World War I (Turning Points in World History)

World War I (Turning Points in World History)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 286 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780737709322
  • DDC分類 940.3

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           9  (2)
Introduction 11 (22)
The Origins of World War I
An Explosive Mix: Nationalism and Military 33 (8)
Alliances
H. Stuart Hughes
The peace of Europe was undermined before
1914 by two converging developments:
first, the agitation by suppressed
national minorities in Eastern Europe and
the Balkans and, second, the dangerous
actions of Austria-Hungary and Germany on
the eve of war
The Causes of War: Sharing the Blame 41 (6)
Michael J. Lyons
Responsibility for starting World War I
was widely shared among the great powers
of Europe. Serbia and Austria-Hungary
probably deserve somewhat more blame than
Russia, Germany, France, or Great
Britain, but all contributed to the
outbreak of war
The Trigger of War: The Assassination of 47 (9)
Franz Ferdinand
Robert K. Massie
The incident that sparked the outbreak of
war was the assassination of the heir to
the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke
Franz Ferdinand, by Bosnian Serb
terrorists in Sarajevo in June 1914. The
assassination gave Austria-Hungary a
pretext to attack Serbia with German
support
Britain's Intervention: A Great Mistake? 56 (8)
Niall Ferguson
The coming of World War I is often viewed
as an inevitable event, with Germany most
at fault in unleashing general war, but
Germany aimed more for economic than
military dominance of Europe. Great
Britain was not very threatened by German
economic expansion and could have avoided
its costly military intervention
The War Expands and Intensifies, 1914-1916
A War of Attrition 64 (9)
Christopher Andrew
The European powers that went to war in
August 1914 believed that offensive
action would produce a quick victory.
Instead, defenses capitalized on
technologies like the machine gun to
inflict a massive loss of life. By late
1916, the warring coalitions were
mobilizing their populations for complete
victory, not a compromise
The Eastern Front: Success and Failure 73 (9)
James L. Stokesbury
The battle lines on the eastern front of
the Great War were more fluid than on the
deadlocked western front. Germany
inflicted punishing defeats on Russia's
forces, but Russian forces continued
fighting. Russia's autocratic, inept
regime, however, was on the brink of
total collapse
Slaughter: The Battle of Verdun 82 (10)
John F. Wukovits
In 1916, Germany launched a massive
attack on the French position at Verdun
with the goal of grinding up the French
forces defending the strategic site.
Instead, Germany chewed up its own armies
as badly as the French, without capturing
Verdun, revealing the terrible price of a
war of attrition
The Battle of the Somme 92 (7)
S.L.A. Marshall
The British attack along the Somme River
in northern France in July 1916 also
revaled the bloody futility of offensive
warfare on the western front. Despite
losing an incredible sixty thousand
soldiers on the first day of battle,
General Douglas Haig continued the futile
offensive for five more months
Tragedy at Gallipoli 99 (11)
William R. Griffiths
The British-led Dardanelles, or
Gallipoli, campaign of 1915 tried to
regain the initiative by defeating Turkey
at the strategic point between the
Mediterranean and Black Seas. Poor
planning and execution undermined the
Allied effort, forcing withdrawal and
defeat
The War in the Trenches: Guns and Gas 110(9)
John Ellis
The miseries of trench warfare engulfed
ordinary soldiers of both the Allies and
the Central Powers by late 1914. Massive
artillery bombardments and the use of
poison gas created a hellish experience
for the troops
Russian Revolution, American Intervention,
and German Defeat, 1917-1918
Russia Leaves the War: Revolution 119(7)
Martin Gilbert
Revolution in Russia in March 1917
toppled the czarist government, but the
liberal democratic regime that replaced
it would itself be overthrown by the
Bolsheviks (Communists) in November.
Russia's armies disintegrated as a result
of German attacks and Russia's internal
collapse. The Bolsheviks, true to their
propaganda and responding to popular
demand, made a quick peace with Germany,
shocking the Allies
President Wilson's Decision for War 126(6)
Richard Hofstadter
The United States was drawn into the war
because of its one-sided economic and
financial commitment to the Allies at the
expense of Germany. President Woodrow
Wilson searched for a peaceful
alternative to U.S. intervention, but his
own policies undermined this hope. Wilson
abandoned his strategy of ``peace without
victory'' for one of peace through victory
The Failure of Germany's Submarine Gamble 132(12)
Trevor Wilson
Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare
campaign after February 1917 endangered
the Allies' prospects. After inflicting
heavy losses on Allied and neutral
shipping on the Atlantic, however, the
U-boat challenge was beaten back by the
new Allied convoy system
Peace with Victory: Wilson's Fourteen Points 144(6)
John Milton Cooper Jr.
In the wake of social unrest among the
war-weary belligerents, the Bolshevik
revolution in Russia, and calls for a
just rather than an imperialistic peace,
Woodrow Wilson proposed his famous
Fourteen Points for postwar peace in
January 1918. Germany would seize on
these moderate terms to sue for an
armistice in November 1918
The Central Powers Collapse 150(12)
Keith Robbins
In the spring of 1918, Germany unleashed
a last, great offensive on the western
front, hoping to defeat Britain and
France before American troops could cross
the Atlantic. The German bid for victory
fell short, and Allied and American
counteroffensive finally forced Germany's
defeat in November 1918
The Home Fronts
Mobilizing the Home Front for Total War 162(9)
Gordon A. Craig
World War I developed into a total war
not only on the battlefields and seas but
also on the ``home fronts'' of the
belligerents. The war encouraged
centralized governmental controls,
regimented economies, and governmental
intrusion into civil liberties
Civilians at War: Blockades Test the Home 171(8)
Fronts
Arthur Marwick
The home fronts of the warring nations
were tested by economic warfare waged by
both sides. Germany's submarie blockade
of Great Britain countered the British
naval blockade of the parts of Europe
controlled by Germany. For the home front
populations, the experience of war
included food shortages, rationing,
strikes, and out-right hunger
Germany's Home Front Ordeal 179(5)
Laurence Moyer
By the winter of 1916-1917, the German
home front showed signs of stress and
privation. A potato harvest failure led
to the substitution of the unappetizing
turnip as a staple of the national diet.
The declining quality of bread and the
shortage of coal for heating added to
civilian discontent, which eventually led
to collapse and revolution by 1918
Women, War, and Work 184(12)
Gail Braybon
World War I increased job opportunities
for women in sectors such as munitions,
transportation, agriculture, and
white-collar services. Yet the war did
not, as myth would have it, transform
women's social and economic status.
Traditional views of women's economic and
social roles were reasserted at war's
end, and female job gains, on the whole,
did not outlast the war
Anti-German Hysteria in the United States 196(6)
Meirion Harries
Susie Harries
The United States entered World War I in
1917 despite much American apathy and
some opposition to intervention. The
propaganda activities of the Wilson
administration's Committee on Public
Information gave a hysterical anti-German
tone to the war effort that generated
crude attacks on German Americans and
German influences in American culture
Peace and the Legacy of World War I
A Trouble Peace 202(7)
David Thomson
The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 faced
the enormous task of making peace amid
the ruins of war and revolutionary
upheavals. Despite lofty expectations at
the start, Allied peacemakers had to
settle for unsatisfactory compromises on
Germany and Eastern Europe
How World War I Led to World War II 209(13)
P.M.H. Bell
Many historians argue that World War I
and its aftermath led inevitably to the
outbreak of World War II (1939-1945). The
entire era is viewed as a new Thirty
Years' War, even more destructive than
the seventeenth-century religious wars of
the same name. Europe was so deeply
damaged and destabilized between 1914 and
1923 that a second disastrous war was
unavoidable
The Perils of Peacemaking in a War-Torn 222(6)
World
Robert H. Ferrell
The failures of the Paris Peace
Conference were partly due to the
personal limitations of the ``Big Three''
heads of state who made the key decision
there: Wilson, Lloyd George, and
Clemenceau. But even more significant
were impersonal factors like the economic
drawbacks of the reparations settlement
imposed on Germany and the hatreds and
disillusionment that gripped postwar
Europe
World War I and the Rise of Totalitarian 228(7)
Dictatorships
Jack J. Roth
World War I marked a turning point in
world history. Liberal democracy was
badly damaged, a development apparent by
the 1920s and '30s. Extremist movements
took power in Russia, Italy, and Germany
in the form of communism, fascism, and
Nazism. These totalitarian states built
on the ``total war'' policies of some of
the belligerent states in World War I
The Scars of Total War 235(8)
Jay Winter
Blaine Baggett
The physical and psychological
consequences of war cast a shadow in the
postwar era over the battlefield
veterans, their families, and society at
large. Blind, crippled, and mentally
anguished veterans became a somber
reminder of the Great War
Appendix of Documents 243(31)
Chronology 274(2)
For Further Research 276(4)
Index 280