Medical-Surgical Nursing (2-Volume Set) : Critical Thinking for Collaborative Care (4TH)

Medical-Surgical Nursing (2-Volume Set) : Critical Thinking for Collaborative Care (4TH)

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Table of Contents

UNIT 1 Health Promotion and Illness
Critical Thinking in the Role of the 1 (17)
Medical-Surgical Nurse
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Health 3 (2)
Health Promotion and Protection 5 (2)
Role of the Medical-Surgical Nurse 7 (3)
The Concept of Caring 10 (1)
Practice Settings for Medical-Surgical 10 (1)
Nurses
Overview of the Nursing Process 11 (7)
Community-Based Care 18 (8)
Deborah H. Heatherly
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Ambulatory Care 18 (1)
Home Care 19 (4)
Nursing Home Care 23 (2)
Subacute Care 25 (1)
Rehabilitative Care 25 (1)
Introduction to Managed Care and Case 26 (4)
Management
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Managed Care 26 (1)
Collaborative Interdisciplinary Management 27 (3)
Introduction to Complementary and Alternative 30 (6)
Therapies
Donna D. Ignatavicius
National Center for Complementary and 30 (1)
Alternative Medicine
Commonly Used Complementary and Alternative 30 (4)
Therapies
Implications for Health Care Providers 34 (2)
Health Care of Older Adults 36 (15)
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Subgroups of Late Adulthood 36 (1)
Distribution of Older Adults in the Health 36 (1)
Care System
Admission of the Older Adult to a Hospital 36 (1)
or Nursing Home
Health Issues for Older Adults 37 (8)
Economic Issues for Older Adults 45 (1)
Resources for Older Adults 46 (1)
The Future of Gerontologic Nursing 47 (4)
UNIT 2 Biopsychosocial Concepts Related to
Health Care
Cultural Aspects of Health 51 (10)
Marjorie G. Morgan
The Need for Cultural Considerations of 51 (1)
Health
Healthy People 2010 51 (1)
Culture and Nursing 51 (1)
Assessing and Managing the Cultural Needs 52 (2)
of Clients
Research Applications 54 (1)
Special Considerations for Selected 55 (1)
Subcultures
Selected Concepts Related to Culturally 56 (2)
Sensitive Nursing
Ethics 58 (3)
Pain: The Fifth Vital Sign 61 (34)
Erin M. McMenamin
Anne Keane
Rosemary C. Polomano
Overview 61 (8)
Collaborative Management 69 (21)
Pain as a Quality Improvement Outcome 90 (1)
Costs of Pain Care 91 (4)
Substance Abuse 95 (11)
Tommie Wright Pniewski
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Overview 95 (2)
Stimulants 97 (2)
Hallucinogens and Related Compounds 99 (2)
Depressants 101 (1)
Narcotics: Opioids and Morphine Derivatives 102 (1)
Inhalants 103 (1)
Steroids 104 (2)
End-of-Life Care 106 (13)
Mary Kazanowski
Overview 106 (1)
Collaborative Management 107 (7)
Death and Dying 114 (5)
Rehabilitation Concepts for Acute and Chronic 119 (20)
Problems
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Overview 119 (1)
Concepts Related to Rehabilitation 119 (1)
Rehabilitation as Part of Community-Based 120 (1)
Care
Collaborative Management 121 (18)
UNIT 3 Management of Clients with Fluid,
Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalances
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 139 (20)
M. Linda Workman
Homeostasis 139 (1)
Anatomy and Physiology Review 139 (16)
Physiologic Influences on Fluid and 139 (8)
Electrolyte Balance
Hormonal Regulation of Fluid and 147 (1)
Electrolyte Balance
Body Fluids 148 (2)
Electrolytes 150 (4)
Fluid and Electrolyte Changes Associated 154 (1)
with Aging
Assessment Techniques 155 (4)
History 155 (1)
Physical Assessment 156 (1)
Psychosocial Assessment 157 (1)
Diagnostic Assessment 157 (2)
Interventions for Clients with Fluid 159 (14)
Imbalances
M. Linda Workman
Dehydration 159 (9)
Heat Stroke 168 (1)
Overhydration 169 (4)
Interventions for Clients with Electrolyte 173 (22)
Imbalances
M. Linda Workman
Potassium Imbalances 173 (8)
Hypokalemia 173 (5)
Hyperkalemia 178 (3)
Sodium Imbalances 181 (3)
Hyponatremia 181 (2)
Hypernatremia 183 (1)
Calcium Imbalances 184 (5)
Hypocalcemia 184 (4)
Hypercalcemia 188 (1)
Phosphorus Imbalances 189 (2)
Hypophosphatemia 189 (2)
Hyperphosphatemia 191 (1)
Magnesium Imbalances 191 (4)
Hypomagnesemia 191 (1)
Hypermagnesemia 192 (3)
Infusion Therapy 195 (19)
Robin L. Baranowski
Introduction to Infusion Therapy 195 (1)
Infusion Systems 196 (2)
Containers 196 (1)
Administration Sets 196 (1)
Needleless Systems 196 (1)
Infusion Regulation Devices 196 (2)
Types of Infusion Therapy 198 (16)
Intravenous Therapy 198 (6)
Arterial Therapy 204 (5)
Intraperitoneal Therapy 209 (1)
Subcutaneous Therapy 210 (1)
Centeral Nervous System Therapy 210 (2)
Intraosseous Therapy 212 (2)
Acid-Base Balance 214 (9)
M. Linda Workman
Introduction to Acid-Base Balance 214 (7)
Acid-Base Chemistry 214 (2)
Body Fluid Chemistry 216 (2)
Acid-Base Regulatory Mechanisms 218 (3)
Age-Related Changes in Acid-Base Balance 221 (1)
Assessment of Acid-Base Balance 221 (2)
History 221 (1)
Physical Assessment 221 (1)
Diagnostic Assessment 222 (1)
Interventions for Clients with Acid-Base 223 (14)
Imbalances
M. Linda Workman
Acidosis 223 (6)
Metabolic Acidosis 224 (1)
Respiratory Acidosis 225 (1)
Combined Metabolic and Respiratory 226 (3)
Acidosis
Alkalosis 229 (8)
Metabolic Alkalosis 230 (1)
Respiratory Alkalosis 230 (7)
UNIT 4 Management of Perioperative Clients
Interventions for Preoperative Clients 237 (23)
Rebecca M. Patton
Overview 237 (2)
Categories and Purposes of Surgery 237 (1)
Surgical Settings 237 (2)
Collaborative Management 239 (21)
Interventions for Intraoperative Clients 260 (25)
Rebecca M. Patton
Overview 260 (17)
Members of the Surgical Team 260 (4)
Preparation of the Surgical Suite and 264 (2)
Team Safety
Anesthesia 266 (11)
Collaborative Management 277 (8)
Interventions for Postoperative Clients 285 (22)
Rebecca M. Patton
Overview 285 (1)
Collaborative Management 285 (22)
UNIT 5 Problems of Protection
Management of Clients with Problems of the
Immune System
Concepts of Inflammation and the Immune 307 (21)
Response
M. Linda Workman
Overview 307 (2)
Purpose of Inflammation and Immunity 307 (1)
Self Versus Non-Self 307 (2)
Organization of the Immune System 309 (1)
Inflammation 309 (7)
Purpose 310 (1)
Infection 311 (1)
Cell Types Involved in Inflammation 311 (3)
Phagocytosis 314 (1)
Sequence of Inflammatory Responses 315 (1)
Antibody-Mediated Immunity 316 (5)
Purpose 316 (1)
Cell Types Involved in Antibody-Mediated 316 (1)
Immunity
Antigen-Antibody Interactions 316 (4)
General Antibody Classification 320 (1)
Acquiring Antibody-Mediated Immunity 320 (1)
Cell-Mediated Immunity 321 (7)
Cell Types Involved in Cell-Mediated 321 (1)
Immunity
Cytokines 322 (1)
Protection Provided by Cell-Mediated 322 (1)
Immunity
Transplant Rejection 323 (5)
Interventions for Clients with Connective 328 (36)
Tissue Disease
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Degenerative Joint Disease (Osteoarthritis) 328 (15)
Rheumatoid Arthritis 343 (9)
Lupus Erythematosus 352 (4)
Progressive Systemic Sclerosis 356 (1)
Gout 357 (2)
Other Connective Tissue Diseases 359 (5)
Polymyositis/Dermatomyositis 359 (1)
Systemic Necrotizing Vasculitis 359 (1)
Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Temporal 359 (1)
Arteritis
Ankylosing Spondylitis 360 (1)
Reiter's Syndrome 360 (1)
Sjogren's Syndrome 360 (1)
Marfan Syndrome 360 (1)
Infectious Arthritis 361 (1)
Lyme Disease 361 (1)
Pseudogout 361 (1)
Disease-Associated Arthritis 361 (1)
Fibromyalgia 361 (1)
Local Inflammatory Disorders 362 (1)
Mixed Connective Tissue Disease 362 (2)
Interventions for Clients with HIV/AIDS and 364 (28)
Other Immunodeficiencies
Lucille Sanzero Eller
Acquired (Secondary) Immunodeficiencies 364 (1)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 364 (22)
Nutrition-Related Deficiencies 386 (1)
Protein-Calorie Malnutrition 387 (1)
Obesity 387 (1)
Therapy-Induced Immunodeficiencies 387 (2)
Congenital (Primary) Immunodeficiencies 389 (1)
Bruton's Agammaglobulinemia 389 (1)
Common Variable Immunodeficiency 389 (1)
Selective Immunoglobulin A Deficiency 389 (3)
Interventions for Clients with Immune 392 (15)
Function Excess: Hypersensitivity (Allergy)
and Autoimmunity
M. Linda Workman
Hypersensitivity (Allergy) 392 (1)
Type I: Rapid Hypersensitivity Reactions 392 (9)
Allergic Rhinitis 393 (5)
Anaphylaxis 398 (2)
Latex Allergy 400 (1)
Type II: Cytotoxic Reactions 401 (1)
Type III: Immune Complex Reactions 401 (1)
Type IV: Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions 402 (1)
Type V: Stimulatory Reactions 403 (1)
Autoimmunity 403 (1)
Sjogren's Syndrome 404 (1)
Goodpasture's Syndrome 405 (2)
Altered Cell Growth and Cancer Development 407 (16)
M. Linda Workman
Historical Perspective 407 (1)
Overview 407 (5)
Biology of Normal Cells 408 (3)
Biology of Abnormal Cells 411 (1)
Cancer Development 412 (8)
Carcinogenesis/Oncogenesis 412 (2)
Cancer Classification 414 (1)
Cancer Grade and Stage 414 (2)
Causes of Cancer Development 416 (4)
Cancer Prevention 420 (3)
Avoidance of Known or Potential 420 (1)
Carcinogens
Avoidance or Modification of Associated 421 (1)
Factors
Chemoprevention 421 (1)
Gene Alteration as a Potential Form of 421 (2)
Cancer Prevention
Interventions for Clients with Cancer 423 (22)
M. Linda Workman
General Disease-Related Consequences of 423 (1)
Cancer
Impaired Immune and Hematopoietic Function 423 (1)
Altered Gastrointestinal Structure and 424 (1)
Function
Motor and Sensory Deficits 424 (1)
Decreased Respiratory Function 424 (1)
Treatment-Related Consequences of Cancer 424 (16)
Surgery 425 (2)
Radiation 427 (3)
Chemotherapy 430 (8)
Hormonal Manipulation 438 (1)
Immunotherapy: Biologic Response Modifiers 439 (1)
Gene Therapy 440 (1)
Oncologic Emergencies 440 (3)
Sepsis and Disseminated Intravascular 440 (1)
Coagulation
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic 441 (1)
Hormone
Spinal Cord Compression 441 (1)
Hypercalcemia 441 (1)
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome 442 (1)
Tumor Lysis Syndrome 442 (1)
Cancer Treatment Failure 443 (2)
Interventions for Clients with Infection 445 (22)
Judith P. Sturgis
Overview 445 (11)
Definitions 445 (1)
Chain of Infection 446 (4)
Defense Against Infection 450 (1)
Methods of Infection Control 451 (4)
Occupational Exposure to Sources of 455 (1)
Infection
Complications of Infection 455 (1)
Collaborative Management 456 (4)
Critical Issues for the Next Decade 460 (7)
UNIT 6 Problems of Oxygenation
Management of Clients with Problems of the
Respiratory Tract
Assessment of the Respiratory System 467 (22)
M. Linda Workman
Anatomy and Physiology Review 467 (4)
Upper Respiratory Tract 467 (3)
Lower Respiratory Tract 470 (1)
Accessory Muscles of Respiration 471 (1)
Respiratory Changes Associated with Aging 471 (1)
Assessment Techniques 471 (18)
History 471 (4)
Physical Assessment 475 (5)
Psychosocial Assessment 480 (1)
Diagnostic Assessment 480 (9)
Interventions for Clients Requiring Oxygen 489 (19)
Therapy or Tracheostomy
M. Linda Workman
Oxygen Therapy 489 (8)
Tracheostomy 497 (11)
Interventions for Clients with Noninfectious 508 (21)
Upper Respiratory Problems
M. Linda Workman
Noninfectious Disorders of the Nose and 508 (4)
Sinuses
Fracture of the Nose 508 (1)
Epistaxis 509 (1)
Nasal Polyps 510 (1)
Cancer of the Nose and Sinuses 510 (1)
Facial Trauma 510 (2)
Noninfectious Disorders of the Oral Pharynx 512 (1)
and Tonsils
Obstructive Sleep Apnea 512 (1)
Oropharyngeal Cancer 513 (1)
Noninfectious Disorders of the Larynx 513 (1)
Vocal Cord Paralysis 513 (1)
Nodules and Polyps of the Vocal Cords 513 (1)
Laryngeal Trauma 514 (1)
Other Upper Airway Disorders 514 (15)
Upper Airway Obstruction 514 (2)
Neck Trauma 516 (1)
Head and Neck Cancer 516 (13)
Interventions for Clients with Noninfectious 529 (42)
Lower Respiratory Problems
M. Linda Workman
Chronic Airflow Limitation 529 (22)
Asthma 529 (9)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 538 (13)
Cystic Fibrosis 551 (4)
Primary Pulmonary Hypertension 555 (1)
Interstitial Pulmonary Diseases 555 (2)
Sarcoidosis 556 (1)
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis 556 (1)
Occupational Pulmonary Disease 557 (1)
Lung Cancer 558 (13)
Interventions for Clients with Infectious 571 (20)
Respiratory Problems
M. Linda Workman
Disorder of the Nose and Sinuses 571 (2)
Rhinitis 571 (1)
Sinusitis 572 (1)
Disorders of the Oral Pharynx and Tonsils 573 (3)
Pharyngitis 573 (2)
Tonsillitis 575 (1)
Peritonsillar Abscess 576 (1)
Disorders of the Larynx and Lungs 576 (15)
Laryngitis 576 (1)
Influenza 576 (1)
Pneumonia 577 (7)
Pulmonary Tuberculosis 584 (5)
Lung Abscess 589 (1)
Pulmonary Empyema 589 (2)
Interventions for Critically III Clients with 591 (28)
Respiratory Problems
Kathleen Ellstrom
Pulmonary Embolism 591 (7)
Acute Respiratory Failure 598 (1)
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 599 (2)
The Client Requiring Intubation and 601 (10)
Ventilation
Chest Trauma 611 (8)
Pulmonary Contusion 612 (1)
Rib Fracture 612 (1)
Flail Chest 612 (1)
Pneumothorax 613 (1)
Tension Pneumothorax 613 (1)
Hemothorax 613 (1)
Tracheobronchial Trauma 614 (5)
UNIT 7 Problems of Cardiac Output and Tissue
Perfusion
Management of Clients with Problems of the
Cardiovascular System
Assessment of the Cardiovascular System 619 (35)
Kathleen Ouimet Perrin
Anatomy and Physiology Review 619 (8)
Heart 619 (6)
Vascular System 625 (2)
Assessment Techniques 627 (27)
History 627 (5)
Physical Assessment 632 (6)
Psychosocial Assessment 638 (1)
Diagnostic Assessment 639 (15)
Interventions for Clients with Dysrhythmias 654 (44)
Marcia Chorba
Review of Cardiac Electrophysiology 654 (1)
Electrophysiologic Properties 654 (1)
Action Potential 655 (1)
Cardiac Conduction System 655 (1)
Sinoatrial Node 655 (1)
Atrioventricular Junctional Area 655 (1)
Bundle Branch System 655 (1)
Electrocardiography 656 (6)
Lead Systems 656 (1)
Continuous Electrocardiographic Monitoring 657 (1)
Electrocardiographic Paper 658 (1)
Electrocardiographic Complexes, Segments, 658 (2)
and Intervals
Determination of Heart Rate 660 (1)
Electrocardiographic Rhythm Analysis 661 (1)
Normal Rhythms 662 (1)
Normal Sinus Rhythm 662 (1)
Sinus Arrhythmia 662 (1)
Dysrhythmias 662 (36)
Interventions for Clients with Cardiac 698 (30)
Problems
Kathleen Ouimet Perrin
Heart Failure 698 (14)
Valvular Heart Disease 712 (6)
Inflammations and Infections 718 (4)
Infective Endocarditis 718 (2)
Pericarditis 720 (2)
Rheumatic Carditis 722 (1)
Cardiomyopathy 722 (6)
Interventions for Clients with Vascular 728 (43)
Problems
Dorothy J. Hamilton
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Arteriosclerosis and Atherosclerosis 728 (4)
Hypertension 732 (11)
Peripheral Arterial Disease 743 (13)
Acute Peripheral Arterial Occlusion 755 (1)
Aneurysms 756 (4)
Aneurysms of the Peripheral Arteries 760 (1)
Aortic Dissection 760 (1)
Buerger's Disease 761 (1)
Subclavian Steal 761 (1)
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome 762 (1)
Raynaud's Phenomenon 762 (1)
Popliteal Entrapment 762 (1)
Peripheral Venous Disease 763 (6)
Venous Thrombosis 763 (3)
Venous Insufficiency 766 (2)
Varicose Veins 768 (1)
Phlebitis 769 (1)
Vascular Trauma 769 (2)
Interventions for Clients with Shock 771 (18)
M. Linda Workman
Overview 771 (6)
Collaborative Management: Hypovolemic Shock 777 (6)
Collaborative Management: Sepsis-Induced 783 (6)
Distributive Shock (Septic Shock)
Interventions for Critically III Clients with 789 (30)
Coronary Artery Disease
Kathleen Ouimet Perrin
Overview 789 (4)
Collaborative Management 793 (26)
UNIT 8 Problems of Tissue Perfusion
Management of Clients with Problems of the
Hematologic System
Assessment of the Hematologic System 819 (17)
M. Linda Workman
Anatomy and Physiology Review 819 (8)
Bone Marrow 819 (1)
Blood Components 819 (2)
Accessory Organs of Hematopoiesis 821 (1)
Hemostasis/Blood Clotting 822 (3)
Hematologic Changes Associated with Aging 825 (1)
Anticoagulants and Thrombolytics 826 (1)
Assessment Techniques 827 (9)
History 827 (1)
Physical Assessment 828 (2)
Psychosocial Assessment 830 (1)
Diagnostic Assessment 830 (6)
Interventions for Clients with Hematologic 836 (35)
Problems
Susan M. Schneider
Red Blood Cell Disorders 836 (1)
Anemias Resulting from Increased 837 (5)
Destruction of Red Blood Cells
Sickle Cell Disease 837 (4)
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase 841 (1)
Deficiency Anemia
Immunohemolytic Anemia 842 (1)
Anemias Resulting from Decreased Production 842 (2)
of Red Blood Cells
Iron Deficiency Anemia 842 (1)
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia 843 (1)
Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia 844 (1)
Aplastic Anemia 844 (1)
Polycythemia Vera 844 (1)
Polycythemia 844 (1)
White Blood Cell Disorders 845 (1)
Leukemia 845 (13)
Malignant Lymphoma 858 (2)
Hodgkin's Lymphoma 859 (1)
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma 859 (1)
Coagulation Disorders 860 (1)
Platelet Disorders 860 (2)
Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura 860 (1)
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura 861 (1)
Clotting Factor Disorders 862 (1)
Hemophilia 862 (1)
Transfusion Therapy 862 (1)
Pretransfusion Responsibilities 862 (2)
Transfusion Responsibilities 864 (1)
Types of Transfusions 864 (2)
Red Blood Cell Transfusions 864 (1)
Platelet Transfusions 865 (1)
Plasma Transfusions 865 (1)
Cryoprecipitate 865 (1)
Granulocyte Transfusions 865 (1)
Transfusion Reactions 866 (1)
Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions 866 (1)
Allergic Transfusion Reactions 866 (1)
Febrile Transfusion Reactions 866 (1)
Bacterial Transfusion Reactions 866 (1)
Circulatory Overload 866 (1)
Transfusion-Associated Graft-Versus-Host 866 (1)
Disease
Autologous Blood Transfusions 867 (4)
UNIT 9 Problems of Mobility, Sensation, and
Cognition
Management of Clients with Problems of the
Nervous System
Assessment of the Nervous System 871 (26)
Deborah Wright Shpritz
Anatomy and Physiology Review 871 (11)
Nervous System Cells 871 (1)
Central Nervous System 872 (7)
Peripheral Nervous System 879 (2)
Autonomic Nervous System 881 (1)
Neurologic Changes Associated with Aging 881 (1)
Assessment Techniques 882 (15)
History 882 (3)
Physical Assessment 885 (5)
Diagnostic Assessment 890 (7)
Interventions for Clients with Problems of 897 (28)
the Central Nervous System: The Brain
Deborah Wright Shpritz
Headaches 897 (3)
Migraine Headache 897 (2)
Cluster Headache 899 (1)
Epilepsy 900 (4)
Infections 904 (5)
Meningitis 904 (3)
Encephalitis 907 (2)
Parkinson's Disease 909 (3)
Alzheimer's Disease 912 (10)
Huntington's Disease 922 (3)
Interventions for Clients with Problems of 925 (28)
the Centrla Nervous System: The Spinal Cord
Deborah Wright Shpritz
Back Pain 925 (6)
Spinal Cord Injury 931 (11)
Spinal Cord Tumors 942 (4)
Multiple Sclerosis 946 (5)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 951 (2)
Interventions for Clients with Problems of 953 (20)
the Peripheral Nervous System
Deborah Wright Shpritz
Guillain-Barre Syndrome 953 (6)
Myasthenia Gravis 959 (6)
Polyneuritis and Polyneuropathy 965 (1)
Peripheral Nerve Trauma 966 (3)
Restless Legs Syndrome 969 (1)
Diseases of the Cranial Nerves 969 (4)
Trigeminal Neuralgia 969 (2)
Facial Paralysis 971 (2)
Interventions for Critically III Clients with 973 (38)
Neurologic Problems
Deborah Wright Shpritz
Stroke 973 (16)
Traumatic Brain Injury 989 (11)
Brain Tumors 1000(7)
Brain Abscess 1007(4)
UNIT 10 Problems of Sensation
Management of Clients with Problems of the
Sensory System
Assessment of the Eye and Vision 1011(13)
M. Linda Workman
Anatomy and Physiology Review 1011(4)
Assessment Techniques 1015(9)
History 1015(1)
Physical Assessment 1016(2)
Psychosocial Assessment 1018(1)
Diagnostic Assessment 1018(6)
Interventions for Clients with Eye and Vision 1024(24)
Problems
M. Linda Workman
External Eye Disorders: Eyelid Disorders 1024(3)
Blepharitis 1024(1)
Entropion 1024(1)
Ectropion 1025(1)
Hordeolum 1025(1)
Chalazion 1026(1)
Lacrimal Apparatus Disorders: 1027(1)
Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
Conjunctival Disorders 1028(1)
Subconjunctival Hemorrhage 1028(1)
Conjunctivitis 1029(1)
Trachoma 1029(1)
Corneal Disorders 1029(2)
Intraocular Disorders: Lens Disorders 1031(7)
Cataract 1031(4)
Glaucoma 1035(3)
Ocular Chamber Disorders: Vitreous 1038(1)
Hemorrhage
Uveal Tract Disorders: Uveitis 1038(1)
Retinal Disorders 1039(2)
Hypertensive Retinopathy 1039(1)
Diabetic Retinopathy 1039(1)
Macular Degeneration 1039(1)
Retinal Holes, Tears, and Detachments 1040(1)
Retinitis Pigmentosa 1041(1)
Refractive Errors 1041(2)
Traumatic Disorders 1043(1)
Hyphema 1043(1)
Contusion 1043(1)
Foreign Bodies 1043(1)
Lacerations 1044(1)
Penetrating Injuries 1044(1)
Ocular Melanoma 1044(1)
Blindness 1045(3)
Assessment of the Ear and Hearing 1048(13)
Judy Malkiewicz
Anatomy and Physiology Review 1048(2)
Assessment Techniques 1050(11)
History 1050(2)
Physical Assessment 1052(4)
Psychosocial Assessment 1056(1)
Diagnostic Assessment 1056(5)
Interventions for Clients with Ear and 1061(20)
Hearing Problems
Jan Hoot Martin
Conditions Affecting the External Ear 1061(3)
External Otitis 1061(1)
Furuncle 1062(1)
Cerumen or Foreign Bodies 1063(1)
Conditions Affecting the Middle Ear 1064(3)
Otitis Media 1064(2)
Mastoiditis 1066(1)
Trauma 1067(1)
Neoplasms 1067(1)
Conditions Affecting the Inner Ear 1067(2)
Tinnitus 1067(1)
Vertigo and Dizziness 1067(1)
Labyrinthitis 1068(1)
Meniere's Disease 1068(1)
Acoustic Neuroma 1069(1)
Hearing Loss 1069(12)
UNIT 11 Problems of Mobility
Management of Clients with Problems of the
Musculoskeletal System
Assessment of the Musculoskeletal System 1081(13)
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Anatomy and Physiology Review 1081(3)
Skeletal System 1081(2)
Muscular System 1083(1)
Supporting Structures 1084(1)
Musculoskeletal Changes Associated with 1084(1)
Aging
Assessment Techniques 1084(10)
History 1084(2)
Physical Assessment 1086(2)
Psychosocial Assessment 1088(1)
Diagnostic Assessment 1088(6)
Interventions for Clients with 1094(31)
Musculoskeletal Problems
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Metabolic Bone Diseases 1094(13)
Osteoporosis 1094(9)
Osteomalacia 1103(2)
Paget's Disease of the Bone 1105(2)
Osteomyelitis 1107(3)
Bone Tumors 1110(7)
Benign Bone Tumors 1110(2)
Malignant Bone Tumors 1112(5)
Disorders of the Hand 1117(2)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 1117(2)
Dupuytren's Contracture 1119(1)
Ganglion 1119(1)
Disorders of the Foot 1119(2)
Hallux Valgus 1119(1)
Hammertoe 1120(1)
Morton's Neuroma 1120(1)
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome 1120(1)
Plantar Fasciitis 1120(1)
Other Problems of the Foot 1121(1)
Other Disorders of the Skeleton 1121(1)
Scoliosis 1121(1)
Osteogenesis Imperfecta 1122(1)
Muscular Diseases 1122(3)
Progressive Muscular Dystrophies 1122(1)
Other Muscular Disorders 1123(2)
Interventions for Clients with 1125(34)
Musculoskeletal Trauma
Ann Butler Maher
Fractures 1125(21)
Fractures of Specific Sites 1142(1)
Upper Extremity Fractures 1142(1)
Lower Extremity Fractures 1143(1)
Fractures of the Ribs and Sternum 1144(1)
Fractures of the Pelvis 1144(2)
Amputations 1146(5)
Crush Syndrome 1151(1)
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1152(1)
Sports-Related Injuries 1152(7)
Knee Injuries: Meniscus 1152(1)
Knee Injuries: Ligaments 1153(1)
Tendon Ruptures 1153(1)
Dislocations and Subluxations 1153(1)
Strains 1154(1)
Sprains 1154(1)
Rotator Cuff Injuries 1154(5)
UNIT 12 Problems of Digestion, Nutrition, and
Elimination
Management of Clients with Problems of the
Gastrointestinal System
Assessment of the Gastrointestinal System 1159(19)
Constance Visovsky
Anatomy and Physiology Review 1159(6)
Overview of the Gastrointestinal Tract 1159(1)
Oral Cavity 1160(1)
Esophagus 1161(1)
Stomach 1161(1)
Pancreas 1162(1)
Liver 1162(2)
Gallbladder 1164(1)
Small Intestine 1164(1)
Large Intestine 1165(1)
Assessment Techniques 1165(13)
History 1165(2)
Physical Assessment 1167(2)
Psychosocial Assessment 1169(1)
Diagnostic Assessment 1170(8)
Interventions for Clients with Oral Cavity 1178(14)
Problems
Constance Visovsky
Stomatitis 1178(4)
Tumors 1182(8)
Disorders of the Salivary Glands 1190(2)
Acute Sialadenitis 1190(1)
Postirradiation Sialadenitis 1190(1)
Salivary Gland Tumors 1190(2)
Interventions for Clients with Esophageal 1192(23)
Problems
Constance Visovsky
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease 1192(6)
Hiatal Hernia 1198(5)
Achalasia 1203(1)
Esophageal Tumors 1204(8)
Diverticula 1212(1)
Trauma 1212(3)
Interventions for Clients with Stomach 1215(25)
Disorders
Constance Visovsky
Gastritis 1215(3)
Peptic Ulcer Disease 1218(16)
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome 1234(1)
Gastric Carcinoma 1235(5)
Interventions for Clients with 1240(26)
Noninflammatory Intestinal Disorders
Constance Visovsky
Irritable Bowel Syndrome 1240(2)
Herniation 1242(3)
Colorectal Cancer 1245(8)
Intestinal Obstruction 1253(7)
Abdominal Trauma 1260(1)
Polyps 1261(1)
Hemorrhoids 1262(1)
Malabsorption Syndrome 1263(3)
Interventions for Clients with Inflammatory 1266(32)
Intestinal Disorders
Constance Visovsky
Acute Inflammatory Bowel Disorders 1266(8)
Appendicitis 1266(2)
Peritonitis 1268(3)
Gastroenteritis 1271(3)
Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease 1274(17)
Ulcerative Colitis 1274(9)
Crohn's Disease 1283(5)
Diverticular Disease 1288(3)
Anorectal Abscess 1291(1)
Anal Fissure 1291(1)
Anal Fistula 1292(1)
Parasitic Infection 1292(2)
Helminthic Infestation 1294(1)
Roundworms 1294(1)
Enterobiasis 1294(1)
Trichinosis 1294(1)
Hookworms 1294(1)
Tapeworms 1295(1)
Food Poisoning 1295(3)
Salmonellosis 1295(1)
Staphylococcal Infection 1295(1)
Escherichia coli Infection 1296(1)
Botulism 1296(2)
Interventions for Clients with Liver Problems 1298(29)
Janice Tazbir
Cirrhosis 1298(15)
Hepatitis 1313(9)
Fatty Liver 1322(1)
Hepatic Abscess 1322(1)
Liver Trauma 1322(1)
Cancer of the Liver 1323(1)
Liver Transplantation 1324(3)
Interventions for Clients with Problems of 1327(29)
the Gallbladder and Pancreas
E. Jean Hayes
Biliary Disorders 1327(11)
Cholecystitis 1327(6)
Cholelithiasis 1333(4)
Cancer of the Gallbladder 1337(1)
Pancreatic Disorders 1338(18)
Acute Pancreatitis 1338(7)
Chronic Pancreatitis 1345(3)
Pancreatic Abscess 1348(1)
Pancreatic Pseudocyst 1349(1)
Pancreatic Carcinoma 1349(7)
Interventions for Clients with Malnutrition 1356(29)
and Obesity
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Nutrition Standards 1356(1)
Dietary Planning 1356(1)
Disease Prevention and Health Promotion 1356(1)
Nutritional Assessment 1357(7)
Initial Nutritional Screening 1359(1)
Anthropometric Measurements 1359(5)
Malnutrition 1364(9)
Obesity 1373(12)
UNIT 13 Problems of Regulation and Metabolism
Management of Clients with Problems of the
Endocrine System
Assessment of the Endocrine System 1385(14)
M. Linda Workman
Anatomy and Physiology Review 1385(8)
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Glands 1387(1)
Gonads 1388(1)
Adrenal Glands 1388(2)
Thyroid Gland 1390(1)
Parathyroid Glands 1391(1)
Pancreas 1392(1)
Endocrine Glands Associated with Aging 1392(1)
Assessment Techniques 1393(6)
History 1393(2)
Physical Assessment 1395(1)
Psychosocial Assessment 1396(1)
Diagnostic Assessment 1396(3)
Interventions for Clients with Pituitary and 1399(24)
Adrenal Gland Problems
M. Linda Workman
Disorders of the Pituitary Gland 1400(1)
Disorders of the Anterior Pituitary Gland 1400(8)
Hypopituitarism 1400(1)
Hyperpituitarism 1400(8)
Disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland 1408(4)
Diabetes Insipidus 1408(2)
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic 1410(2)
Hormone
Disorders of the Adrenal Gland 1412(1)
Adrenal Gland Hypofunction 1412(3)
Adrenal Gland Hyperfunction 1415(8)
Hypercortisolism (Cushing's Syndrome) 1416(3)
Hyperaldosteronism 1419(1)
Pheochromocytoma 1420(3)
Interventions for Clients with Problems of 1423(17)
the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
M. Linda Workman
Thyroid Disorders 1423(13)
Hyperthyroidism 1423(7)
Hypothyroidism 1430(5)
Thyroiditis 1435(1)
Thyroid Cancer 1436(1)
Parathyroid Disorders 1436(4)
Hyperparathyroidism 1436(2)
Hypoparathyroidism 1438(2)
Interventions for Clients with Diabetes 1440(55)
Mellitus
M. Elaine Mcleod
Overview 1441(9)
Collaborative Management 1450(45)
History 1450(1)
Laboratory Assessment 1450(1)
Other Diagnostic Assessments 1451(1)
Risk for Injury Related to Hyperglycemia 1452(18)
Risk for Injury Related to Stress of 1470(2)
Surgery
Risk for Injury Related to Sensory 1472(3)
Alterations
Chronic Pain 1475(1)
Risk for Injury Related to Visual 1475(1)
Sensory-Perceptual Alterations
Ineffective Renal Tissue Perfusion 1476(2)
Potential for Hypoglycemia 1478(3)
Potential for Diabetic Ketoacidosis 1481(2)
Potential for Hyperglycemic-Hyperosmolar 1483(2)
Nonketotic Syndrome and Coma
Community-Based Care 1485(10)
UNIT 14 Problems of Protection
Management of Clients with Problems of the
Skin, Hair, and Nails
Assessment of the Skin, Hair, and Nails 1495(19)
Janice Cuzzell
Anatomy and Physiology Review 1495(2)
Structure of the Skin 1495(1)
Structure of the Skin Appendages 1496(1)
Functions of the Skin 1497(1)
Skin Changes Associated with Aging 1497(1)
Assessment Techniques 1497(17)
History 1497(5)
Physical Assessment 1502(9)
Psychosocial Assessment 1511(1)
Diagnostic Assessment 1511(3)
Interventions for Clients with Skin Problems 1514(41)
Janice Cuzzell
Minor Irritations 1514(2)
Dryness 1514(1)
Pruritus 1515(1)
Sunburn 1515(1)
Urticaria 1516(1)
Trauma 1516(3)
Pressure Ulcers 1519(15)
Common Infections 1534(3)
Parasitic Disorders 1537(3)
Pediculosis 1537(3)
Scabies 1540(1)
Common Inflammations 1540(1)
Psoriasis 1541(3)
Benign Tumors 1544(1)
Cysts 1544(1)
Seborrheic Keratoses 1544(1)
Keloids 1544(1)
Nevi 1545(1)
Warts 1545(1)
Hemangiomas 1545(1)
Skin Cancer 1545(3)
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 1548(2)
Other Skin Disorders 1550(2)
Acne 1550(1)
Lichen Planus 1551(1)
Pemphigus Vulgaris 1551(1)
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis 1551(1)
Frostbite 1552(1)
Leprosy 1552(1)
Nail Disorders 1552(3)
Ingrown Toenail 1552(3)
Interventions for Clients with Burns 1555(34)
Eric Marsh
Introduction to the Burn Problem 1555(9)
Pathophysiology of Burn Injury 1555(1)
Integumentary Changes Resulting from Burn 1555(4)
Injury
Vascular Changes Resulting from Burn 1559(1)
Injury
Cardiac Changes Resulting from Burn Injury 1560(1)
Pulmonary Changes Resulting from Burn 1560(1)
Injury
Gastrointestinal Changes Resulting from 1561(1)
Burn Injury
Metabolic Changes Resulting from Burn 1561(1)
Injury
Immunologic Changes Resulting from Burn 1561(1)
Injury
Compensatory Responses to Burn Injury 1561(1)
Etiology of Burn Injury 1562(1)
Dry Heat 1562(1)
Moist Heat 1562(1)
Contact Burns 1562(1)
Chemical Injury 1562(1)
Electrical Injury 1563(1)
Radiation Injury 1563(1)
Incidence/Prevalence of Burn Injury 1563(1)
Emergent Phase of Burn Injury 1564(11)
Acute Phase of Burn Injury 1575(8)
Rehabilitative Phase of Burn Injury 1583(6)
UNIT 15 Problems of Excretion
Management of Clients with Problems of the
Renal/Urinary System
Assessment of the Renal/Urinary System 1589(25)
Chris Winkelman
Anatomy and Physiology Review 1589(9)
Kidneys 1589(6)
Ureters 1595(1)
Urinary Bladder 1596(1)
Urethra 1596(1)
Renal/Urinary Changes Associated with 1596(2)
Aging
Assessment Techniques 1598(16)
History 1598(2)
Physical Assessment 1600(1)
Psychosocial Assessment 1601(1)
Diagnostic Assessment 1601(13)
Interventions for Clients with Urinary 1614(28)
Problems
Chris Winkelman
Infectious Disorders 1614(7)
Cystitis 1614(6)
Urethritis 1620(1)
Noninfectious Disorders 1621(21)
Urethral Strictures 1621(1)
Urinary Incontinence 1621(11)
Urolithiasis 1632(5)
Urothelial Cancer 1637(2)
Bladder Trauma 1639(3)
Interventions for Clients with Renal Disorders 1642(22)
Chris Winkelman
Congenital Disorders 1642(3)
Polycystic Kidney Disease 1642(3)
Obstructive Disorders 1645(1)
Hydronephrosis, Hydroureter, and Urethral 1645(1)
Stricture
Infectious Disorders 1646(4)
Pyelonephritis 1646(4)
Renal Abscess 1650(1)
Renal Tuberculosis 1650(1)
Immunologic Renal Disorders 1650(4)
Acute Glomerular Nephritis 1651(2)
Rapidly Progressive Glomerular Nephritis 1653(1)
Chronic Glomerulonephritis 1653(1)
Nephrotic Syndrome 1654(1)
Immunologic Interstitial and 1654(1)
Tubulointerstitial Disorders
Degenerative Disorders 1654(3)
Nephrosclerosis 1654(2)
Renovascular Disease 1656(1)
Diabetic Nephropathy 1656(1)
Tumors 1657(2)
Cysts and Benign Tumors 1657(1)
Renal Cell Carcinoma 1658(1)
Renal Trauma 1659(5)
Interventions for Clients with Acute and 1664(43)
Chronic Renal Failure
Constance Visovsky
Acute Renal Failure 1665(10)
Chronic Renal Failure 1675(32)
Renal Replacement Therapies 1688(1)
Hemodialysis 1688(6)
Peritoneal Dialysis 1694(3)
Renal Transplantation 1697(10)
UNIT 16 Roblems of Reproduction
Management of Clients with Problems of the
Reproductive System
Assessment of the Reproductive System 1707(23)
Deitra L. Lowdermilk
Anatomy and Physiology Review 1707(6)
Structure and Function of the Female 1707(3)
Reproductive System
Menstruation and Menopause 1710(1)
Structure and Function of the Male 1711(2)
Reproductive System
Reproductive Changes Associated with Aging 1713(1)
Assessment Techniques 1713(17)
History 1713(4)
Physical Assessment 1717(4)
Psychosocial Assessment 1721(1)
Diagnostic Assessment 1721(9)
Interventions for Clients with Breast 1730(21)
Disorders
Amy Nichols
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Prevention and Early Detection of Breast 1730(3)
Masses
Mammography 1730(1)
Breast Self-Examination 1730(2)
Clinical Breast Examination 1732(1)
Women at High Genetic Risk for Breast Cancer 1733(1)
Cancer Surveillance 1734(1)
Prophylactic Mastectomy 1734(1)
Chemoprevention 1734(1)
Benign Breast Disorders 1734(2)
Fibroadenoma 1734(1)
Fibrocystic Breast Disease 1734(1)
Ductal Ectasia 1735(1)
Intraductal Papilloma 1735(1)
Issues of Large-Breasted Women 1735(1)
Gynecomastia 1735(1)
Breast Cancer 1736(15)
Interventions for Clients with Gynecologic 1751(31)
Problems
Amy Nichols
Donna D. Ignatavicius
Menstrual Cycle Disorders 1751(7)
Primary Dysmenorrhea 1751(1)
Premenstrual Syndrome 1752(1)
Amenorrhea 1753(1)
Postmenopausal Bleeding 1754(1)
Endometriosis 1755(1)
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding 1756(1)
Menopause 1756(2)
Inflammations and Infections 1758(2)
Simple Vaginitis 1758(1)
Vulvitis 1759(1)
Toxic Shock Syndrome 1760(1)
Pelvic Structure Support Problems 1760(3)
Uterine Prolapse 1760(2)
Cystocele 1762(1)
Rectocele 1762(1)
Fistulas 1763(1)
Benign Neoplasms 1763(6)
Functional Ovarian Cysts 1763(1)
Other Benign Ovarian Cysts and Tumors 1764(1)
Uterine Leiomyomas 1764(4)
Bartholin's Cysts 1768(1)
Cervical Polyps 1769(1)
Malignant Neoplasms 1769(13)
Endometrial Cancer 1769(3)
Cervical Cancer 1772(4)
Ovarian Cancer 1776(2)
Vulvar Cancer 1778(2)
Vaginal Cancer 1780(1)
Fallopian Tube Cancer 1780(2)
Interventions for Male Clients with 1782(23)
Reproductive Problems
Lori Klingman
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 1782(7)
Prostate Cancer 1789(4)
Erectile Dysfunction 1793(2)
Testicular Cancer 1795(4)
Other Common Problems Affecting the Testes 1799(6)
and Adjacent Structures
Hydrocele 1799(1)
Spermatocele 1800(1)
Varicocele 1800(1)
Scrotal Trauma 1801(1)
Cryptorchidism 1801(1)
Cancer of the Penis 1801(1)
Phimosis 1802(1)
Circumcision 1802(1)
Priapism 1802(1)
Prostatitis 1802(1)
Epididymitis 1803(1)
Orchitis 1803(2)
Interventions for Clients with Sexually 1805
Transmitted Diseases
Shirley E. Van Zandt
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 1807
Infections Associated with Ulcers 1807
Syphilis 1807
Genital Herpes 1810
Lymphogranuloma Venereum 1812
Chancroid 1812
Granuloma Inguinale 1812
Infections of the Epithelial Structures 1813
Condylomata Acuminata 1813
Gonorrhea 1813
Chlamydial Infection 1816
Other Gynecologic Conditions 1817
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 1817
Sexually Transmitted Vaginal Infections 1823
Hepatitis B and C 1823
Appendixes
1 Abbreviations 1826
2 Screening Guidelines for Secondary 1832
Prevention of Selected Cancers in
Asymptomatic People
3 Clinical Pathways 1833