Sources of the Western Tradition : From Ancient Times to the Enlightenment 〈1〉 (5TH)

Sources of the Western Tradition : From Ancient Times to the Enlightenment 〈1〉 (5TH)

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Table of Contents

Preface                                            xi
Prologue xv
PART ONE: The Ancient World 1 (194)
The Near East 1 (25)
Mesopotamian Protest Against Death 3 (4)
Epic of Gilgamesh 4 (3)
A Pessimistic View of Life 7 (2)
Mesopotamian Wisdom Literature 7 (2)
Mesopotamian Concepts of Justice 9 (4)
Code of Hammurabi 10 (3)
Divine Kingship in Egypt 13 (2)
Hymns to the Pharaohs 13 (1)
Guidelines for the Ruler 14 (1)
Religious Inspiration of Akhenaten 15 (2)
Hymn to Aton 15 (2)
Love, Passion, and Misogyny in Ancient Egypt 17 (2)
Love Poetry 17 (1)
The Instruction of Ankhsheshonq 18 (1)
Empire Builders 19 (3)
The Assyrian Empire: Inscription of 19 (1)
Tiglathpileser I
The Persian Empire: Inscriptions of Cyrus 20 (2)
and Darius I
The Myth-making Outlook of the Ancient Near 22 (4)
East
Personification of Natural Objects 23 (1)
Lament for Ur: The Gods and Human Destiny 24 (2)
The Hebrews 26 (19)
Hebrew Cosmogony and Anthropology 28 (3)
Genesis 28 (3)
Human Sinfulness 31 (7)
Genesis: The Origins of Sin 31 (1)
Jeremiah: Sin and Suffering 32 (2)
Job: The Problem of Undeserved Suffering 34 (4)
The Covenant and the Ten Commandments 38 (1)
Exodus: The Covenant 38 (1)
Exodus: The Ten Commandments 38 (1)
Humaneness of Hebrew Law 39 (3)
Leviticus: Neighbor and Community 40 (1)
Deuteronomy: Judges, Witnesses, and 40 (2)
Justice
The Age of Classical Prophecy 42 (3)
Amos and Isaiah: Social Justice 42 (1)
Isaiah: Peace and Humanity 43 (2)
The Greeks 45 (54)
Homer: The Educator of Greece 48 (3)
Homer: The Iliad 49 (2)
Early Greek Philosophy: The Emancipation of 51 (3)
Thought from Myth
Aristotle: Thales of Miletus 51 (1)
Anaximander 52 (1)
Aristotle: Pythagoras 53 (1)
The Expansion of Reason 54 (3)
Hippocrates: The Sacred Disease: The 54 (1)
Separation of Medicine from Myth
Thucydides: Method of Historical Inquiry 55 (1)
Critias: Religion as a Human Invention 56 (1)
Humanism 57 (2)
Pindar: The Pursuit of Excellence 58 (1)
Sophocles: Lauding Human Talents 58 (1)
Greek Drama 59 (9)
Sophocles: Antigone 59 (6)
Aeschylus: The Persians 65 (3)
Athenian Greatness 68 (3)
Diodorus Siculus: ``The Grecians...Gained 68 (1)
an Everlasting Renown''
Thucydides: The Funeral Oration of 68 (3)
Pericles
The Status of Women in Classical Greek 71 (5)
Society
Euripides: Medea 71 (1)
Aristophanes: Lysistrata 72 (4)
Socrates: The Rational Individual 76 (4)
Plato: The Apology 76 (4)
Plato: The Philosopher-King 80 (6)
Plato: The Republic 80 (6)
Aristotle: Science, Politics, and Ethics 86 (4)
Aristotle: History of Animals, Politics, 86 (4)
and Nicomachean Ethics
Hellenistic Culture: Universalism and 90 (5)
Individualism
Plutarch: Cultural Fusion 91 (2)
Epicurus: Self Sufficiency 93 (2)
Greek Culture and the Jews in the 95 (4)
Hellenistic Age
First Book of Maccabees: Jewish 95 (1)
Resistance to Forced Hellenization
Philo of Alexandria: Appreciation of 96 (3)
Greek Culture and Syntheses of Reason and
Revelation
The Roman Republic 99 (27)
Rome's March to World Empire 100(6)
Polybius: The Roman Army 101(1)
Livy: The Second Punic War: The Threat 102(2)
from Hannibal
Appian of Alexandria: The Third Punic 104(2)
War: The Destruction of Carthage
The Spread of Greek Philosophy to Rome 106(7)
Lucretius: Denunciation of Religion 107(2)
Cicero: Advocate of Stoicism 109(2)
Cato the Elder: Hostility to Greek 111(2)
Philosophy
Roman Slavery 113(3)
Diodorus Siculus: Slaves: Torment and 113(3)
Revolt
Women in Republican Society 116(4)
Livy: Cato Protests Against the Demands 116(2)
of Roman Women
Quintus Lucretius Vespillo: A Funeral 118(2)
Eulogy for a Roman Wife
The Decline of the Republic 120(6)
Plutarch: Tiberius Gracchus 120(2)
Cicero: Justifying Caesar's Assassination 122(1)
Sallust: Moral Deterioration 123(3)
The Roman Empire 126(37)
The Imperial Office 128(3)
Augustus: The Achievements of the Divine 129(1)
Augustus
Tacitus: The Imposition of One-Man Rule 130(1)
Imperial Culture 131(4)
Virgil: The Aeneid 132(1)
Juvenal: The Satires 132(3)
Roman Stoicism 135(5)
Seneca: The Moral Epistles 135(3)
Marcus Aurelius: Meditations 138(2)
Roman Law 140(3)
Justinian: Corpus Iuris Civilis 141(2)
Provincial Administration 143(3)
Correspondence Between Pliny the Younger 143(3)
and Emperor Trajan
The Roman Peace 146(6)
Aelius Aristides: The Roman Oration: The 147(1)
Blessings of the Pax Romana
Josephus: The Jewish War: ``In Battle 148(2)
Nothing is Done without Plan''
Tacitus: The Other Side of the Pax Romana 150(2)
Third-Century Crisis 152(3)
Dio Cassius: Caracalla's Extortions 152(2)
Petition to Emperor Philip 154(1)
Herodian: Extortions of Maximinus 154(1)
The Demise of Rome 155(8)
Ammianus Marcellinus: The Battle of 156(3)
Adrianople
Salvian: Political and Social Injustice 159(2)
Jerome: The Fate of Rome 161(1)
Pope Gregory I: The End of Roman Glory 162(1)
Early Christianity 163(32)
The Teachings of Jesus 165(3)
The Gospel According to Saint Mark 165(1)
The Gospel According to Saint Matthew 166(2)
Saint Paul's View of Jesus, His Mission, 168(2)
and His Teaching
The Letter of Paul to the Ephesians 168(1)
The First Letter of Paul to the 169(1)
Corinthians
Christianity and Greco-Roman Learning 170(3)
Tertullian: What Has Jerusalem to Do with 171(1)
Athens?
Clement of Alexandria: In Defense of 172(1)
Greek Learning
The Persecutions 173(2)
Persecutions at Lyons and Vienne 173(2)
Monastic Life 175(6)
Saint Jerome: The Agony of Solitude in 176(1)
the Desert
Cassian of Marseilles: On the Dangers and 177(1)
Fruits of Solitude
Saint Benedict of Nursia: The Benedictine 178(3)
Rule
Christianity and Society 181(6)
Clement of Alexandria: Christ the Educator 182(2)
Saint Benedict of Nursia: The Christian 184(1)
Way of Life
Lactantius: Acquisitiveness As the Source 185(2)
of Evil
Christian Demonization of Jews 187(3)
Saint John Chrysostom: Discourses Against 188(2)
Judaizing Christians
The Christian World-View 190(5)
Saint Augustine: The City of God 191(4)
PART TWO: The Middle Ages 195(84)
The Early Middle Ages 195(24)
The Byzantine Cultural Achievement 197(4)
Theophylact Simocattes: The Value of 197(2)
Reason and History
Procopius: The Building of Saint Sophia 199(2)
Islam 201(3)
Muhammad: The Koran 201(3)
Islam and Greek Learning 204(3)
Avicenna: Love of Learning 205(2)
Converting the Germanic Peoples to 207(3)
Christianity
Saint Boniface: Sacred Mission to Germany 207(1)
Einhard: Forcible Conversion Under 208(2)
Charlemagne
The Transmission of Learning 210(2)
Cassiodorus: The Monk as Scribe 210(2)
The Carolingian Renaissance 212(3)
Einhard: Charlemagne's Appreciation of 212(1)
Learning
Charlemagne: An Injunction to Monasteries 213(2)
to Cultivate Letters
The Feudal Lord: Vassal and Warrior 215(4)
Galbert of Bruges: Commendation and the 215(1)
Oath of Fealty
Fulbert, Bishop of Chartres: Obligations 216(1)
of Lords and Vassals
Bertran de Born: In Praise of Combat 217(2)
The High and Late Middle Ages 219(60)
The Revival of Trade and the Growth of Towns 222(4)
How to Succeed in Business 222(2)
Ordinances of the Guild Merchant of 224(2)
Southampton
Theological Basis for Papal Power 226(3)
Pope Gregory VII: The Second Letter to 226(3)
Bishop Herman of Metz and the Dictatus
Papae
The First Crusade 229(4)
Robert the Monk: Appeal of Urban II to 230(1)
the Franks
William of Tyre: The Capture of Jerusalem 231(2)
Religious Dissent 233(4)
Bernard Gui: The Waldensian Teachings 234(2)
Emperor Frederick II: Heretics: Enemies 236(1)
of God and Humanity
Medieval Learning: Synthesis of Reason and 237(5)
Christian Faith
Peter Abelard: Inquiry into Divergent 238(1)
Views of Church Fathers
Saint Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica 239(3)
Medieval Universities 242(5)
John of Salisbury: On the Liberal Arts 242(1)
Geoffrey Chaucer: An Oxford Cleric 243(1)
Student Letters 244(1)
A Wandering Scholar: ``In the Tavern Let 245(2)
Me Die''
The Jews in the Middle Ages 247(5)
Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle: Massacre of 247(1)
the Jews of Mainz
A Decree by Pope Innocent III 248(1)
The Libel of Ritual Murder 249(1)
Maimonides: Jewish Learning 250(2)
Troubadour Love Songs 252(2)
Love as Joyous, Painful, and Humorous 252(2)
The Status of Women in Medieval Society 254(7)
Jacopone da Todi: Praise of the Virgin 255(1)
Mary ``O Thou Mother, Fount of Love''
Christine de Pisan: The City of Ladies 256(3)
A Merchant of Paris: On Love and Marriage 259(2)
Medieval Contributions to the Tradition of 261(3)
Liberty
John of Salisbury: Policraticus: A 261(1)
Defense of Tyrannicide
Magna Carta 262(2)
The Fourteenth Century: An Age of Adversity 264(7)
Jean de Venette: The Black Death 264(3)
Sir John Froissart: The Peasant Revolt of 267(2)
1381
Marsilius of Padua: Attack on the Worldly 269(2)
Power of the Church
The Medieval World-View 271(8)
Lothario dei Segni (Pope Innocent III): 272(1)
On the Misery of the Human Condition
The Vanity of This World 273(1)
Dante Alighieri: The Divine Comedy 274(5)
PART THREE: Early Modern Europe 279(159)
The Renaissance 279(25)
The Humanists' Fascination with Antiquity 281(7)
Petrarch: The Father of Humanism 282(1)
Leonardo Bruni: Study of Greek Literature 283(2)
and A Humanist Educational Program
Petrus Paulus Vergerius: The Importance 285(3)
of Liberal Studies
Human Dignity 288(3)
Pico della Mirandola: Oration on the 289(2)
Dignity of Man
Break with Medieval Political Theory 291(3)
Niccolo Machiavelli: The Prince 291(3)
Renaissance Art 294(4)
Leonardo da Vinci: Art and Science 295(3)
The Spread of the Renaissance 298(6)
Francois Rabelais: Celebration of the 298(3)
Worldly Life
William Shakespeare: Human Nature and the 301(3)
Human Condition
The Reformation 304(26)
A Catholic Critic of the Church 307(3)
Desiderius Erasmus: In Praise of Folly 307(3)
The Lutheran Reformation 310(4)
Martin Luther: On Papal Power, 310(4)
Justification by Faith, the
Interpretation of the Bible, and The
Nature of the Clergy
The German Peasants' Revolt 314(3)
The Twelve Articles 314(2)
Martin Luther: Against the Peasants 316(1)
Luther and the Jews 317(2)
Martin Luther: On the Jews and Their Lies 317(2)
The Calvinist Reformation 319(4)
John Calvin: The Institutes, 320(3)
Ecclesiastical Ordinances, and The
Obedience Owed Rulers
The Catholic Response to Protestantism 323(7)
Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent 324(3)
Saint Ignatius Loyola: The Spiritual 327(3)
Exercises
Early Modern Society and Politics 330(44)
The Age of Exploration and Conquest 332(5)
Bernal Diaz del Castillo: The Discovery 333(4)
and Conquest of Mexico
Toward the Modern Economy: The Example of 337(1)
Holland
William Carr: The Dutch East India Company 337(1)
The Jews of Spain and Portugal: Expulsion, 338(5)
Forced Conversion, Inquisition
Proceedings of the Spanish Inquisition: 339(2)
The Torture of Elvira del Campo
Damiao de Gois: The Forced Conversion of 341(2)
Portuguese Jews
The Atlantic Slave Trade 343(9)
Seventeenth-Century Slave Traders: Buying 344(2)
and Transporting Africans
John Newton: Thoughts upon the African 346(2)
Slave Trade
Malachy Postlethwayt: Slavery Defended 348(1)
Olaudah Equiano: Memoirs of a Former Slave 349(3)
The Witch Craze 352(6)
Jakob Sprenger and Heinrich Kramer: The 353(2)
Hammer of Witches
Johannes Junius: A Confession of 355(1)
Witchcraft Explained
Nicholas Malebranche: Search after Truth 356(2)
The Court of Louis XIV 358(6)
Duc de Saint-Simon: An Assessment of 358(3)
Louis XIV
Liselotte von der Pfalz (Elizabeth 361(3)
Charlotte d'Orleans): A Sketch of Court
Life
Justification of Absolute Monarchy by 364(4)
Divine Right
Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet: Politics 365(1)
Drawn from the Very Words of Holy
Scripture
James I: True Law of Free Monarchies and 366(2)
A Speech to Parliament
A Secular Defense of Absolutism 368(3)
Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan 368(3)
The Triumph of Constitutional Monarchy in 371(3)
England: The Glorious Revolution
The English Declaration of Rights 372(2)
The Scientific Revolution 374(23)
The Copernican Revolution 377(4)
Nicolaus Copernicus: 0n the Revolutions 377(3)
of the Heavenly Spheres
Cardinal Bellarmine: Attack on the 380(1)
Copernican Theory
Expanding the New Astronomy 381(2)
Galileo Galilei: The Starry Messenger 381(2)
Critique of Authority 383(4)
Galileo Galilei: Letter to the Grand 384(3)
Duchess Christina and Dialogue Concerning
the Two Chief World Systems-Ptolemaic and
Copernican
Prophet of Modern Science 387(3)
Francis Bacon: Attack on Authority and 388(2)
Advocacy of Experimental Science
The Autonomy of the Mind 390(3)
Rene Descartes: Discourse on Method 390(3)
The Mechanical Universe 393(4)
Isaac Newton: Principia Mathematica 394(3)
The Enlightenment 397(41)
The Enlightenment Outlook 399(2)
Immanuel Kant: What Is Enlightenment? 399(2)
Political Liberty 401(3)
John Locke: Second Treatise on Government 401(2)
Thomas Jefferson: Declaration of 403(1)
Independence
Attack on the Old Regime 404(4)
Voltaire: A Plea for Tolerance and Reason 405(3)
Attack on Religion 408(4)
Thomas Paine: The Age of Reason 409(1)
Baron d'Holbach: Good Sense 410(2)
Epistemology and Education 412(8)
John Locke: Essay Concerning Human 412(2)
Understanding
John Locke: Some Thoughts Concerning 414(2)
Education
Claude Helvetius: Essays on the Mind and 416(2)
A Treatise on Man
Jean Jacques Rousseau: Emile 418(2)
Compendium of Knowledge 420(2)
Denis Diderot: Encyclopedia 420(2)
Rousseau: Political Reform 422(4)
Jean Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract 423(3)
Judicial and Penal Reform 426(4)
Caesare Beccaria: On Crimes and 426(2)
Punishments
John Howard: Prisons in England and Wales 428(2)
Questioning European Values 430(3)
Denis Diderot: Supplement to the Voyage 430(3)
of Bouganville
Slavery Condemned 433(5)
Denis Diderot: Encyclopedia ``Men and 433(1)
Their Liberty are Not Objects of
Commerce''
Marquis de Condorcet: The Evils of Slavery 434(1)
John Wesley: Thoughts upon Slavery 435(3)
On the Progress of Humanity 438(1)
Marquis de Condorcet: Progress of the 438
Human Mind