The Art of Building : From Classicism to Modernity : the Dutch Architectural Debate 1840-1900 (Reinterpreting Classicism)

The Art of Building : From Classicism to Modernity : the Dutch Architectural Debate 1840-1900 (Reinterpreting Classicism)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 224 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780754602545
  • DDC分類 720.949209034


This volume is the first monograph in English on Dutch architectural theory and the public debate on architecture in 19th-century Holland.

Full Description

In the second half of the 18th century, philosophy provided the fundamental characteristics of architechture. The architects of the 19th century then introduced the empirical comparative study of buildings. This phenomenon has usually been regarded exclusively in terms of historicism, but this is to underestimate the fact that they were architects. The problems for which they sought solutions did not belong to the past, but were part of their own age or the future. The architecture of the past was, to the 19th-century architect, significant to a large degree as a silent witness of a bygone era - a representation of beauty. Historical architecture provided study material for their inquiries into the aesthetic "laws" that they hoped would give the 19th century a splendid contemporary architecture. The art of building, as a way of visibly edifying society, was the most important of all the arts, with architectural theory showing the way to this lofty purpose. This book takes this as a starting point.Focusing on place as well as time, the text discusses the Dutch architects who contributed to this idea, discussing several of the most important, but ultimately seeing their activities, not as the cause, but the expression of movements that continuously changed the face of architecture. The particularly "Dutch" nature of architecture took "visual beauty" to result from the visible success of technical intelligence and creativity rather than philosophy and aesthetics. The grand-19th century themes discussed in the book are, the author suggests, somewhat "un-Dutch", originating as they did from an idealist, intellectual tradition.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements                                   vii
Introduction ix
Preamble xii
Part 1 The Enlightenment Inheritance:
Character, Truth and Style
Europe and the Netherlands: The Years before 2 (10)
A New Spirit in Dutch Architecture: The 1840s 12 (15)
Roots in a distant past
Character, Vitruvius, and Zocher's Stock
Johannes Jacobus Penn and the German
The predilection for the Greek
Round or pointed arches?
Adherence to rules: a mistaken
interpretation of art?
Post-classicism, and Classicism in Disguise: 27 (19)
The 1850s
The diminishing authority of classicism
The spirit of the age: in search of a
The logical Middle Ages: Alberdingk Thijm
The debate about truth and character
From pointed arch to neo-Gothic
Eclecticism: Johannes H. Leliman
Artistic freedom
Classicism and Romanticism: European
The new dualism: spirit and matter
A social function for architecture?
Part 2 Architecture and the World Outside: The
The Rise of the Public 46 (27)
A technical revolution
Theory begins to decline
The architect and public taste
The newcomer: iron
The gulf between practice and theory
widens: Gottfried Semper and Viollet-le-Duc
The ideological battle gathers momentum
A new voice: Eugen Heinrich Gugel
The claims of history, the need for
originality, and social relevance
A national architecture: a collective or an
individualist vision?
The search for new concepts of form
The role of religion and politics
Picturesque Old Dutch beauty
New discoveries, new possibilities
A Dutch national style in the making
The intricacies and pitfalls of terminology
The Fall of Theory 73 (28)
A time of change for the profession
A diminished artistic authority
Intellectual overload: theory continues to
lose ground
Would building survive as an art?
Materialism, positivism, idealism
-Architecture and the aesthetic ideal
Fashion, and applied art -Art as a national
Officialdom takes control: Victor de Stuers
The passion for the past: an `official
The government's grip tightens
Sound principles'
An official smokescreen
The Rules of Art in the Market-place 101(16)
An `official style' by stealth
Many minds, many views
A flourishing economy? The
Spectacular curiosities
The status of the architect plummets
Publicity and self-promotion: the struggle
to make a living
Criticism and architectural theory
Something new, something original
The campaign to educate the public: the
supremacy of the visual image
Fashion, Competition and Picturesque versus 117(26)
The historical school: the neo-Gothic,
Dutch Renaissance, and the `official style'
The Dutch Renaissance revival
The Dutch response to an international
The growing German influence, and the role
of competition
Changes in semantics: truth, character,
The `official style': C. H. Peters and J.
van Lokhorst -A contemporary national
architecture: picturesque or monumental?
Picturesque buildings, picturesque townscape
In search of a picturesque monumentality:
height and space
Truth and character, idealism and
Stopping the `decline': medievalism as
Realism: a concept appropriate to
On the Brink of Change 143(11)
The relationship between the arts
The relationship with technology
The decline of the historical school
Imitation: a feasible alternative?
Imitation or originality: the eclectics
The subjective gains ground
The pan-European generation
Part 3 Style or No Style? The 1890s and the New
Image Building 154(30)
The traditional view
The new subjectivity and the new mass
The cult of the genius
A new historiography?
Expressing the inexpressible: the new
The supremacy of the subjective
'Everything into the sewer!': the rallying
cry of the new eclecticism
P. J. H. Cuypers: `the conquering hero
battling against convention'
The national need for a saviour
A generation conflict that Cuypers escaped?
An ambivalent relationship nonetheless:
Cuypers and the younger set
Cuypers as catalyst
The significance of the Cuypers cult
The cult of personality, Berlage, and the
Modern Movement
Movements on the mane: the Renaissance out
of favour, and the end of the neo-Gothic
Rationalism: the dying echo of an era
Rationalism and Berlage: an opportunistic
A movement achieving fruition
Concepts for a New Age: Sublime Beauty, 184(35)
Personal Taste, and the Importance of Quite
Ordinary Things
A new movement, a new beauty
Noble simplicity and primitivism: a new
The search for new concepts of form: Art
Nouveau and the Arts and Crafts Movement
Romanesque, Byzantine, Early Christian, and
the recurring question of imitation
Berlage, and the image of Germany on the
Dutch architectural scene
`The style of upholsterers and furniture
manufacturers': Art Nouveau
Character and ornament
The `modern style' and metaphysics
The new eclecticism: the 90s' breakthrough
Eclecticism, and the problematic word
Realism, function and beauty
Efficiency: the new ideal
The need to `professionalize'
`Idealism', individualism, and designing
`by system'
Berlage: idealist or opportunist?
Architecture and the people
Bibliography 219(12)
Figure Acknowledgements 231(2)
Index 233