Identification of Gemstones

Identification of Gemstones

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  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780750655125
  • DDC分類 549

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xi
Acknowledgements xiv
Gem testing: some disappointments, 1 (7)
instruments and techniques
Magnification 1 (1)
The refractometer 2 (1)
Crystals 2 (1)
Where stones come from -- locality 3 (1)
information
Polarized light and what it can tell us 3 (1)
Specific gravity 3 (1)
Colour 3 (1)
The dichroscope 4 (1)
The spectroscope 4 (1)
Fluorescence and phosphorescence 5 (1)
Laboratory methods of testing 5 (1)
Some disappointments and why they may 5 (1)
occur
Troubles in testing 6 (1)
Failure 7 (1)
Diamond 8 (30)
The diamond types 9 (1)
Identification of diamond 10 (1)
Glass 10 (1)
Inclusions 11 (1)
Imitations of diamond 12 (2)
Testing instruments 14 (2)
Review so far 16 (2)
Synthetic moissanite 18 (1)
Synthetic gem diamond 19 (6)
Summary of synthetic colourless or 25 (1)
near-colourless diamonds
Summary of synthetic blue diamonds 26 (1)
Summary of synthetic yellow diamonds 27 (1)
Diamonds with enhanced colour 28 (2)
Diamonds with enhanced clarity 30 (2)
The use of diamond thin films as 32 (1)
improvements to diamonds
General survey of diamond, its simulants, 33 (1)
syntheses and treatments
High pressure/high temperature treated 34 (1)
diamonds
Reports of interesting and unusual 35 (3)
examples from the literature
Ruby and sapphire: the corundum gemstones 38 (35)
Ruby 39 (8)
Sapphire 47 (4)
The more expensive types of synthetic ruby 51 (6)
Synthetic star rubies and sapphires 57 (1)
Synthetic pink sapphire 58 (1)
Synthetic yellow sapphire 59 (1)
The heat treatment of ruby and sapphire 60 (2)
Treatment and enhancement: diffusion of 62 (1)
colour
Imitations of ruby and sapphire 63 (1)
Reports of interesting and unusual 63 (10)
examples from the literature
Emerald, aquamarine and the beryl group of 73 (32)
gemstones
Introduction 73 (1)
Emerald 74 (3)
Synthetic emerald (constants) 77 (1)
Identification of emerald 78 (3)
Synthetic emerald (review) 81 (4)
Emerald grown by the hydrothermal process 85 (3)
Lechleitner emerald 88 (1)
Summary 89 (1)
Aquamarine 89 (2)
Pink beryl (morganite) 91 (1)
Yellow beryl 92 (1)
Red beryl 93 (1)
Colourless beryl 93 (1)
The colour enhancement of emerald 93 (3)
Composites 96 (1)
Reports of interesting and unusual 96 (9)
examples from the literature
Opal 105(8)
Introduction 105(1)
The types of opal 105(1)
Identification of opal 106(1)
Composites: opal doublets and triplets 106(2)
Imitations of opal 108(1)
Slocum stone 108(1)
Reports of interesting and unusual 109(4)
examples from the literature
Quartz 113(14)
Rock crystal 113(2)
Smoky quartz 115(1)
Amethyst 115(1)
Citrine 116(1)
Aventurine quartz 117(1)
Synthetic amethyst and citrine 118(2)
The crypto-crystalline quartzes 120(1)
Reports of interesting and unusual 121(6)
examples from the literature
The jade minerals 127(12)
Jadeite and nephrite 127(1)
Jadeite 128(1)
Nephrite 129(1)
Enhancement of colour 130(1)
Identification of the jade minerals 131(1)
Natural minerals likely to be confused 131(3)
with the jade minerals
Reports of interesting and unusual 134(5)
examples from the literature
Chrysoberyl: alexandrite, cat's-eye and 139(6)
other varieties
Introduction 139(1)
Yellow--green chrysoberyl 139(1)
Alexandrite 140(1)
Cat's-eye 140(1)
Synthetic and imitation chrysoberyl 140(2)
Reports of interesting and unusual 142(3)
examples from the literature
Topaz 145(7)
Natural stones that may be confused with 146(3)
topaz
Irradiated blue topaz 149(1)
Reports of interesting and unusual 150(2)
examples from the literature
Tourmaline 152(7)
Colour varieties and properties 152(2)
Identification 154(1)
Natural materials which may be confused 155(2)
with tourmaline
Synthetic materials which may be confused 157(1)
with tourmaline
Reports of interesting and unusual 157(2)
examples from the literature
The garnet group of gemstones 159(9)
The red garnets 159(2)
Natural stones resembling the red garnets 161(1)
Other colours of garnet 162(1)
Tsavolite 162(1)
Demantoid garnet 163(1)
Uvarovite garnet 163(2)
Reports of interesting and unusual 165(3)
examples from the literature
Spinel 168(7)
Red spinel 168(1)
Synthetic spinel 169(1)
Other colours of spinel 170(4)
Reports of interesting and unusual 174(1)
examples from the literature
Peridot 175(4)
Introduction 175(1)
Identification 175(2)
Reports of interesting and unusual 177(2)
examples from the literature
Zircon 179(7)
High zircon 179(1)
Low zircon 180(1)
Fancy colours 181(1)
Natural materials that may be confused 182(1)
with zircon
Colourless zircon 182(1)
Blue zircon 183(1)
Yellow zircon 184(1)
Green zircon 184(1)
Reports of interesting and unusual 185(1)
examples from the literature
Moonstone and the feldspar minerals 186(5)
Orthoclase 186(1)
The moonstone effect in non-feldspar 187(1)
materials
Other feldspars 188(1)
Transparent garnet-red feldspars 189(1)
Reports of interesting and unusual 190(1)
examples from the literature
Rhodochrosite, tanzanite and rhodonite 191(2)
Turquoise 193(3)
Identification 194(2)
Lapis-lazuli 196(5)
Introduction 196(1)
Imitations 196(1)
Gilson lapis-lazuli 197(1)
Enhancement 197(1)
Reports of interesting and unusual 198(3)
examples from the literature
Pearl 201(9)
Introduction 201(1)
Origin of natural pearls 201(1)
Cultured pearls 202(1)
The instruments of pearl testing 202(2)
Non-nucleated cultured pearls 204(1)
Blister pearls 204(1)
Imitation pearls 205(1)
Black pearls 205(1)
Reports of interesting and unusual cases 206(4)
from the literature
Amber 210(5)
Pressed amber 211(1)
Locality clues 211(1)
Contemporary resins 212(1)
Plastics 212(1)
Reports on interesting and unusual 213(2)
examples from the literature
Ivory 215(3)
Vegetable ivory 216(1)
Simulants of ivory 217(1)
Jet 218(2)
Reports of interesting and unusual 219(1)
examples from the literature
Coral 220(3)
Black coral 221(1)
Gilson coral imitation 221(1)
Reports of interesting and unusual 221(2)
examples from the literature
Shell 223(2)
Abalone: Paua shell (Haliotis) 223(1)
Sea snail 223(1)
Operculum 223(1)
Cameos 224(1)
Conch shell 224(1)
Tortoiseshell 224(1)
Natural and artificial glass 225(7)
Nomenclature 225(1)
Properties 226(1)
Uses in gemstone imitation 226(2)
The natural glasses 228(2)
Reports of interesting and unusual 230(2)
examples from the literature
Metals and ceramics 232(2)
Ceramics 232(2)
Plastics 234(2)
Celluloid 234(1)
Casein 234(1)
Bakelite 235(1)
Perspex 235(1)
Composite stones: doublets, triplets and 236(6)
soude stones
Garnet-topped doublets 236(1)
Diamond doublets 237(1)
Opal doublets and triplets 237(2)
Soude stones 239(1)
Reports of interesting and unusual 240(2)
examples from the literature
Less common gemstones 242(17)
Rarely fashioned species 259(5)
Gemstones in their rough state 264(11)
Alphabetical listing 264(11)
How crystals are grown 275(4)
Flux growth 276(1)
Hydrothermal growth 276(1)
Crystal pulling 277(1)
Synthetic garnets 277(1)
Skull melting and cubic zirconia 277(1)
Verneuil (flame-fusion) growth 277(1)
The growth of diamond 278(1)
Synthetic crystals for the collector 279(5)
The enhancement of gemstones 284(8)
Amber 284(1)
Ammolite 285(1)
Apatite 285(1)
Azurite and malachite 285(1)
Beryl 285(1)
Chalcedony 286(1)
Coral 286(1)
Corundum (ruby and sapphire) 286(2)
Garnet 288(1)
Lapis-lazuli 288(1)
Opal 288(1)
Quartz 289(1)
Spinel 289(1)
Spodumene 289(1)
Tanzanite 290(1)
Topaz 290(1)
Tourmaline 290(1)
Turquoise 290(1)
Zircon 291(1)
Locality information 292(3)
Glossary 295(6)
The literature of gemstone identification 301(4)
Index 305