The Brain's Sense of Movement (Reprint)

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The Brain's Sense of Movement (Reprint)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 384 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780674009806
  • DDC分類 573

基本説明

New in paperback. Hardcover was publsihed in 2000. Translated by Giselle Weiss.

Full Description


The neuroscientist Alan Berthoz experimented on Russian astronauts in space to answer these questions: how does weightlessness affect motion? how are motion and three-dimensional space perceived? In this book, the author describes how human beings on earth perceive and control bodily movement. Reviewing a wealth of research in neuro-physiology and experimental psychology, he argues for a rethinking of the traditional separation between action and perception, and for the division of perception into five senses. In Berthoz's view, perception and cognition are inherently predictive, functioning to allow us to anticipate the consequences of current or potential actions. The brain acts like a simulator that is constantly inventing models to project onto the changing world, models that are corrected by steady, minute feedback from the world. We move in the direction we are looking, anticipate the trajectory of a falling ball, recover when we stumble, and continually update our own physical position, all thanks to this sense of movement. This interpretation of perception and action allows Berthoz, in this work, to focus on psychological phenomena largely ignored in standard texts: proprioception and kinaesthesia, the mechanisms that maintain balance and co-ordinate actions, and basic perceptual and memory processes involved in navigation.

Table of Contents

Introduction                                       1  (8)
Perception Is Simulated Action 9 (16)
The Motor Theory of Perception 9 (2)
The Concept of Acceptor of the Results of 11 (2)
Action
Bernstein's Comparator 13 (4)
Memory Predicts the Consequences of Action 17 (2)
Mental Nodes 19 (1)
Mirror Neurons 20 (1)
Simulation, Emulation, or Representation? 21 (4)
The Sense of Movement: A Sixth Sense? 25 (32)
Proprioception 27 (5)
The Vestibulary System: An Inertial Center? 32 (11)
The Functions of the Vestibular System 43 (7)
Seeing Movement 50 (7)
Building Coherence 57 (40)
How Vision Detects Movement 60 (4)
Visual Movement and Vestibular Receptors 64 (5)
Am I in my Bed or Hanging from the Ceiling? 69 (8)
The Coherence between Seeing and Hearing 77 (13)
The Problem of the Coherence and Unity of 90 (3)
Perception
Autism: The Disintegration of Coherence? 93 (4)
Frames of Reference 97 (18)
Personal Space and Extrapersonal Space 98 (1)
Egocentric and Allocentric Frames of 99 (1)
Reference
Natural Frames of Reference 100(9)
Selecting Frames of Reference 109(6)
A Memory for Predicting 115(22)
Topographic Memory or Topokinetic Memory? 117(9)
The Neural Basis of Spatial Memory: The 126(11)
Role of the Hippocampus
Natural Movement 137(17)
Pioneers 139(2)
The Problem of Number of Degrees of Freedom 141(6)
The Invention of the Eye 147(4)
The Form of a Drawing Is Produced by the 151(3)
Law of Maximal Smoothness
Synergies and Strategies 154(11)
Vestibular Axon Branching and Gaze 155(3)
Stabilization
The Baby Fish that Wanted to Swim Flat on 158(2)
Its Stomach
The Neural Bases for Encoding Movement of 160(2)
the Arms
Coordination of Synergies 162(3)
Capture 165(16)
The Toad's Decision 166(2)
The Art of Braking 168(4)
What If Newton Had Wanted to Catch the 172(9)
Apple?
The Look That Investigates the World 181(11)
Gaze Orientation 181(4)
``Go Where I'm Looking,'' not ``Look Where 185(1)
I'm Going''
Eye-to-Eye Contact 185(3)
Gaze and Emotion 188(2)
The Neural Basis of Gaze-Orienting Reactions 190(2)
Visual Exploration 192(24)
The Brain Is a Fiery Steed 192(3)
A Model of Perception-Action Relationships 195(16)
Imagined Movement and Actual Movement 211(1)
Dynamic Memory and Predictive Control of 212(2)
Movements
Was Piaget Right? 214(2)
Balance 216(17)
A Physiology of Reaction 217(1)
How to Make the University of Edinburgh 218(3)
Oscillate
Toward a Projective Physiology 221(12)
Adaptation 233(9)
Adaptation and Substitution 234(4)
The Rheumatologist and the Ophthalmologist 238(1)
The Role of Activity in Compensating for 239(3)
and Preventing Disorientation
The Disoriented Brain: Illusions Are Solutions 242(13)
Illusion: The Best Possible Hypothesis 243(1)
Illusions Caused by Acceleration and Gravity 244(4)
Illusions of Movement of the Limbs 248(2)
Space and Motion Sickness 250(2)
A Few Other Illusions 252(3)
Architects Have Forgotten the Pleasure of 255(6)
Movement
Conclusion: Toward A Tolerant Perception 261(8)
Notes 269(31)
Works Cited 300(27)
Credits 327(2)
Index 329