Vital Accounts : Quantifying Health and Population in Eighteenth-Century England and France (Cambridge Studies in the History of Medicine)

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Vital Accounts : Quantifying Health and Population in Eighteenth-Century England and France (Cambridge Studies in the History of Medicine)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 249 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521803748
  • DDC分類 614.424109033

Full Description


Why did Europeans begin to count births and deaths? How did they collect the numbers and what did they do with them? Through a compelling comparative analysis, Vital Accounts charts the work of the physicians, clergymen and government officials who crafted the sciences of political and medical arithmetic in England and France during the long eighteenth-century, before the emergence of statistics and regular government censuses. Andrea A. Rusnock presents a social history of quantification that highlights the development of numerical tables, influential and enduring scientific instruments designed to evaluate smallpox inoculation, to link weather and disease to compare infant and maternal mortality rates, to identify changes in disease patterns and to challenge prevailing views about the decline of European population. By focusing on the most important eighteenth century controversies over health and population, Rusnock shows how vital accounts - the numbers of births and deaths - became the measure of public health and welfare.

Table of Contents

        List of Illustrations                      xi
Acknowledgments xv
Introduction 1 (4)
Method of Tables 5 (2)
Method of Comparison 7 (3)
Method of Controversy 10 (5)
A New Science: Political Arithmetic 15 (28)
Crafting a New Method: Numerical Tables 16 (8)
Natural Observations 24 (9)
Political Observations 33 (10)
PART ONE: SMALLPOX INOCULATION AND MEDICAL
ARITHMETIC
A Measure of Safety: English Debates over 43 (28)
Inoculation in the 1720s
Arbuthnot's Vindication 46 (3)
Jurin's Accounts 49 (6)
Building a Correspondence Network 55 (4)
Tallying the Typical 59 (4)
Challenging the Atypical 63 (3)
The Appeal of Calculation 66 (5)
The Limits of Calculation: French Debates 71 (21)
over Inoculation in the 1760s
The Paris Faculte de Medecine 72 (3)
Inoculation a la Mode 75 (2)
La Condamine's Lottery 77 (4)
Bernoulli and d'Almebert 81 (5)
Physicians Respond 86 (2)
A Plea for Registers 88 (4)
Charitable Calculations: English Debates over 92 (17)
the Inoculation of the Urban Poor, 1750--1800
The London Smallpox Hospital 94 (1)
Dispensaries and Home Inoculations in London 95 (6)
Inoculation outside London 101(8)
PART TWO: MEDICAL ARITHMETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL
MEDICINE
Medical Meteorology: Accounting for the 109(28)
Weather and Disease
Numerical Natural Histories of the Weather 110(9)
England 111(6)
France 117(2)
Linking Disease and Weather 119(9)
England 122(4)
France 126(2)
Observations Reduced 128(9)
Interrogating Death: Disease, Mortality, and 137(42)
Environment
To Improve the Classification of Death 139(4)
The London Bills of Mortality Analyzed 143(14)
Mortality by Age and Place 157(14)
Variations in Mortality between the Sexes 171(8)
PART THREE: POLITICAL ARITHMETIC
Count, Measure, Compare: The Depopulation 179(32)
Debates
Counting the People: Censuses and Vital 182(10)
Registration
Britain 183(5)
Frnace 188(4)
Calculating the Population: The Universal 192(14)
Multiplier
Britain 193(8)
France 201(5)
The Role of Partial Enumerations 206(5)
Conclusion 211(8)
Bibliography 219(24)
Index 243