Natural Gas Hydrates : A Guide for Engineers

Natural Gas Hydrates : A Guide for Engineers

  • ただいまウェブストアではご注文を受け付けておりません。 ⇒古書を探す
  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 300 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780750675697
  • DDC分類 553

Full Description


This is the most exhaustive study to date on natural gas hydrates. In spite of their importance, hydrates are misunderstood, and misconceptions abound. This book provides an accurate review of what hydrates are and under what conditions they will form, and it provides the engineer with the methods to predict the occurrences of hydrates.The petroleum industry spends millions every year to combat the formation of hydrates, the solid, crystalline compounds that form from water and small molecules, damaging equipment and plugging transmission lines. Understanding how, when, and where they form and using this knowledge to apply remedies in practical applications are crucial.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xv
Acknowledgments xvii
Introduction 1 (16)
Natural Gas 2 (1)
Sales Gas 2 (1)
Hydrates 2 (1)
Water Molecule 3 (6)
Normal Boiling Point of Water 3 (2)
Enthalpy of Vaporization 5 (1)
Expansion upon Freezing 6 (1)
Shape of the Water Molecule and the 7 (2)
Hydrogen Bond
Hydrates 9 (2)
Water and Natural Gas 11 (2)
Free-Water 12 (1)
Heavy Water 13 (1)
Additional Reading 13 (1)
Units 14 (1)
References 14 (1)
Bibliography 15 (1)
Appendix: Periodic Table of the Elements 16 (1)
Hydrate Types and Formers 17 (33)
Type I Hydrates 17 (3)
Type I Formers 19 (1)
Type II Hydrates 20 (1)
Type II Formers 20 (1)
Size of the Guest Molecule 20 (2)
n-Butane 22 (1)
Other Hydrocarbons 22 (1)
Cyclopropane 23 (1)
2-Butene 23 (1)
Hydrogen and Helium 24 (1)
Chemical Properties of Potential Guests 24 (1)
Liquid Hydrate Formers 24 (1)
Type H Hydrates 25 (1)
Type H Formers 25 (1)
Hydrate-Forming Conditions 25 (7)
Pressure-Temperature 26 (2)
Composition 28 (3)
Caution 31 (1)
Nitrogen 31 (1)
Quadruple Points 32 (3)
Cyclopropane 35 (1)
Other Hydrate Formers 35 (2)
Freons 35 (1)
Halogens 36 (1)
Noble Gases 36 (1)
Air 36 (1)
Others 36 (1)
Mixtures 37 (2)
Mixtures of the Same Type 37 (1)
Type I Plus Type II 37 (1)
Azeotropy 38 (1)
Mixtures with Nonformers 39 (1)
Examples 39 (3)
Example 2-1 39 (1)
Example 2-2 40 (1)
Example 2-3 40 (1)
Example 2-4 40 (1)
Example 2-5 41 (1)
Example 2-6 41 (1)
References 42 (1)
Appendix: Water Content of the Fluid in 43 (7)
Equilibrium with Hydrate for Pure
Components
Hand Calculation Methods 50 (41)
Gas Gravity Method 51 (2)
K-Factor Method 53 (7)
Calculation Algorithms 54 (1)
Flash 54 (1)
Incipient Solid Formation 55 (1)
Liquid Hydrocarbons 55 (2)
Computerization 57 (1)
Comments on the Accuracy of the 58 (2)
K-Factor Method
Baillie-Wichert Method 60 (5)
Comments on These Methods 65 (8)
Water 66 (1)
Nonformers 66 (1)
Isobutane vs. n-Butane 67 (1)
Quick Comparison 68 (1)
Mei et al. (1998) 68 (2)
Fan and Guo (1999) 70 (1)
Ng and Robinson (1976) 71 (2)
Examples 73 (4)
Example 3-1 73 (1)
Example 3-2 74 (1)
Example 3-3 74 (1)
Example 3-4 75 (1)
Example 3-5 75 (1)
Example 3-6 76 (1)
References 77 (2)
Appendix: Katz K-factor Charts 79 (12)
Computer Methods 91 (20)
Phase Equilibrium 91 (2)
Van Der Waals and Platteeuw 93 (1)
Parrish and Prausnitz 93 (2)
Ng and Robinson 95 (1)
Calculations 95 (2)
Compositions 96 (1)
Commercial Software Packages 97 (1)
Accuracy of These Programs 98 (9)
Pure Components 98 (1)
Methane 99 (1)
Ethane 100 (1)
Carbon Dioxide 101 (1)
Hydrogen Sulfide 101 (2)
Mixtures 103 (1)
Mei et al. (1998) 103 (1)
Fan and Guo (1999) 104 (2)
Ng and Robinson (1976) 106 (1)
Dehydration 107 (2)
Margin of Error 109 (1)
Examples 109 (1)
Example 4-1 109 (1)
Example 4-2 110 (1)
References 110 (1)
Inhibiting Hydrate Formation with Chemicals 111 (32)
Freezing Point Depression 113 (2)
Hammerschmidt Equation 115 (3)
Nielsen-Bucklin Equation 118 (1)
New Method 119 (4)
A Chart 120 (1)
Accuracy of the New Method 120 (3)
Brine Solutions 123 (2)
Comment on the Simple Methods 125 (2)
Advanced Calculation Methods 127 (2)
Word of Caution 129 (1)
Acetone 129 (1)
Inhibitor Vaporization 130 (3)
Comment on Injection Rates 133 (2)
Kinetic Inhibitors 135 (1)
Price for Inhibitor Chemicals 135 (1)
Examples 135 (6)
Example 5-1 135 (2)
Example 5-2 137 (1)
Example 5-3 137 (1)
Example 5-4 137 (1)
Example 5-5 137 (2)
Example 5-6 139 (1)
Example 5-7 139 (1)
Example 5-8 140 (1)
Example 5-9 140 (1)
References 141 (2)
Dehydration of Natural Gas 143 (22)
Water Content Specification 143 (1)
Glycol Dehydration 144 (8)
Liquid Desiccants 144 (1)
Glycols 145 (1)
Process Description 145 (1)
Inlet Separator 146 (1)
Contactor 147 (1)
Flash Tank 147 (1)
Lean-Rich Exchanger 148 (1)
Regenerator 148 (1)
Glycol Pump 149 (1)
Shortcut Design Method 149 (1)
BTEX 150 (2)
Software 152 (1)
Approximate Capital Cost 152 (1)
Mole Sieves 152 (6)
Process Description 153 (1)
Simplified Modeling 154 (4)
Refrigeration 158 (4)
Process Description 159 (1)
Glycol Injection 160 (2)
Examples 162 (2)
Example 6-1 162 (1)
Example 6-2 162 (1)
Example 6-3 162 (2)
References 164 (1)
Combating Hydrates Using Heat And Pressure 165 (33)
Use of Heat 165 (10)
Heat Loss from a Buried Pipeline 166 (1)
Fluid Contribution 167 (1)
Pipe Contribution 168 (1)
Soil Contribution 168 (1)
Overall 169 (1)
Heat Transferred 169 (1)
Additional Comments 170 (1)
Line Heater Design 170 (2)
Bath 172 (1)
Tube Bundle 173 (1)
Fire Tube 173 (1)
Other Considerations 174 (1)
Heat Transfer 174 (1)
Two-Phase Heater Transfer 174 (1)
Depressurization 175 (2)
Melting a Plug with Heat 177 (2)
Buildings 179 (1)
Capital Costs 179 (1)
Examples 179 (4)
Example 7-1 179 (3)
Example 7-2 182 (1)
Example 7-3 183 (1)
References 183 (1)
Appendix: Output from Pipe Heat Loss 184 (14)
Program for the Examples in the Text
Physical Properties of Hydrates 198 (12)
Molar Mass 198 (2)
Density 200 (1)
Enthalpy of Fusion 201 (2)
Heat Capacity 203 (1)
Thermal Conductivity 203 (1)
Mechanical Properties 203 (1)
Volume of Gas in Hydrate 204 (1)
Ice versus Hydrate 205 (1)
Examples 205 (4)
Example 8-1 205 (1)
Example 8-2 206 (1)
Example 8-3 206 (1)
Example 8-4 207 (1)
Example 8-5 208 (1)
References 209 (1)
Phase Diagrams 210 (22)
Phase Rule 210 (1)
Comments About Phases 211 (1)
Single-Component Systems 212 (2)
Water 213 (1)
Binary Systems 214 (10)
Constructing T-x and P-x Diagrams 217 (1)
Methane + Water 218 (3)
Free-Water 221 (1)
Carbon Dioxide + Water 221 (1)
Hydrogen Sulfide + Water 222 (2)
Propane + Water 224 (1)
Phase Behavior Below 0°C 224 (1)
Methane + Water 224 (1)
Multicomponent Systems 225 (3)
Acid Gas Mixture 226 (1)
Typical Natural Gas 227 (1)
Examples 228 (3)
Example 9-1 228 (1)
Example 9-2 229 (1)
Example 9-3 229 (1)
Example 9-4 229 (1)
Example 9-5 230 (1)
Example 9-6 230 (1)
Example 9-7 231 (1)
References 231 (1)
Water Content of Natural Gas 232 (35)
Equilibrium with Liquid Water 232 (15)
Ideal Model 233 (1)
McKetta-Wehe Chart 234 (3)
Sharma-Campbell Method 237 (1)
Bukacek 238 (1)
Ning et al. 239 (2)
Maddox Correction 241 (2)
Robinson et al. Charts 243 (1)
Wichert Correction 244 (2)
AQUAlibrium 246 (1)
Equilibrium with Solids 247 (6)
Ice 247 (2)
Hydrate 249 (1)
Methane 249 (2)
Gas Gravity 251 (2)
Examples 253 (4)
Example 10-1 253 (1)
Example 10-2 254 (1)
Example 10-3 255 (1)
Example 10-4 255 (1)
Example 10-5 255 (1)
Example 10-6 256 (1)
References 257 (1)
Appendix: Programs on the Companion Web 258 (9)
site
Index 267