Sociology of Health, Illness and Health Care -- Hardback (3 Rev ed)

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Sociology of Health, Illness and Health Care -- Hardback (3 Rev ed)

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Table of Contents

Preface                                            xvii
PART ONE Social Factors and Illness 1 (114)
CHAPTER 1 Introduction 3 (14)
The Sociology of Health, Illness, and 4 (1)
Health Care: An Overview
The Sociological Perspective 5 (3)
A Critical Approach 8 (2)
Chapter Organization 10 (1)
A Note on Sources 11 (3)
Printed Sources 11 (2)
Internet Sources 13 (1)
BOX 1.1: Useful Internet Sources 14 (1)
Suggested Readings 14 (1)
Review Questions 14 (1)
Internet Exercises 15 (2)
CHAPTER 2 The Social Sources of Illness 17 (34)
An Introduction to Epidemiology 18 (2)
A Brief History of Disease 20 (12)
The European Background 20 (2)
Disease in the New World 22 (1)
The Epidemiological Transition 22 (3)
The New Rise in Infectious Disease 25 (2)
BOX 2.1: The Threat of Bioterrorism 27 (4)
The Modern Disease Profile 31 (1)
The Social Sources of Premature Deaths 32 (15)
Tobacco 35 (2)
Alcohol 37 (1)
Diet and Exercise 38 (1)
Microbial Agents 39 (1)
Toxic Agents 40 (1)
Firearms 41 (1)
BOX 2.2: Making a Difference: Physicians 42 (1)
for Social Responsibility
Sexual Behavior 43 (1)
Motor Vehicles 44 (1)
Illicit Drugs 45 (1)
BOX 2.3: Ethical Debate: Is Drug Testing 46 (1)
in Schools and the Workplace Ethically
Justifiable?
Conclusions 47 (1)
Suggested Readings 48 (1)
Getting Involved 48 (1)
Review Questions 49 (1)
Internet Exercises 49 (2)
CHAPTER 3 The Social Distribution of Illness 51 (34)
in the United States
Age 52 (3)
Overview 52 (1)
Case Study: Prostate Cancer and Aging in 53 (2)
Men
Sex 55 (3)
Overview 55 (1)
Case Study: Woman Battering as a Health 56 (2)
Problem
Social Class 58 (7)
The Impact of Social Class on Health 58 (1)
The Sources of Class Differences in Health 59 (4)
Case Study: Health Among the Homeless 63 (2)
Race and Ethnicity 65 (17)
African Americans 66 (4)
Hispanics 70 (2)
BOX 3.1: Ethical Debate: How Should We 72 (3)
Allocate Scarce Health Resources?
Native Americans 75 (1)
Asian Americans 76 (1)
BOX 3.2: The Indian Health Service 77 (2)
Case Study: Environmental Racism 79 (2)
Box 3.3: Making a Difference: The Center 81 (1)
for Health, Environment and Justice
Conclusions 82 (1)
Suggested Readings 82 (1)
Getting Involved 82 (1)
Review Questions 83 (1)
Internet Exercises 83 (2)
CHAPTER 4 Illness in the Developing Nations 85 (30)
Disease Patterns Around the World 86 (3)
The Sources and Nature of Disease in the 89 (22)
Developing Nations
Poverty, Malnutrition, and Disease 89 (3)
Infectious and Parasitic Diseases 92 (4)
Box 4.1: War and Health 96 (4)
Infant Mortality 100 (4)
Box 4.2: Ethical Debate: The Ethics of 104 (2)
Sex Preselection
Box 4.3: Making a Difference: Freedom 106 (2)
from Hunger
Maternal Mortality 108 (1)
Respiratory Diseases 109 (1)
BOX 4.4: Female Circumcision 110 (1)
Conclusions 111 (2)
Suggested Readings 113 (1)
Getting Involved 113 (1)
Review Questions 114 (1)
Internet Exercises 114 (1)
PART TWO The Meaning and Experience of Illness 115 (106)
CHAPTER 5 The Social Meanings of Illness 117 (30)
Models of Illness 118 (9)
The Sociological Model of Illness 118 (2)
Explaining Illness 120 (4)
The Medical Model of Illness 124 (3)
Medicine as Social Control 127 (16)
Creating Illness: Medicalization 127 (7)
Box 5.1: Ethical Debate: Medical Social 134 (3)
Control and Fetal Rights
Social Control and the Human Genome 137 (3)
Project
Social Control and the Sick Role 140 (3)
Conclusions 143 (1)
Suggested Readings 144 (1)
Getting Involved 144 (1)
Review Questions 144 (1)
Internet Exercises 144 (3)
CHAPTER 6 The Experience of Chronic Illness 147 (36)
and Disability
Understanding Disability 148 (8)
Defining Disability 148 (2)
People with Disabilities as a Minority 150 (4)
Group
Box 6. l: Making a Difference: Disability 154 (1)
Rights Advocates
The Social Distribution of Disability 155 (1)
Living with Chronic Illness and Disability 156 (23)
Initial Symptoms and Diagnosis 158 (1)
BOX 6.2: Ethical Debate: Advertising 158 (5)
Drugs Direct to Consumers
Responding to Illness or Injury 163 (1)
Interruptions, Intrusions, and Immersions 164 (1)
Managing Health Care and Treatment 165 (6)
Regimens
Dealing with Service Agencies 171 (1)
BOX 6.3: American Sign Language and the 172 (2)
Education of Deaf Children
Illness, Disabilities, and Social 174 (1)
Relationships
Managing Stigma 174 (3)
The Body and the Self 177 (2)
Conclusions 179 (1)
Suggested Readings 179 (1)
Getting Involved 180 (1)
Review Questions 180 (1)
Internet Exercises 180 (3)
CHAPTER 7 The Sociology of Mental Illness 183 (38)
The Epidemiology of Mental Illness 184 (5)
The Extent of Mental Illness 184 (1)
The Distribution of Mental Illness 185 (1)
Box 7.1: Diagnostic Criteria for 186 (3)
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Defining Mental Illness 189 (7)
The Medical Model of Mental Illness 189 (1)
The Sociological Model of Mental Illness 190 (2)
The Problem of Diagnosis 192 (1)
The Politics of Diagnosis 193 (3)
A History of Treatment 196 (15)
Before the Scientific Era 196 (1)
The Rise of Moral Treatment 197 (1)
The Decline of Moral Treatment 198 (2)
Freud and Psychoanalysis 200 (2)
The Antipsychiatry Critique 202 (1)
Deinstitutionalization 203 (5)
The Remedicalization of Mental Illness 208 (2)
The Rise of Managed Care 210 (1)
The Experience of Mental Illness 211 (6)
Becoming a Mental Patient 211 (4)
The Post-Patient Experience 215 (1)
Box 7.2: Ethical Debate: Confidentiality 216 (1)
and the Duty to Warn
Conclusions 217 (1)
Suggested Readings 218 (1)
Getting Involved 218 (1)
Review Questions 218 (1)
Internet Exercises 219 (2)
PART THREE Health Care Systems and Settings 221 (98)
CHAPTER 8 The U.S. Health Care System and the 223 (28)
Need for Reform
Health Insurance in the United States 224 (10)
Blue Cross and Blue Shield 225 (1)
Commercial Insurance 226 (1)
The Rise of HMOs 226 (1)
The Changing Structure of HMOs 227 (1)
Government-Provided Health Care: Medicare 228 (2)
and Medicaid
The Rise of Managed Care 230 (4)
BOX 8.1: Ethical Debate: Pharmacists and 234 (1)
Conflicts of Interest
The Crisis in Health Care 234 (13)
Rising Health Care Costs 234 (5)
Rising Prescription Drug Costs 239 (1)
Declining Coverage 240 (5)
The Consequences of Declining Coverage 245 (2)
Conclusions 247 (1)
Suggested Readings 247 (1)
Getting Involved 248 (1)
Review Questions 248 (1)
Internet Exercises 248 (3)
CHAPTER 9 Alternative Health Care Systems 251 (40)
Evaluating Health Care Systems 252 (6)
Universal Coverage 252 (1)
Portability 253 (1)
BOX 9.1: Ethical Debate: Is There a Right 254 (1)
to Health Care?
Geographic Accessibility 254 (1)
Comprehensive Benefits 255 (1)
Affordability 256 (1)
Financial Efficiency 257 (1)
Consumer Choice 257 (1)
Provider Satisfaction 257 (1)
Health Care in Other Countries 258 (25)
Germany: Social Insurance for Health Care 260 (4)
Canada: National Health Insurance 264 (6)
Great Britain: National Health Service 270 (5)
China: Good Health at Low Cost 275 (5)
Mexico: Struggling to Provide Health Care 280 (3)
Equitably
Reforming Health Care in the United States 283 (4)
Conclusions 287 (1)
Suggested Readings 288 (1)
Getting Involved 288 (1)
Review Questions 288 (1)
Internet Exercises 288 (3)
CHAPTER 10 Health Care Settings 291 (28)
The Hospital 292 (7)
The Premodern Hospital 292 (1)
Beginnings of the Modern Hospital 293 (2)
The Rise of the Modern Hospital 295 (1)
Hospitals Today 296 (2)
The Hospital-Patient Experience 298 (1)
Nursing Homes 299 (4)
Who Uses Nursing Homes? 300 (1)
Financing Nursing Home Care 300 (1)
Working in Nursing Homes 301 (1)
Life in Nursing Homes 301 (2)
Board and Care Homes 303 (1)
Assisted Living Facilities 303 (1)
Hospices 304 (8)
Origins of Hospice 305 (1)
The Hospice Philosophy 305 (1)
Box 10.1: Ethical Debate: A Right to Die? 306 (2)
The Cooptation of Hospice 308 (2)
Box 10.2: Making a Difference: The Human 310 (1)
Service Alliance
Use of Hospice 310 (2)
Costs and Financing 312 (1)
Home Care 312 (5)
The Nature of Family Caregiving 313 (2)
Easing the Burdens of Caregiving 315 (2)
Conclusions 317 (1)
Suggested Readings 317 (1)
Getting Involved 318 (1)
Review Questions 318 (1)
Internet Exercises 318 (1)
PART FOUR Health Care Providers and Bioethics 319 (100)
CHAPTER 11 The Profession o f Medicine 321 (40)
Medicine as a Profession 322 (17)
American Medicine in the Nineteenth 322 (3)
Century
Beginnings of Medical Dominance 325 (1)
The Flexner Report and Its Aftermath 326 (1)
Doctors and Professional Dominance 327 (1)
The Problem of Medical Errors 328 (2)
The Decline of Medical Dominance 330 (7)
The Continued Strength of Medical 337 (2)
Dominance
Becoming a Doctor 339 (17)
The Structure of Medical Education 339 (1)
Learning Medical Values 340 (6)
BOX 11.1: The American Medical Student 346 (1)
Association
The Consequences of Medical Values 346 (1)
BOX 11.2: The Story o f Baby Andrew 347 (2)
Building a Medical Career 349 (2)
Patient-Doctor Relationships 351 (1)
BOX 11.3: Ethical Debate: Truth Telling 352 (2)
in Health Care
BOX 11.4: "Hi, Lucille, This Is Dr. Gold!" 354 (2)
Conclusions 356 (1)
Suggested Readings 357 (1)
Getting Involved 358 (1)
Review Questions 358 (1)
Internet Exercises 358 (3)
CHAPTER 12 Other Mainstream and Alternative 361 (36)
Health Care Providers
Mainstream Health Care Providers 363 (16)
Nursing: A Semiprofession 363 (8)
Nurse-Midwifery: The Limits of 371 (2)
Specialization
Pharmacy: The Push to Reprofessionalize 373 (3)
Osteopathy: A Parallel Profession 376 (3)
Alternative Health Care Providers 379 (14)
Chiropractors: From Marginal to Limited 380 (3)
Practitioners
Lay Midwives: Limited but Still Marginal 383 (4)
Curanderos 387 (2)
Christian Science Practitioners 389 (1)
Acupuncturists 390 (1)
BOX 12.1: Ethical Debate: Choosing 390 (3)
Alternative Options
Conclusions 393 (1)
Suggested Readings 394 (1)
Getting Involved 394 (1)
Review Questions 394 (1)
Internet Exercises 395 (2)
CHAPTER 13 Issues in Bioethics 397 (22)
A History of Bioethics 399 (11)
The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code 399 (2)
The 1960's: The Rise of Bioethics 401 (1)
BOX 13.1: Principles of the Nuremberg Code 401 (2)
The 1970's: Willowbrook, Tuskegee, and 403 (3)
Karen Quinlan
The 1980's and 1990's: Reproductive 406 (3)
Technology, Enhancing Human Traits, and
Setting Priorities
Entering the Twenty-First Century 409 (1)
Institutionalizing Bioethics 410 (1)
Hospital Ethics Committees 410 (1)
Research Ethics Committees 411 (1)
Professional Ethics Committees 411 (1)
The Impact of Bioethics 411 (6)
The Impact on Research 412 (2)
The Impact on Medical Education 414 (1)
The Impact on Clinical Practice 414 (3)
Conclusions 417 (1)
Suggested Readings 417 (1)
Getting Involved 418 (1)
Review Questions 418 (1)
Internet Exercises 418 (1)
Glossary 419 (16)
References 435 (34)
Photo Credits 469 (2)
Index 471