Handbook of Green Chemistry and Technology

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Handbook of Green Chemistry and Technology

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 540 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780632057153
  • DDC分類 660

Full Description


Sustainable development is now accepted as a necessary goal for achieving societal, economic and environmental objectives. Within this chemistry has a vital role to play. The chemical industry is successful but traditionally success has come at a heavy cost to the environment. The challenge for chemists and others is to develop new products, processes and services that achieve societal, economic and environmental benefits. This requires an approach that reduces the materials and energy intensity of chemical processes and products; minimises the dispersion of harmful chemicals in the environment; maximises the use of renewable resources and extends the durability and recyclability of products in a way that increases industrial competitiveness as well as improve its tarnished image.This highly practical and rigorous book brings together reviews on the important aspects of green chemistry and technology, and is written by a team of world-renowned chemists spearheaded by leaders in the field.

Table of Contents

Contributors                                       iii
Preface xvii
Introduction 1 (9)
James H. Clark
Introduction 1 (9)
Chemistry-past, present and future 1 (2)
The costs of waste 3 (1)
The greening of chemistry 3 (6)
References 9 (1)
Principles of Sustainable and Green Chemistry 10 (18)
Mike Lancaster
Introduction 10 (1)
Green Chemistry and Industry 10 (2)
Waste Minimisation and Atom Economy 12 (3)
Atom economy 12 (1)
Some inherently atom economic reactions 13 (2)
Some inherently atom uneconomic reactions 15 (1)
Reduction of Materials Use 15 (5)
Catalytic solutions 16 (1)
Question the need for protection 17 (1)
Reduction of non-renewable raw material 17 (2)
use
Process intensification 19 (1)
Reduction of Energy Requirement 20 (2)
Some energy efficiency improvements 21 (1)
Alternative energy sources 22 (1)
Reduction of Risk and Hazard 22 (3)
Inherently safe design 22 (3)
Alternative solvents 25 (1)
Conclusions 25 (3)
References 26 (2)
Chemistry and the Environment 28 (28)
John V. Holder
Introduction 28 (1)
Chemistry of the Atmosphere 28 (11)
Structure of the atmosphere 28 (2)
Tropospheric pollution 30 (8)
Stratospheric pollution 38 (1)
Pollution of the built environment 39 (1)
Chemistry of the Terrestrial Environment 39 (11)
The Earth's crust 39 (1)
Pollution of the land 40 (3)
Freshwaters 43 (1)
Pollution of freshwater 44 (6)
Chemistry of the Oceans 50 (4)
Chemistry of the open ocean 50 (1)
Chemistry of estuaries 51 (1)
Pollution of the oceans 52 (2)
Conclusion 54 (2)
References 54 (1)
Bibliography 55 (1)
Green Chemistry and Sustainable Development 56 (6)
Thomas E. Graedel
The Concept of Sustainability 56 (1)
Green Chemistry and Sustainability's 56 (4)
Parameters
Sustainable use of chemical feedstocks 57 (1)
Sustainable use of water 58 (1)
Sustainable use of energy 59 (1)
Environmental resilience 59 (1)
A Sustainability Scenario 60 (2)
References 60 (2)
Life-cycle Assessment: a Tool for 62 (24)
Identification of More Sustainable Products
and Processes
Adisa Azapagic
Introduction 62 (1)
The LCA Methodology 62 (7)
Methodological framework 63 (6)
The Applications of LCA 69 (11)
Product-oriented LCA 69 (4)
Process-oriented LCA 73 (7)
Conclusions 80 (1)
Appendix 81 (5)
Definition of environmental impacts 81 (2)
References 83 (3)
Industrial Processes using Solid Acid 86 (34)
Catalysts
Mark A. Harmer
Introduction 86 (1)
Concepts in Acidity and Solid Acid Catalysts 87 (3)
Industrial Applications of Solid Acid 90 (18)
Catalysts
Zeolite-based solid acid catalysts 90 (8)
Heteropolyacid-based solid acid catalysts 98 (4)
Sulfated zirconia 102 (2)
Ion-exchange resins 104 (3)
Acidic and pillared clays 107 (1)
Some Recent Developments in Catalytic 108 (9)
Materials and Processes
The 'Kvaerner Process' and esterification 108 (1)
chemistry
Nafion®/silica nanocomposites 109 (5)
Haldor-Topsoe alkylation process to 114 (1)
high-octane fuels
Mobil-Badger cumene process 115 (1)
Isodewaxing process (Chevron) 116 (1)
Summary 117 (3)
Acknowledgements 117 (1)
References 117 (3)
Micelle-templated Silicas as Catalysts in 120 (30)
Green Chemistry
Duncan Macquarrie
Introduction 120 (1)
Structured Mesoporous Materials 120 (5)
Synthesis of micelle-templated materials 120 (3)
Post-functionalisation of 123 (1)
micelle-templated materials
Direct preparation of organically 123 (2)
modified micelle-templated silicas
Catalytic Applications 125 (21)
Fundamental activity of micelle-templated 125 (1)
silicas and aluminosilicas
Micelle-templated materials with enhanced 126 (2)
acidity
Oxidation catalysis 128 (11)
Base catalysis (other than oxidations) 139 (5)
Enantioselective catalysis 144 (2)
Conclusion 146 (4)
References 147 (3)
Polymer-supported Reagents 150 (38)
Georges Gelbard
Introduction 150 (2)
A breakthrough in organic synthetic 150 (1)
methods or a fancy for doing things
differently?
Polymeric tools for organic synthesis 150 (1)
What is really possible and what is still 151 (1)
expected
Making Functional Polymers 152 (7)
General schemes 152 (1)
Required properties 153 (1)
Copolymerisation with usual monomers 153 (1)
Polystyrenes 154 (1)
Spacers 155 (1)
Polyacrylates 156 (2)
Polyvinylpyridines 158 (1)
Polybenzimidazoles 158 (1)
Polyphosphazenes 158 (1)
Chlorofluoropolymers 158 (1)
Syntheses with Polymer-supported Reagents 159 (24)
Acid chlorides and anhydrides 161 (1)
Alcohols 161 (2)
Aldehydes and ketones 163 (4)
Amides and lactams 167 (1)
Amines 168 (2)
Azides 170 (1)
Azo dyes 170 (1)
Bromo-, chloro- and iodoaromatics 170 (2)
Carbodiimides 172 (1)
Epoxides 172 (1)
Esters and lactones 173 (1)
Ethers 174 (1)
Fluoro derivatives 175 (1)
Halides and dehalogenation reactions 176 (2)
Halohydrins 178 (1)
Isoxazolidines 178 (2)
Nitriles 180 (1)
Sulfoxides 181 (1)
Thiocyanates and ureas 181 (1)
Thiiranes, thiols and disulfides 181 (2)
Wittig and Wittig-related reactions 183 (1)
Conclusion 183 (5)
References 183 (5)
Biocatalysis 188 (18)
Herbert L. Holland
Introduction 188 (1)
Chemical Production by Biocatalysis 188 (9)
Bulk chemicals 188 (2)
Pharmaceuticals 190 (1)
Flavour and fragrance compounds 191 (1)
Carbohydrates 192 (2)
Enantiomerically pure synthons 194 (1)
Polymers 195 (2)
Green Biocatalytic Processes 197 (5)
Biocatalysis in supercritical CO2 198 (1)
Biocatalysis in waste treatment 198 (4)
Biodesulfurisation 202 (1)
Conclusions 202 (4)
References 203 (3)
Recent Advances in Phase-transfer Catalysis 206 (52)
Yoel Sasson
Gadi Rothenberg
Introduction 206 (1)
Progress in Classical PTC Reactions 207 (11)
Nucleophilic aliphatic and aromatic 207 (1)
substitutions
Phase-transfer catalysis elimination and 208 (3)
isomerisation reactions
Base-promoted C, N, O and S alkylation 211 (4)
and arylation reactions
Alkylations (C, N, O and S) in alycyclic 215 (3)
and heterocyclic syntheses
Inverse PTC 218 (2)
Three Liquid Phases and Triphase Catalysis 220 (2)
Asymmetric PTC 222 (5)
Phase-transfer Catalysis in Polymerisation 227 (3)
Processes
Applications of PTC in Analytical Chemistry 230 (1)
Phase Transfer Combined with Metal Catalysis 230 (9)
Phase transfer in homogeneous transition 230 (3)
metal catalysis
Catalysis by onium-salt-stabilised 233 (1)
transition metal nanoclusters
Phase transfer in heterogeneous catalysis 234 (5)
Phase-transfer catalysis activation of 239 (1)
metallic and non-metallic reagents
Hydrogen Peroxide and Other PTC Oxidations 239 (4)
and Halogenations
Hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxide 239 (2)
oxidations
Other oxidising agents 241 (2)
Supercritical and Ionic Liquid PTC 243 (2)
New Experimental Tools and Modelling 245 (13)
Techniques in PTC Research
References 246 (12)
Hydrogen Peroxide in Waste 258 (48)
Minimisation-Current and Potential
Contributions
William R. Sanderson
Introduction 258 (3)
Factors in the introduction of new 258 (1)
technology
Scope of this chapter 258 (1)
Manufacture of hydrogen peroxide 259 (1)
Uses of hydrogen peroxide 259 (2)
Peroxygen Systems and their Reactivity 261 (7)
Effect of acids and bases 261 (1)
Oxygen species 262 (1)
Peracids and organic activation 263 (2)
Catalytic activation 265 (3)
State of Progress on Main Catalytic Systems 268 (8)
Redox metal and oxo-metal complexes 268 (2)
Peroxo-metal systems 270 (2)
Polyoxometallates and heteropolyanions 272 (1)
Zeolitic and smectitic materials 273 (3)
Enzymes 276 (1)
Developments in Catalysed Oxidations for 276 (18)
Chemical Synthesis
Oxidations at carbon 277 (11)
Oxidations at nitrogen 288 (3)
Oxidations at sulfur 291 (2)
Halogenations 293 (1)
Developments in Catalysed Oxidations for 294 (12)
Effluent Treatment
Catalysed H2O2 systems 294 (1)
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) 295 (1)
Treatment of refractory effluents 296 (1)
Gaseous effluent treatment 297 (1)
Soil remediation 297 (1)
References 297 (9)
Waste Minimisation in Pharmaceutical Process 306 (15)
Development: Principles, Practice and
Challenges
Tony Y. Zhang
Introduction 306 (4)
Focus of Process Chemistry 310 (4)
Safety 310 (1)
Increasing complexity 311 (1)
Means of purification 311 (1)
Choice of starting material 311 (1)
Yields 311 (1)
Number and order of steps 312 (1)
Robustness 312 (1)
Solvents 312 (2)
Reagents 314 (1)
Reaction temperature 314 (1)
Heavy metals 314 (1)
Endurance 314 (1)
Example 1 314 (3)
Example 2 317 (2)
Conclusion 319 (2)
References 319 (2)
Green Catalysts for Industry 321 (17)
Keith Martin
Introduction 321 (1)
Supported Reagents 322 (1)
Envirocats™ 322 (1)
Envirocat EPZ10 322 (1)
Envirocat EPZG 322 (1)
Envirocat EPZE 323 (1)
Envirocat EPIC 323 (1)
Envirocat EPAD 323 (1)
Advantages of Envirocats 323 (1)
Friedel-Crafts reactions 323 (1)
Esterifications 323 (1)
Oxidations 324 (1)
Activation of Envirocats 324 (1)
General Methods for Using Envirocats 325 (1)
Catalyst concentration 325 (1)
Reaction temperature 325 (1)
Commercial Applications of Envirocats 325 (4)
Benzoylations 325 (1)
Acylations 325 (1)
Benzylations 326 (1)
Olefin alkylation 326 (1)
Aromatic bromination 327 (1)
Sulfonylation 327 (1)
Esterifications 328 (1)
Aerobic oxidations 328 (1)
Other Applications of Envirocat Catalysts 329 (3)
Envirocat EPZG 330 (1)
Envirocat EPIC 331 (1)
Envirocat EPZ10 332 (1)
The Second Generation of Envirocats 332 (3)
Envirocat EPA10 333 (1)
Envirocat EPCS 334 (1)
Future Envirocats 335 (1)
Conclusions 335 (3)
References 336 (2)
Green Chemistry in Practice 338 (28)
Joseph J. Bozell
Introduction 338 (1)
What is the Impact of Green Process 338 (2)
Technology on the Chemical Industry?
Overview 340 (1)
Catalysis 341 (11)
Examples of heterogeneous catalysis in 341 (3)
practice
Examples of homogeneous catalysis in 344 (8)
practice
Renewables as Chemical Feedstocks and 352 (9)
Biocatalysis
The case for renewables 353 (2)
Examples of the use of renewable 355 (1)
feedstocks for the production of chemicals
Bioproduction of chemicals in industry 356 (5)
Conclusions 361 (5)
References 362 (4)
Process Intensification for Green Chemistry 366 (6)
Roshan Jachuck
Introduction 366 (1)
Relevance to Green Chemistry 366 (2)
Spinning Disc Reactor 368 (1)
Microreactors 369 (1)
Intensified Cross-corrugated 370 (1)
Multifunctional Membrane
Conclusions 371 (1)
References 371 (1)
Sonochemistry 372 (25)
Timothy J. Mason
P. Cintas
Introduction 372 (4)
Sonochemistry 372 (1)
Power ultrasound 373 (1)
Apparatus available for sonochemistry 374 (2)
Sonochemistry in Chemical Synthesis 376 (11)
The nature of sonochemical reactions 377 (8)
Ultrasonic preparation of micro- and 385 (2)
nanostructured materials
Ultrasound in Electrochemistry: 387 (1)
Sonoelectrochemistry
Electroplating 388 (1)
Electrosynthesis 388 (1)
Ultrasound in Environmental Protection and 388 (4)
Waste Control
Chemical decontamination 389 (2)
Biological decontamination 391 (1)
Enhanced Extraction of Raw Materials from 392 (1)
Plants
Large-scale Sonochemistry 392 (1)
Batch systems 392 (1)
Flow systems 392 (1)
Conclusions 393 (4)
References 393 (4)
Applications of Microwaves for 397 (19)
Environmentally Benign Organic Chemistry
Christopher R. Strauss
Background 397 (1)
Properties of Microwaves 397 (1)
Influence of Microwave Heating on Chemical 397 (1)
Reactions
Rate Studies and Investigations into 398 (1)
'Microwave Effects'
Approaches to Microwave-assisted Organic 399 (4)
Chemistry
Solvent-free methods 400 (1)
Methods with solvents 401 (2)
Advantages of the Pressurised Microwave 403 (4)
Systems
Elevated temperature 403 (1)
Rapid heating, cooling and ease of use 404 (2)
for high-temperature reactions
Control of heating 406 (1)
Exothermic reactions, differential 406 (1)
heating and viscous reaction mixtures
Reaction vessels 406 (1)
Reactions with a distillation step 407 (1)
Flexible operation 407 (1)
High-temperature Water as a Medium or 407 (3)
Solvent for Microwave-assisted Organic
Synthesis
Reactions in high-temperature water 408 (2)
Reactions in aqueous acid and base 410 (1)
Limiting salt formation 410 (1)
Avoiding solvent extraction through 410 (1)
resin-based adsorption processes
Metal-catalysed Processes 410 (1)
Enzymatic Processes 411 (1)
Deuteration and Tritiation 412 (1)
Tandem Technologies 412 (1)
Conclusion 412 (4)
References 413 (3)
Photochemistry 416 (17)
Ian X. Dunkin
Photons as Clean Reagents 416 (5)
Reduced usage of reagents 416 (1)
Lower reaction temperatures 416 (1)
Control of selectivity 417 (3)
Photochemical reactions for industry 420 (1)
General Problems with Photochemical 421 (2)
Processes
Specialized photochemical reactors and 421 (1)
process technology
Window fouling 422 (1)
The cost of photons 422 (1)
The Light Ahead 423 (3)
Photochemical reactors 423 (2)
Light sources 425 (1)
Conclusions 426 (1)
The Basics of Photochemistry 427 (6)
Light and energy 427 (1)
Absorption of light by molecules 428 (2)
Excited-state processes 430 (1)
Acknowledgements 431 (1)
References 431 (2)
Electrochemistry and Sustainability 433 (33)
K. Scott
Introduction 433 (1)
Green Electrochemistry 433 (1)
Electrochemistry Fundamentals 434 (8)
Electrode potential, kinetics and mass 435 (4)
transport
Electrochemical cells 439 (3)
Electrochemistry and Energy Sustainability 442 (5)
Fuel cells 443 (4)
Electrochemical Synthesis 447 (6)
Metal salt preparation 448 (1)
In situ generation of reagents 448 (1)
Influence of counter-electrode 449 (1)
Paired synthesis 449 (1)
Organic electrosynthesis 450 (3)
Electrochemical Waste Minimisation 453 (13)
Recovery and recycling of metal ions 454 (3)
Cell technology and applications 457 (1)
Integration of electrodeposition with 458 (1)
other separations
Electrochemical ion exchange 459 (1)
Electrochemical membrane processes 459 (2)
Electrohydrolysis 461 (3)
References 464 (2)
Fuel Cells: a Clean Energy Technology for the 466 (16)
Future
Brian Grievson
Introduction 466 (1)
Fuel Cell Electrochemistry 466 (2)
Fuel Cell Technology 468 (8)
Alkaline fuel cell 469 (1)
Solid polymer fuel cell 470 (1)
Phosphoric acid fuel cell 471 (1)
Molten carbonate fuel cell 472 (1)
Solid oxide fuel cell 473 (3)
Fuel Cell Applications 476 (3)
General economics 476 (1)
Transport applications 477 (1)
Stationary power generation applications 478 (1)
Battery replacement applications 479 (1)
The Future of Fuel Cells 479 (3)
References 480 (2)
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide as an 482 (20)
Environmentally Benign Reaction Medium for
Chemical Synthesis
Nathalie Tanchoux
Walter Leitner
Introduction 482 (1)
Phase Behaviour and Solubility in 483 (2)
Supercritical Reaction Mixtures
Supercritical CO2 as a Replacement for 485 (2)
Organic Solvents
Use of Supercritical CO2 for Safer Processes 487 (3)
Improvement of Process Performance 490 (5)
Process intensification 490 (3)
Improvement of changes in 493 (2)
stereoselectivity
Enhanced catalyst lifetime 495 (1)
Use of Supercritical CO2 for Product 495 (3)
Separation and Catalyst Recycling
Multiphase processes using supercritical 495 (1)
CO2 as a reaction and separation phase
Single-phase reactions with subsequent 496 (2)
separation using supercritical CO2 as the
reaction and separation phase
Simultaneous Use of Supercritical CO2 as 498 (1)
Reaction Medium and Reagent
Conclusion 499 (3)
References 500 (2)
Chemistry in Fluorous Biphasic Systems 502 (22)
Jozsef Rabai
Zoltan Szlavik
Istvan T. Horvath
Introduction 502 (1)
The Fluorous Biphase Concept 502 (1)
Fluorous Solvents 503 (1)
Synthesis of Fluorous Compounds 504 (4)
Fluorous Extraction 508 (1)
Fluorous Synthesis 509 (1)
Fluorous Reagents 510 (5)
Fluorous Tags 515 (5)
Fluorous Biphasic Catalysis 520 (1)
Relationship between Fluorous and 520 (1)
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Media
Economical Feasibility of Fluorous Biphasic 520 (4)
Chemistry
References 521 (3)
Extraction of Natural Products with 524 (8)
Superheated Water
A. A. Clifford
Introduction 524 (1)
Properties of Superheated Water 524 (2)
Extraction of Materials Other Than Natural 526 (1)
Products
Chromatography with Superheated Water 526 (1)
Extraction of Rosemary 526 (1)
Extraction of Other Plant Materials 527 (1)
Process Development 528 (1)
Extraction with Reaction 529 (3)
References 531 (1)
Index 532