Notes on Feline Internal Medicine (Notes on)

Notes on Feline Internal Medicine (Notes on)

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Table of Contents

Abbreviations                                      xv
Introduction 1 (4)
Section 1 Differential diagnosis 5 (64)
Clinical signs 7 (49)
Abdominal enlargement 7 (1)
Anorexia 8 (1)
Ascites 9 (2)
Ataxia 11 (2)
Behavioural changes 13 (1)
Bleeding/coagulopathies 13 (1)
Collapse/syncope 14 (2)
Cardiac murmurs 16 (1)
Constipation 17 (2)
Chronic coughing 19 (1)
Diarrhoea 20 (2)
Dysphagia 22 (2)
Dyspnoea (respiratory distress) 24 (2)
Dysrhythmias 26 (1)
Dysuria 27 (1)
Failure to grow 28 (1)
Haematemesis and haemoptysis 29 (1)
Haematochezia and melaena 30 (1)
Haematuria 31 (1)
Infertility - queens 32 (2)
Infertility - males 34 (1)
Jaundice (icterus) 35 (1)
Diseases of kittens 36 (4)
Lymphadenopathy 40 (1)
Paresis and paralysis 41 (2)
Ptyalism 43 (1)
Polyuria/polydipsia 44 (1)
Pyrexia (fever) of unknown origin (PUO) 45 (1)
Regurgitation 46 (1)
Seizures 47 (2)
Sneezing and nasal discharge 49 (1)
Stiffness 50 (1)
Stupor 51 (1)
Tremor 52 (1)
Vomiting 53 (2)
Weight loss 55 (1)
Common laboratory abnormalities 56 (13)
Anaemia 56 (1)
Platelet abnormalities 57 (1)
White blood cell changes 57 (1)
Amylase and lipase 58 (1)
Azotaemia 58 (1)
Calcium imbalance 59 (1)
Cholesterol and triglycerides changes 60 (1)
Electrolyte disturbances 60 (1)
Glucose abnormalities 61 (1)
Liver enzymes, bilirubin, ammonia and bile 62 (1)
acids
Muscle enzymes 63 (1)
Phosphate 63 (1)
Protein abnormalities 64 (1)
Urinalysis 65 (4)
Section 2 Organ Systems 69 (182)
Respiratory disease 71 (15)
General examination of the respiratory 71 (1)
system
Disease of the upper respiratory tract 71 (5)
(URTD)
Mediastinal disease 76 (1)
Lower airway disease - feline 76 (3)
bronchopulmonary disease
Pulmonary thromboembolism 79 (1)
Pleural disease 80 (5)
Diaphragmatic disease 85 (1)
Cardiology 86 (30)
Introduction 86 (1)
History and presentation 86 (1)
Congenital disease 86 (1)
Presenting clinical signs 86 (1)
Physical examination 87 (1)
Diagnostic aids 88 (3)
Arrhythmias 91 (5)
Congenital heart disease 96 (5)
Acquired cardiac disease 101(4)
Management of feline heart failure 105(8)
Pericardial disease 113(2)
Heartworm disease 115(1)
Blood pressure monitoring and hypertension 115(1)
Gastrointestinal disease 116(22)
Oral disease 116(2)
Oesophageal disease 118(4)
Gastric disease 122(5)
Small intestinal disease 127(7)
Large intestinal disease 134(2)
Pancreatic disease 136(2)
Hepatobiliary disease 138(9)
Functions of the liver 138(1)
History and clinical signs 138(1)
Laboratory tests for liver disease 139(1)
Diagnostic imaging 140(1)
Liver biopsy 140(1)
Liver disease 141(6)
Renal disease 147(18)
Functions of the kidney 147(1)
Definitions 147(1)
Physical examination 147(1)
Laboratory investigation of renal disease 147(3)
Imaging 150(2)
Acute renal failure (ARF) 152(4)
Chronic renal failure (CRF) 156(5)
Glomerulonephropathy and glomerulonephritis 161(1)
Pathophysiology of glomerulonephritis 162(2)
Renal neoplasia 164(1)
Familial renal disease 164(1)
Ureteric disease 165(1)
Lower urinary tract disease (LUID) 165(13)
Introduction 165(1)
Clinical signs 166(3)
Managing the obstructed cat 169(2)
Approach to idiopathic FLUID (iFLUID) 171(3)
Management of urolithiasis 174(1)
Lower urinary tract infection 175(3)
Neoplasia 178(1)
Urinary incontinence 178(1)
Endocrine disease 178(19)
Hyperthyroidism 179(4)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) 183(7)
Hyperadrenocorticism 190(1)
Acromegaly 191(1)
Hypoparathyroidism 192(1)
Hyperparathyroidism 193(1)
Hypoadrenocorticism 194(1)
Hypothyroidism 194(1)
Insulinoma 195(1)
Diabetes insipidus 195(2)
APUDomas 197(1)
Multiple endocrine neoplasia and 197(1)
polyendocrinopathies
Neurological disease 197(16)
Neurologic examination 197(4)
Approach to the neurologic case 201(1)
Multifocal disease 201(2)
Diagnosis 203(1)
Management of neurological disease 204(2)
Prognosis in neurologic disease 206(3)
Specific disease states 209(4)
Neuromuscular disease 213(5)
Disease spectrum 213(1)
History, clinical signs and assessment 213(1)
General approach 213(1)
Inherited neuropathies 214(1)
Acquired neuropathies 215(1)
Myopathies 216(1)
Neuromuscular disease 216(1)
Autonomic nervous system 217(1)
Skeletal disease 218(8)
Introduction 218(1)
Presentation 218(1)
Investigation 218(1)
Bone disease 218(5)
Joint disease 223(3)
Intervertebral disc disease 226(1)
Disorders of the blood, haematopoietic and 226(13)
immune system
Blood disorders 226(5)
Clotting disorders 231(4)
Blood transfusion 235(1)
Diseases of the immune system 236(3)
Clinical nutrition 239(2)
Nutritional requirements of cats 239(2)
Life stage nutrition and energy requirements 241(1)
(See Table 27)
Dietary formulations 241(1)
Dietary deficiency and toxicity 242(1)
Nutrition of the hospitalised cat 242(4)
Nutritional management of organ-related 246(2)
disease
Management of obesity 248(3)
Section 3 Infectious Disease 251(46)
Bordetellosis 253(1)
Epidemiology 253(1)
Route of infection 253(1)
Pathogenesis 253(1)
Clinical findings 253(1)
Diagnosis 253(1)
Therapy 253(1)
Control 254(1)
Viral upper respiratory tract infection 254(3)
Causal agent 254(1)
Route of infection 254(1)
Incubation period 254(1)
Pathogenesis 254(1)
Clinical signs 255(1)
Carrier status 255(1)
Differential diagnosis 255(1)
Diagnosis 256(1)
Treatment 256(1)
Control 256(1)
Feline chlamydiosis 257(3)
Causal organism 257(1)
Epidemiology 257(1)
Route of infection 257(1)
Incubation period 257(1)
Pathogenesis 257(1)
Clinical signs 257(1)
Diagnosis 258(1)
Treatment 259(1)
Treatment of a colony outbreak of Chlamydia 259(1)
Vaccination 259(1)
Zoonotic potential 260(1)
Feline infectious anaemia 260(2)
Causal agent 260(1)
Route of infection 260(1)
Incubation (preparasitaernic) period 260(1)
Pathogenesis 260(1)
Clinical findings 261(1)
Diagnosis 261(1)
Treatment 262(1)
Prognosis 262(1)
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) 262(5)
Epidemiology 262(1)
Route of infection 263(1)
Incubation period 263(1)
Pathogenesis 263(1)
Clinical signs 263(1)
Diagnosis 264(2)
Treatment 266(1)
Control 266(1)
Vaccination 266(1)
Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) 267(1)
Causal agent 267(1)
Route of infection 267(1)
Incubation period 267(1)
Pathogenesis 267(1)
Clinical signs 267(1)
Diagnosis 267(1)
Treatment 267(1)
Public health 267(1)
Mycobacterial infections - tuberculous 268(1)
mycobacteria
Epidemiology and causal agents 268(1)
Pathogenesis 268(1)
Clinical findings 268(1)
Diagnosis 268(1)
Therapy 269(1)
Public health 269(1)
Feline leprosy 269(1)
Clinical signs 269(1)
Diagnosis 270(1)
Treatment 270(1)
Opportunistic rapid-growing mycobacterial 270(1)
infections
Clinical signs 270(1)
Diagnosis 270(1)
Therapy 270(1)
Prognosis 270(1)
Rabies virus 270(4)
Causal agent 270(1)
Route of infection 271(1)
Incubation period 271(1)
Pathogenesis 271(1)
Clinical signs 272(1)
Diagnosis 272(1)
Treatment 272(1)
Control 272(1)
Vaccination 273(1)
PETS scheme 273(1)
Zoonosis 274(1)
Feline retroviral disease 274(9)
Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) 274(2)
FOCMA (Feline oncornavirus cell 276(3)
membrane-associated antigen)
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) 279(4)
Other retroviruses 283(1)
Feline sarcoma virus 283(1)
Feline syncytium-forming virus (FeSFV) 283(1)
RD114 284(1)
Toxoplasmosis 284(2)
Causal agent 284(1)
Life cycle 284(1)
Clinical signs 284(1)
Diagnosis 285(1)
Treatment 285(1)
Prevention 285(1)
Zoonotic risk 285(1)
Feline viral enteritis 286(1)
Causes of viral enteritis in cats 286(1)
Feline parvovirus (FPV) 286(5)
Causal agent 286(1)
Route of infection 286(1)
Incubation period 286(1)
Pathogenesis 286(1)
Clinical signs 287(1)
Diagnosis 288(1)
Treatment 288(2)
Control 290(1)
Prognosis 290(1)
Feline (enteric) coronavirus (FECV) 291(1)
Other infectious diseases - viral infections 291(2)
Non-suppurative meningoencephalitis 291(1)
('staggering disease')
Cowpox 291(1)
Hantavirus 292(1)
Other viral disease 292(1)
Bacterial infections 293(2)
Cat scratch disease 293(1)
Borreliosis (Lyme disease) 293(1)
Cat bite abscess 294(1)
Feline leptospirosis 294(1)
Salmonellosis 294(1)
Tetanus 294(1)
Other bacterial disease 295(1)
Rickettsial infections 295(1)
Ehrilichiosis 295(1)
Fungal infections 295(1)
Aspergillosis 295(1)
Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii 295(1)
Protozoan infections 296(1)
Cryptosporidia 296(1)
Cystoisospora (Isospora) 296(1)
Giardia 296(1)
Section 4 Breed related diseases 297(14)
Introduction 299(1)
Cardiorespiratory 299(1)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 299(1)
Endocardial fibroelastosis 299(1)
Patent ductus arteriosus 299(1)
Persistent atrial standstill 299(1)
Agenesis of nares 299(1)
Pericardioperitoneal diaphragmatic hernia 300(1)
Persistant right aortic arch 300(1)
Gastrointestinal 300(1)
Prognathic 300(1)
Cleft palate/lip 300(1)
Megaoesophagus and pyloric stenosis 300(1)
Hiatus hernia 300(1)
Interstinal carcinoma 300(1)
Hairball 300(1)
Urinary tract 300(1)
Chronic renal failure 300(1)
Amyloidosis 301(1)
Polycystic kidney disease 301(1)
Urolithiasis 301(1)
Haematopoietic 301(2)
Feline aortic thromboembolism 301(1)
Neutrophil granulation anomaly 301(1)
Ch馘iak-Higashi syndrome 301(1)
Clotting factor deficiencies 302(1)
Increased erythrocyte osmotic fragility 302(1)
Thymic aplasia 302(1)
Lysosomal storage diseases 302(1)
Hepatobiliary disease 303(1)
Extra-hepatic portosystemic shunt 303(1)
Amyloidosis 303(1)
Peliosis hepatica 303(1)
Hepatic lipidosis 303(1)
Reproductive tract 303(1)
Chromosomal abnormality 303(1)
Special senses 304(1)
Deafness 304(1)
Agenesis of third eyelid 304(1)
Cataracts 304(1)
Corneal dystrophy 304(1)
Dermoid 304(1)
Entropion 304(1)
Ectopic cilia 304(1)
Glaucoma 304(1)
Microphakia 304(1)
Nystagmus and strabismus 304(1)
Optic nerve hypoplasia/aplasia 305(1)
Retinal degeneration/atrophy 305(1)
Musculoskeletal 305(1)
Fold ears 305(1)
Hereditary myotonia 305(1)
Hereditary myopathy 305(1)
Hypokalaemic polymyopathy 305(1)
X-linked muscular dystrophy 305(1)
Myasthenia gravis 305(1)
Flat chested kittens 305(1)
Craniofacial abnormality 305(1)
Chondrodysplasia 306(1)
Hip dysplasia 306(1)
Patellar luxation 306(1)
Sacrocaudal dysgenesis 306(1)
Short tail 306(1)
Neurologic 306(1)
Hydrocephalus 306(1)
Hyperoxaluric neuropathy-axonopathy 306(1)
Hyperchylomicronaemia 306(1)
Spina bifida 306(1)
Vestibular disorders 306(1)
Sphingomyelinase deficiency 306(1)
Distal axonopathy 306(1)
Endocrine 307(1)
Diabetes mellitus 307(1)
Hyperparathyroidism 307(1)
Skin 307(4)
Alopecia universalis 307(1)
Hypotrichosis 307(1)
Rex mutant 307(1)
Cutaneous asthenia (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, 307(1)
dermatosparaxis)
Seborrhoea oleosa 307(4)
Section 5 Paediatrics and geriontology 311(12)
Paediatrics 313(6)
Major causes of kitten mortality 313(1)
Physiology 313(1)
Physical examination 313(2)
Evaluation 315(1)
Investigation of neonatal disease 315(1)
Treatment of neonatal disease 316(1)
Specific diseases affecting the neonate 317(1)
Neonatal isoerythrolysis 318(1)
Fading kittens 318(1)
Vaccination 318(1)
Geriontology 319(4)
When is a cat old? 319(1)
Effects of ageing 319(1)
Nutritional changes 319(1)
Nutritional needs 319(1)
Common diseases of old cats 320(1)
Assessment of geriatric cats 320(1)
Pharmacology and therapeutics 321(2)
Section 6 Therapeutics including chemotherapy 323(10)
Introduction 325(1)
Antimicrobials 325(2)
Fluroquinolone 325(1)
Chloramphenicol 325(1)
Tetracycline 325(1)
Potentiated sulphonamides 326(1)
Penicillins 326(1)
Aminoglycosides 326(1)
Lincosamides 326(1)
Metronidazole 326(1)
Analgesics and sedatives 327(1)
NSAIDs 327(1)
Toxicity 327(1)
Aspirin 327(1)
Carprofen 327(1)
Flunixin 327(1)
Ketoprofen 327(1)
Meloxicam 327(1)
Paracetamol 328(1)
Corticosteroids 328(1)
Side effects 328(1)
Cardioactive drugs 328(1)
Drug alterations in renal failure 328(1)
Drug alterations in hepatic insufficiency 329(1)
Chemotherapy 329(1)
Dose rates 329(1)
Immunosuppression 330(1)
Hydroxyurea 330(1)
Lymphoma 330(3)
Further reading 333(2)
Index 335