Primitive Culture : Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art and Custom 〈1〉

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Primitive Culture : Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art and Custom 〈1〉

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  • Kessinger Pub(2007/07発売)
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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 502 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780548128213
  • DDC分類 301

Table of Contents

    The Science of Culture                         1  (25)
Culture or Civilization
Its phenomena related according to
definite Laws
Method of classification and discussion
of the evidence
Connexion of successive stages of culture
by Permanence, Modification, and Survival
Principal topics examined in the present
work
The Development of Culture 26 (44)
State of culture, industrial,
intellectual, political, moral
Development of culture in great measure
corresponds with transition from savage
through barbaric to civilized life
Progression-theory
Degeneration-theory
Development-theory includes both, the one
as primary, the other as secondary
Historical and traditional evidence not
available as to low stages of culture
Historical evidence as to principles of
Degeneration
Ethnological evidence as to rise and fall
in culture, from comparison of different
levels of culture in branches of the same
race
Extent of historically recorded antiquity
of civilization
Prehistoric Archæology extends the
antiquity of man in low stages of
civilization
Traces of Stone Age, corroborated by
megalithic structures, lake-dwellings,
shell-heaps, burial-places, &c., prove
original low culture throughout the world
Stages of Progressive Development in
industrial arts
Survival in Culture 70 (42)
Survival and Superstition
Children's games
Games of chance
Traditional sayings
Nursery poems
Proverbs
Riddles
Significance and survival in Customs:
sneezing-formula, rite of
foundation-sacrifice, prejudice against
saving a drowning man
Survival in Culture (continued) 112(48)
Occult Sciences
Magical powers attributed by higher to
lower races
Magical processes based on Association of
Ideas
Omens
Augury, &c.
Oneiromancy
Haruspication, Scapulimancy, Chiromancy,
&c
Cartomancy, &c.
Rhabdomancy, Dactyliomancy, Coscinomancy,
&c.
Astrology
Intellectual conditions accounting for
the persistence of Magic
Survival passes into Revival
Witchcraft, originating in savage
culture, continues in barbaric
civilization; its decline in early
mediæval Europe followed by
revival; its practices and
counter-practices belong to earlier
culture
Spiritualism has its source in early
stages of culture, in close connexion
with witchcraft
Spirit-rapping and Spirit-writing
Rising in the air
Performances of tied mediums
Practical bearing of the study of Survival
Emotional and Imitative Language 160(40)
Element of directly expressive Sound in
Language
Test by independent correspondence in
distinct languages
Constituent processes of Language
Gesture
Expression of feature, &c.
Emotional Tone
Articulate sounds, vowels determined by
musical quality and pitch, consonants
Emphasis and Accent
Phrase-melody, Recitative
Sound-words
Interjections
Calls to Animals
Emotional Cries
Sense-words formed from Interjections
Affirmative and Negative particles, &c.
Emotional and Imitative Language (continued) 200(40)
Imitative Words
Human actions named from sound
Animals' names from cries, &c.
Musical Instruments
Sounds reproduced
Words modified to adapt sound to sense
Reduplication
Graduation of vowels to express distance
and difference
Children's Language
Sound-words as related to Sense-words
Language an original product of the lower
Culture
The Art of Counting 240(33)
Ideas of Number derived from experience
State of Arithmetic among uncivilized
races
Small extent of Numeral-words among low
tribes
Counting by fingers and toes
Hand-numerals show derivation of Verbal
reckoning from Gesture-counting
Etymology of Numerals
Quinary, Decimal, and Vigesimal notations
of the world derived from counting on
fingers and toes
Adoption of foreign Numeral-words
Evidence of development of Arithmetic
from a low original level of Culture
Mythology 273(43)
Mythic fancy based, like other thought,
on Experience
Mythology affords evidence for studying
laws of Imagination
Change in public opinion as to
credibility of Myths
Myths rationalized into Allegory and
History
Ethnological import and treatment of Myth
Myth to be studied in actual existence
and growth among modern savages and
barbarians
Original sources of Myth
Early doctrines of general animation of
Nature
Personification of Sun, Moon, and Stars;
Water-spout, Sand-pillar, Rainbow,
Waterfall, Pestilence
Analogy worked into Myth and Metaphor
Myths of Rain, Thunder, &c.
Effect of Language in formation of Myth
Material Personification primary, Verbal
Personification secondary
Grammatical Gender, male and female,
animate and inanimate, in relation to Myth
Proper names of objects in relation to
Myth
Mental State proper to promote mythic
imagination
Doctrine of Werewolves
Phantasy and Fancy
Mythology (continued) 316(52)
Nature-myths, their origin, canon of
interpretation, preservation of original
sense and significant names
Nature-myths of upper savage races
compared with related forms among
barbaric and civilized nations
Heaven and Earth as Universal Parents
Sun and Moon: Eclipse and Sunset, as Hero
or Maiden swallowed by Monster; Rising of
Sun from Sea and Descent to Under-World;
Jaws of Night and Death, Symplegades; Eye
of Heaven, Eye of Odin and the Graiæ
Sun and Moon as mythic civilizers
Moon, her inconstancy, periodical death
and revival
Stars, their generation
Constellations, their place in Mythology
and Astronomy
Wind and Tempest
Thunder
Earthquake
Mythology (continued) 368(49)
Philosophical Myths: inferences become
pseudo-history
Geological Myths
Effect of doctrine of Miracles on
Mythology
Magnetic Mountain
Myths of relation of Apes to Men by
development or degeneration
Ethnological import of myths of Ape-men,
Men with tails, Men of the woods
Myths of Error, Perversion, and
Exaggeration: stories of Giants, Dwarfs,
and Monstrous Tribes of men
Fanciful explanatory Myths
Myths attached to legendary or historical
Personages
Etymological Myths on names of places and
persons
Eponymic Myths on names of tribes,
nations, countries, &c.; their
ethnological import
Pragmatic Myths by realization of
metaphors and ideas
Allegory
Beast-Fable
Conclusion
Animism 417
Religious ideas generally appear among
low races of Mankind
Negative statements on this subject
frequently misleading and mistaken: many
cases uncertain
Minimum definition of Religion
Doctrine of Spiritual Beings, here termed
Animism
Animism treated as belonging to Natural
Religion
Animism divided into two sections, the
philosophy of Souls, and of other Spirits
Doctrine of Souls, its prevalence and
definition among the lower races
Definition of Apparitional Soul or
Ghost-Soul
It is a theoretical conception of
primitive Philosophy, designed to account
for phenomena now classed under Biology,
especially Life and Death, Health and
Disease, Sleep and Dreams, Trance and
Visions
Relation of Soul in name and nature to
Shadow, Blood, Breath
Division or Plurality of Souls
Soul cause of Life; its restoration to
body when supposed absent
Exit of Soul in Trances
Dreams and Visions: theory of exit of
dreamer's or seer's own soul; theory of
visits received by them from other souls
Ghost-Soul seen in Apparitions
Wraiths and Doubles
Soul has form of Body; suffers mutilation
with it
Voice of Ghost
Soul treated and defined as of Material
Substance; this appears to be the
original doctrine
Transmission of Souls to service in
future life by Funeral Sacrifice of
wives, attendants, &c.
Souls of Animals
Their transmission by Funeral Sacrifice
Souls of Plants
Souls of Objects
Their transmission by Funeral Sacrifice
Relation of Doctrine of Object-Souls to
Epicurean theory of Ideas
Historical development of Doctrine of
Souls, from the Ethereal Soul of
primitive Biology to the Immaterial Soul
of modern Theology