Hegel's Logic : A Book on the Genesis of the Categories of the Mind, a Critical Exposition

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Hegel's Logic : A Book on the Genesis of the Categories of the Mind, a Critical Exposition

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 403 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780548131961
  • DDC分類 150

Table of Contents

    Philosophy and Its Problem                     1  (21)
Distinctions between science, art,
religion and philosophy
enigma of the world the problem of evil
how a perfect being can create what is
imperfect
Oriental solution denies the real
existence of evil
the world is an illusion
Greek thought sees in the world a
manifestation of divine reason
Christian thought finally explains
imperfection through the procession of
the Third Divine Person
religion a sort of institutional thinking
philosophy a product of the thinking of
individuals, free and without obedience
to authority
the contents of Hegel's great works
his logic a discussion of the genesis of
the categories of the mind
Why these categories must be regarded as
objective laws of being, as well as
subjective forms of knowing
The Greek and German Philosophical 22 (23)
Principles
Hegel the first to unite the Greek
ontological results with the German
psychological results
Aristotle's selfactive Reason at the
basis of Christian theology
What Plato meant by ``Idea;''
Fichte and Schelling give it the name of
subject-objectivity
The real significance of Kant's labors
the Greek solution turns on the idea of
causality
Aristotle's four causes
ancient skepticism doubts the existence
of objects
modern skepticism doubts our ability to
know objects as they are
ancient skepticism objective, modern
subjective
nominalism the beginning of modern
skepticism
Aristote's ``entelechy,'' and Plato's
``Idea'' the same as Hegel's ``Begriff''
or self-activity
Hegel's ``Idee'' what Aristotle calls a
``second entelechy'' and Leibnitz the
``Monad of monads''
Scholasticism arose to refute Moslem
pantheism
adopts Aristotle's thought
how Christianity is the germ that at
length produces subjectivity, at first as
skepticism in nominalism and Hume's
philosophy, and next as philosophy of the
absolute in Kant and Hegel
Kant's subjective skepticism so
thoroughgoing that it refutes itself and
becomes a basis for objective ontology
Hegel's Education and the Influence of His 45 (12)
Contemporaries Upon Him
Early influences
discipleship of Schelling
study of Greek literature
Schelling's constructive efforts in
interpreting the deep thoughts of the
mystics
His insight into the substantiality of
nature, which Fichte denied
nature and mind the two poles and the
Absolute Reason the identity
Hegel adopts this view
Hegel's Voyage of Discovery---Thing, Force, 57 (17)
Law
When Schelling deserted his doctrine that
Absolute Reason is the identity of nature
and mind, and adopted the view that the
absolute is an empty infinite devoid of
the characteristics of mind and nature,
Hegel separated from him and continued to
hold the doctrine of Reason as the
Absolute
The Phenomenology his first work as
independent thinker
Analysis of the Phenomenology
Sense-certitude
Perception
How the unity and variety in things is to
be explained
Different hypotheses rejected and the
idea of Force substituted for Thing as a
more adequate conception of the reality
The dialectic of Force
Each force needs another to incite it
Inciting and incited forces make a system
of which the internal truth is law
Self-differentiation and
self-identification the truth at the
bottom of the ideas of force and law
Self-activity, therefore, the
presupposition of all being
How Schelling came to lose this insight
Spinoza's Substance compared with Hegel's
Begriff
Voyage of Discovery Continued---Begriff or 74 (8)
Self-Activity
Correlation of forces and the idea of law
Law presupposes self-activity
The use of the word Begriff or notion for
self-activity misleading
with the insight into self-activity as
the essence of the objective world,
consciousness has become
self-conseiousness
Voyage of Discovery Continued---The Ethical 82 (21)
World
Self-consciousness manifests itself in
history first by life and death
struggles, out of which emerges the in
stitution of dominion and servitude
the slave takes refuge in his inner self
and formulates ethical codes
out of an insight into ethics there grows
a higher consciousness of the rationality
of the world
the first step of insight into objective
Reason is the interest in nature which
observes and experiments
Happiness, philanthropy, and virtue
the establishment of institutious by man
Hegel treats as the realization of
spirit, i.e. the realization of a higher
self than the individual
distinction between self-consciousness,
Reason, and Spirit
Spirit or the personality of the social
whole utters its will in the form of
ethical and social laws and customs, and
requires education to prepare for it
The individual is cultured by
self-estrangement, he puts off his
natural impulses and puts on habits of
acting and thinking according to ethical
forms, customs and usages
culture enables him to see the
rationality of the ethical
but at first it destroys external
authority and leads to revolution
the reign of terror
reaction in mysticism
Voyage of Discovery Continued---Religion 103(6)
Religion a higher activity of the soul
personal relation to the Absolute
Sketch of the history of religion
evolution from nature-religion through
art-religion to revealed religion or the
religion that teaches that the Absolute
reveals himself to his creatures and
lifts them up into communion with himself
The doctrine of the Logos
God's knowing is willing or creating
The Logos creates the processio by
recognizing his own derivation
Christianity reveals an absolute entirely
ethical
Voyage of Discovery Concluded---Absolute 109(13)
Knowing
Since God's knowing is creating, the
highest form of the human mind must be
absolute knowing
Defect of symbolic expression
Philosophic form of knowing
the religion of a revealed God
presupposes in man the power of knowing
the absolute
agnosticism presupposes pantheism
it sets up an absolute devoid of
attributes
revealed religion teaches a personal
absolute
The nature of comprehension
Hegel's Method 122(5)
Hegel's method, that of tracing out the
result of selfactivity, which is his
first principle
Cause contains as its nucleus, self
activity
So does correlation of forces
The pantheistic idea of substance is the
second stage of thought and inseparable
from the idea of the relativity of all
things
but subjeet is the true substance
according to Hegel
The absolute is a Person
Pure Thought---Trendelenburg's Objections 127(10)
The beginning of Hegel's logic with the
most elementary pure thought
this is being, and all experience is a
further determination of this idea
Trendelenburg objects that Hegel names
the ideas of pure thought by familiar
words
two parallel lines of thought, one of
deduction and the other of recognition of
what is deduced as identical with the
contents of experience
Trendel enburg therefore points out only
an act of identifying pure thought
results as the explanation of experience,
but does not disprove pure thought itself
The Three categories of Hegel's Logic---An 137(9)
Outline of Pure Thought
Being (Seyn), essence (Wesen), Idea
(Idee), the three great categories of
Hegel's Logic
immediateness, mediation, absolute
mediation
isolated independence, dependence and
relativity, concrete independence and
self relation
empty indeterminateness, determination
through others, self-determination
mediation makes immediateness possible
the true being is self mediated
the lower categories not adequate to
express this truth
theosophy, correlation of forces
Emerson's Brahma
idea is self-activity
the Logos
the Trinity
Hegel's Absolute As the True Beginning of 146(6)
His System
Three beginnings to a system of philosophy
being and thought are one in God's knowing
Hegel reached the insight into
self-activity as the first principle of
all things before he could begin his
system
Analysis of Hegel's Begriff or Notion As 152(14)
Self-Activity---Universal, Particular and
Singular
Self-activity contains the phase of
universality as self determining, and
that of particularity as self-determined
it is individual as a whole, or as
particular elevated into universality
negative unity
the true actuality is not mere reality,
but reality plus all its possibilities
not yet realized
Plato's ``Ideas'' are true actualities of
this kind
Aristotle's ``entelechies'' the same
the relation of Hegel's thought to
Aristotle's
self-activity recognized in the forms of
nutrition, sensation, locomotion,
thought, volition
Plato's ``self-motion''
Aristotle's ``active reason''
why the faculties of sense perception and
memory perish
the outcome of pure thought is the idea
of God
analysis of the idea of true personal
individuality
explanation of the dual categories, such
as cause and effect, thing and
properties, by self-relation
Determinateness As Quality---Being 166(16)
The simplest possible thought, that of
pure being
Hegel's definition of it as utter
indeterminateness and emptiness identical
with pure naught
thought thinking its own form devoid of
content
naught and being merely two words for the
same empty idea
Hence the paradox of Hegel's idea of
becoming as the unity of being and naught
becoming requires differences as well as
identity, and this difference Hegel fails
to show
an attempt to show the real insight
involved here
the true thought of pure being is
self-antithesis or becoming
Plato's statement of the dialectic
the moments of the becoming are beginning
and ceasing rather than being and naught,
and hence becoming cancels itself and
determinate being results
Reflection on the Method of Hegel's First 182(4)
Chapter
Hegel's beginning (pure being) is not a
first principle but the farthest removed
possible from it
Whatever is proved true of pure thought
must be true of objective realizations of
it
the categories at the beginning are
annuled throught their own contradictions
they have no ``valid sphere''
these logical categories not God's
thought, but the human process of rising
to the thought of the absolute
God's thought the Trinity
The Category of Determinate Being or Quality 186(6)
Reality and negation, the two threads of
determinate being
each as containing the other is a
somewhat opposed to another
Somewhat as the first negaqtion of
negation
Hegel's repudiation of abstact
indeterminate universals
his ``absolute'' an individual or
peraonal being
Finitude 192(10)
Dependence implies finitude or relativity
quality is the form of being in which
somewhat depends on the other, and the
other on another
the subordinate categories of Being-in
itself and being-for-other,
characteristic distinction, limit
destination, restraint and ought
why Hegel discriminates so many
sub-categories in this place
Outline of the dialectic process from
pure being to being for-itself
Infinitude 202(5)
The infinite is the union of the somewhat
and the other so that somewhat is its own
other
Plato the first to discover the solution
of the problem of the category of quality
or finitude
self-activity solves all its conditions
infinitude is the quality of being
for-itself, i. e. of independent being
the infinite not empty of relations but
self-related
dialectice transition from dependent
being to independent being
quantity
Being-For-Itself 207(5)
Every whole a being for itself or
independent
also a self-activity
how the idea of one-ness arises
negative unity
what Hegel means by ``being-for-one''
one of many
each one composed of ones
quantity is an aggregate of ones, each
unit being also an aggregate
The Finite and The Infinite---A Commentary 212(16)
on Hegel's Discussion of These Ideas
The ``other;'' ``in-itself;'' Hegel's
order of treating the categories
finitude
agnosticism
Hegel's verbal quibbles
the ought and the restraint
destination and actual condition
the ``ought'' implies a synthesis of
somewhat and other or the infinite
idenality a very important category
the crratum in Hegel's text---identitat
for ideclitat
Being for Itself---A Commentary on Hegel's 228(14)
Discussion
The dialectic of being is a progression
from being and naught as the extremes of
a dualism to the insight whcih sees the
negative to be only the activit
self-determination
being-for-one
ideality of the qualitative moments
explanation of six moments that
constitute the idea of the One according
to Hegel
why these six moments appear as
independent and coordinate
they constitute an analysis of
self-activity
the atom and the void
Hegel's use of the terms repulsion and
attraction misleading
divisibility essential to quantity
Quantity 242(15)
Schelling's dictum, all determination is
quantitative
in what sense it is true
review of the dialectical progress from
being to quantity
the sub-categories of quantity
tautological definitions of quantity
the contents of Hegel's fourteen
extensive notes on quantity
full discussion of his note on the
Kantian antinomy of the limitation of the
world in time and space
Kant's antinomy rather that of infinitude
of space than of the world in space
not a real antinomy after all, for its
thesis and antithesis presuppose the same
thought
The Relation of Quantity to Quality 257(18)
Elucidated
Quantity the union of attraction and
repulsion in the sense that Hegel uses
these terms
attraction the predominance of ideality,
and repulsion the predominance of
``reflection-into-itself''
quantity is self-deter-mination with the
self left out
the dialectic that leads out of quality
to quantity really leads to the absolute
idea at once---from the finite to the
infinite, as Plato and Aristotle saw
Hegel takes next the most immediate phase
of self-determined being and finds it to
be quantity
three points of view in which Hegel
treats each category
what ``indifference'' means with Hegel
nominalism and realism
the general name stands for the
determining process, and not for the
particular individual nor for the
abstract class
the true actuality is this determining
process
the deeper meaning of quantity as the
most abstract concept of
subject-objectivity or self-consciousness
the Logos thinks the processio as
beginning with empty space and time
quantity the form of self-determination
without the substance of it
continuity and discreteness
sum and unity
arithmetical processes explained
extensive and intensive quantity
dialectic of the transition from
extensive to intensive quantity seemingly
a verbal quibble
the real thought underlying it, not
stated by Hegel
Quantitative Ratio And The Higher 275(6)
Mathematical Analysis
The differences between Hegel's two
expositions of quantity---the large logic
compared with the small logic of the
Eneyclopædia
quantitative ratio the highest form of
quantity
constituent units, sum of these units and
including unity the three moments of
quantity
the limit of extensive quantity the sum,
but the constituent units the limit of
degree
hence degree is qualitative unity
Hegel ought to have placed intensive
before extensive quantity
maxima and minima
quantitative ratio
ratio of powers
measure
Measure 281(15)
Measure the union of quantity and quality
in such manner that the increase or
decrease of quantity changes the quality
Hegel's logical procedure ascends and
draws up the ladder after it
not pure being but absolute personality
is the basis
measure expresses better than quality or
quantity what the latter are intended to
express
Darwin's idea of evolution by survival of
the fittest, by reaction against
environment, has revolutionized natural
science
the moments of measure are quantitative
ratios
these moments must also be measures, and
hence a series of measures arises
how measure develops its contradiction,
and the measureless results
resume of the entire dialectic of Being
Essence 296(73)
Essence is the idea of universal
relativity
everything entirely dependent on
something else
everything a phenomenon
Hegel writes this logic from the
standpoint of the Absolute Idea
pantheistic religions assume essence as
the highest principle
essence the formless absolute
Brahma
pure being versus essence
the twelve Nidanas of Buddhism
the dialectical origin of essence
the sub-categories of essence
the changes made by Hegel in their order
in the Eneyclopædia
the changes concern the words that name
the successive thoughts rather than the
thoughts themselves
Reflection as the Key To Hegel's Dialectic 309(20)
Appearance and refiection-into-itself
the dialectic a process of finding
presuppositions
categories of essence negative and the
source of skeptieism
Reflection as positing, as external, and
as determining
its treatment in the small logic
return-to-self or self-relation the form
of being
the positing reflection
its subtlety
Hegel's great merit that he gains a
complete insight into the movement of
reflection
his forerunners
the difference between positing and
presupposing reflection
external reflection separates positing
from presupposing reflection
``plain common sense'' uses this point of
view
how reflection-into-self produces
identity and difference
determining reflection
how it arises from the dialectic of
external reflection
resume of this subtle discussion which is
the key to Hegel's entire logic
The Category of Causality 329(20)
Identity, difference, contrariety,
contradiction
Hegel's confused way of speaking of
contradiction and the excluded middle
ground or substrate
form and content
condition and conditioned
exposition in the small logic
phenomenon
thing and force
actuality as the union of teh internal
and external
necessity the union of possibility and
reality
the essence of the causal relation is
self-activity
necessity or fate
reciprocal action
causa sui
self activity is the presupposition of
essence
The Formal logic Notion And Judgment 349(11)
The third volume of the logic treats of
self-activity or Begriff
this is the ego
the notion as universal, particular and
singular
judgments of detrminate being, of
reflection, of necessity, of the notion
(1) positive, (2)negative, (3) infinite
(1) singular, (2) Particular, (3)
universal
(1) Categorical, (2) problematic, (3)
apodictic
Rosenkranz's Classification
Formal Logic Continued---The Syllogism 360(18)
Deduction of the syllogistic figures
the major premise of the first figure
proved by the third figure, and the minor
premise by the second figure
the syllogisms of reflection express the
quantity of mediation
the syllogisms of necessity express the
totality of determination or
self-determination
the syllogism as clew to the
psychological process of sense-perception
it beings with the second figure,
recognizing the class of the object
uses next the first figure suggesting
what is previously known of the class for
verification in the object before us
the third figure forms gneral terms
it subdivides more abstract and vague
classes by adding new characteristics
which further determine the single
general class into new sub-classes
the syllogism is the form of all
self-acivity
Objectivity 378(12)
The subject is its own object in
self-activity
Platonic thought of the Logos the clew to
Hegel's doctrine of objectivity
St. Athanasius and contemporaries on the
relation of the Logos to creation of the
world
the processio
Dante and St. Thomas on the processio
Hegel's mistake of the processio for the
Logos
St. Anselm's proof of the existence of God
the totality as both objective and
subjective
we cannot have an idea iwth out thinking
it in relation to its complement, the
residue of being, and the total of these
two or the absolute
mechanism as the lowest form of
objectivity
explained as the duality of
self-detrmination with its unity omittd
space and time
gravitation and revolutin about a centre
the first appearance of the unity implied
chemism, as chemism, as meaning the
mutual relation of contrastd elements,
reveals the unity in the form of blind
affinity
but teleology reveals the unity as pur
pose or end, as ideal totality
The Idea As Personality 390
The objective that is also subjective is
living individual being---plants,
animals, men
the union of subjectivity and objectivity
in the individual is called idea by Hegel
its lowest, immediate, form is life
its higher form is will and intellect
the union of intellect and will so that
self-knowing is the creation of anothr
(the Logos) gives us the absolute Idea,
the final goal ofthis logic of pur thought
principle, method and system
definition, classification, theorem
the formal discussion of exposition
misleads Hegel's disciples as to the
nature of his absolute
quotations showing that his absolute is
personal being---``free subjective
self-activity possessing personality''
``the relation of the Absolute Idea to
nature
goodness loves to participate or share
with others
hence creation
the absolute gives existence and freedon
to its other in the form of nature
Nature a process of evolution of spirit
particular spirits unite in the Invisible
Church, and the spirit of the whole is
the absolute personality of the absolute
institution
critieism on Hegel's view of nature as
the Logos rather than as the processio of
the Spirit
why the dialectic stops with the absolute
Idea and does not lead also to nature
it stops because the Idea is its own
other, perfect subject and perfect object
in nature there is neither perfect object
nor perfect subject to be found
hence there can be no fatalism in this
theory, although it involves logical
necessity
fatalism is ontolgocial necessity or
extrnal necessity
the necessity of the absolute to be a
person and subject-object is only a
logical necessity
the method of the Absolute Idea to impart
its being through grace to new
individuals unceasingly created, who,
though they being to be, yet never cease
to be, but are immortal