
Case Study: The Martinsville Seven 262 (1)
Comparative Methods 263 (1)
Case Study: The Comparative Crime Data 263 (1)
File
Content Analysis 264 (4)
Case Study: Media Representations of 266 (2)
Crime
Crime Mapping 268 (5)
Case Study: Social Disorganization and 268 (2)
the Chicago School
Case Study: Gang Homicides in St. Louis 270 (3)
Methodological Issues When Using 273 (4)
Secondary Data
Measuring Across Contexts 274 (1)
Sampling Across Time and Place 275 (1)
Identifying Causes 276 (1)
Ethical Issues in Secondary Data Analysis 277 (1)
Conclusion 278 (4)
Key Terms 278 (1)
Highlights 278 (1)
Exercises 279 (1)
Developing a Research Proposal 279 (1)
Web Exercises 280 (1)
Spss Exercises 281 (1)
Evaluation Research in Criminology and 282 (28)
Criminal Justice
A Brief History of Evaluation Research 284 (9)
Setting the Stage 286 (2)
Evaluation Alternatives 288 (1)
The Evaluation of Need 289 (1)
The Evaluation of Process (Program 290 (1)
Monitoring)
The Evaluation of Impact or Outcomes 291 (1)
The Evaluation of Efficiency 291 (2)
True Randomized Experimental Designs 293 (6)
Case Study: Problem-Oriented Policing 293 (3)
in Violent Crime Areas---A Randomized
Controlled Experiment
Case Study: Children at Risk Program 296 (2)
Strengths of Randomized Experimental 298 (1)
Designs
Quasi-Experimental Designs in Evaluation 299 (4)
Research
Case Study: Boot Camps 300 (2)
Case Study: Mandatory Sentencing Laws 302 (1)
Nonexperimental Designs 303 (1)
Case Study: Vocational Education for 303 (1)
Serious Juvenile Offenders---A One-Shot
Design
Qualitative and Quantitative Methods 304 (3)
Conclusion 307 (3)
Key Terms 307 (1)
Highlights 307 (1)
Exercises 308 (1)
Developing a Research Proposal 308 (1)
Web Exercises 308 (1)
Spss Exercises 309 (1)
Multiple Methods in Context: Integration 310 (21)
and Review
Evaluating and Comparing Research Designs 311 (2)
Triangulating Research Designs 313 (6)
Triangulation in Action: American 313 (3)
Indian Homicide
Adding Qualitative Data to Official 316 (1)
Records or Statistics
Case Study: Juvenile Court Records 316 (1)
Case Study: Decision Making in 317 (1)
Delinquency Cases
Case Study: Obedience to Authority 318 (1)
Quantifying Observation Data 319 (2)
Case Study: Systematic Observation of 320 (1)
Public Spaces
Conducting Factorial Surveys 321 (1)
Case Study: Wrongdoing in Japan and 321 (1)
Detroit
Extending Social Science Investigations 322 (5)
Taking Context into Account 322 (1)
Case Study: Juvenile Justice 323 (1)
Recognizing Natural Processes 323 (1)
Case Study: Physiological Reactions to 323 (2)
an Insult
Performing Meta-Analyses 325 (1)
Case Study: Broken Homes and Delinquency 325 (2)
Conclusion 327 (4)
Key Terms 328 (1)
Highlights 328 (1)
Exercises 329 (1)
Developing a Research Proposal 329 (1)
Web Exercises 329 (1)
Spss Exercises 329 (2)
Data Analysis 331 (45)
Introducing Statistics 332 (3)
Case Study: The Causes of Delinquency 333 (2)
Preparing Data for Analysis 335 (2)
Displaying Univariate Distributions 337 (12)
Graphs 339 (5)
Frequency Distributions 344 (1)
Ungrouped Data 344 (1)
Grouped Data 345 (4)
Summarizing Univariate Distributions 349 (11)
Measures of Central Tendency 349 (1)
Mode 349 (1)
Median 350 (4)
Mean 354 (1)
Median or Mean? 355 (2)
Measures of Variation 357 (1)
Range 358 (1)
Interquartile Range 358 (1)
Variance 358 (1)
Standard Deviation 359 (1)
Crosstabulating Variables 360 (12)
Describing Association 363 (2)
Controlling for a Third Variable 365 (1)
Intervening Variables 366 (1)
Extraneous Variables 367 (2)
Specification 369 (3)
Analyzing Data Ethically: How Not to Lie 372 (1)
About Relationships
Conclusion 373 (3)
Key Terms 373 (1)
Highlights 373 (1)
Exercises 374 (1)
Developing a Research Proposal 374 (1)
Web Exercises 375 (1)
Spss Exercises 375 (1)
Reporting Research Results 376
The Research Proposal 377 (11)
Case Study: Victimization of the Elderly 378 (6)
The Methodologist's Toolchest™ 384 (4)
Research Report Goals 388 (3)
Advance Scientific Knowledge 388 (1)
Shape Social Policy 388 (1)
Organize Social Action 389 (1)
Dialogue with Research Subjects 389 (2)
Research Report Types 391 (6)
Student Papers and Theses 392 (1)
Group Projects 392 (1)
The Thesis Committee 392 (1)
Journal Articles 393 (1)
Case Study: Up Close and Personal with 394 (2)
Peer Review
Applied Reports 396 (1)
An Advisory Committee 396 (1)
A Bit More on Writing 397 (1)
Data Displays 398 (4)
Ethics and Reporting 402 (1)
Conclusion 402
Key Terms 403 (1)
Highlights 403 (1)
Exercises 404 (1)
Developing a Research Proposal 404 (1)
Web Exercises 405 (1)
Spss Exercises 405
Appendix A: Finding Information 1 (1)
Elizabeth Schneider
Russell K. Schutt
Appendix B: Questions to Ask About a Research 1 (1)
Article
Appendix C: How to Read a Research Article 1 (1)
Appendix D: An Introduction to Using SPSS for 1 (1)
Windows
Lisa M. Gilman
Appendix E: Table of Random Numbers 1 (1)
Appendix F: HyperRESEARCH™: A Software 1 (1)
Tool for Qualitative Data Analysis
Ann Dupuis
References 1 (1)
Glossary/Index 1