Wind Stress over the Ocean

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Wind Stress over the Ocean

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 307 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521662437
  • DDC分類 551.524

Full Description


Understanding wind stress (drag) over the ocean is central to many facets of air-sea interaction, which in turn is vital for models of weather prediction and climate modelling. Wind Stress over the Ocean, first published in 2001, brings together thirty of the world's leading experts in air-sea interaction, under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research. Wind Stress over the Ocean provides a thorough re-examination of the physical processes that transfer momentum between the atmosphere and the ocean. As well as describing the established fundamentals, the book also explores active areas of research and controversy. The book will form a comprehensive guide and reference for researchers and graduate students in physical oceanography, meteorology, fluid dynamics and coastal engineering.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            ix
Acknowledgements xi
Contributors xiii
Frequently Used Symbols xvii
Overview 1 (34)
I. S. F. Jones
Y. Volkov
Y. Toba
S. Larsen
N. E. Huang
Exchanges at the Sea Surface 1 (1)
Background 2 (1)
Fluid Mechanics 2 (4)
Irrotational Waves and Forced Waves 6 (2)
Wind-wave Sheltering and Wave Age 8 (1)
Drag Generating Mechanisms 9 (4)
Aerodynamically Rough Flow 13 (2)
Ocean Wind-wave Spectra and Wind-wave 15 (3)
Equilibrium
The Real Ocean 18 (6)
Drag Observations 24 (2)
The Angle between Stress and Wind 26 (1)
A Representative Expression for the Drag 27 (1)
Coefficient
Drag Expressions for Different Purposes 28 (2)
Further Complications 30 (1)
Summary 31 (4)
PART 1
Historical Drag Expressions 35 (19)
Y. Toba
S. D. Smith
N. Ebuchi
Introduction 35 (1)
A Brief History of Sea-Surface Wind Stress 36 (10)
Field Experiments
A Review of the Form of Nondimensional 46 (8)
Roughness Length
Atmospheric and Oceanic Boundary Layver 54 (28)
Physics
V. N. Lykossov
Introduction 54 (1)
Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer 55 (17)
Oceanic Upper Boundary Layer 72 (5)
Processes at the Air-Sea Interface 77 (5)
Ocean Wave Spectra and Integral Properties 82 (42)
N. E. Huang
Y. Toba
Z. Shen
J. Klinke
B. Jahne
M. L. Banner
Introduction 82 (3)
Equilibrium Ranges for Gravity Waves 85 (10)
Short Wind-waves 95 (14)
The Variability of Gravity-Capillary Waves 109 (6)
in Presence of Long Waves
Integral Properties and Local 115 (7)
Wind-Wind-wave Equilibrium
Wind-wave Modelling 122 (1)
Concluding Remarks 122 (2)
Drag Generation Mechanisms 124 (18)
G. T. Csanady
Introduction 124 (1)
Pathways of Air-Sea Momentum Transfer 124 (4)
The Origin of Short Wind-waves 128 (4)
Flow Pattern and Forces on Short Waves 132 (2)
Handover of Momentum Transport 134 (4)
Breaker Dynamics 138 (3)
Concluding Remarks 141 (1)
Coupling Mechanisms 142 (13)
J. Bye
V. Makin
A. Jenkins
N. E. Huang
Introduction 142 (1)
The Wind-wave Model 143 (2)
Momentum Transfer Below the Sea Surface 145 (2)
Coupling Wind-waves with the Atmosphere 147 (3)
Flow Similarity in the Wind-wave Boundary 150 (5)
Layer
The Measurement of Surface Stress 155 (26)
S. E. Larsen
M. Yelland
P. Taylor
I. S. F. Jones
L. Hasse
R. A. Brown
Introduction 155 (1)
The Measurement of Surface Stress 155 (1)
Reynolds Stress Measurements 156 (4)
Inertial Dissipation Method 160 (5)
The Profile Method to Measure Momentum 165 (5)
Fluxes at the Sea Surface
Instrumentation 170 (1)
Airflow Distortion and Platform Motion 171 (6)
Pressure Supported Stress 177 (1)
Satellite Remote Sensing 178 (3)
PART 2
The Influence of Swell on the Drag 181 (9)
M. A. Donelan
F. W. Dobson
Introduction 181 (1)
Wind-Swell Interaction 182 (2)
Swell-Wind Sea Interaction 184 (1)
Swell Attenuation in Adverse Winds 184 (1)
Change in the Drag due to Swell 185 (4)
Summary 189 (1)
The Influence of Unsteadiness 190 (16)
Y. Toba
I. S. F. Jones
Introduction 190 (2)
Wave Field Response to Change in the 192 (1)
External Forcing
Field Data 193 (5)
Laboratory Data 198 (5)
The Influence on Drag 203 (1)
Slow Rates of Change of Wind Speed 203 (1)
Turning Winds 203 (1)
Physical Model 204 (1)
Concluding Remarks 205 (1)
The Dependence on Wave Age 206 (12)
Y. Volkov
Introduction 206 (2)
Long Waves 208 (1)
Wind-wave Drag 209 (2)
Short Wind-waves 211 (1)
Total Drag 211 (1)
Wave Age Dependence 212 (2)
Measurement of Drag as a Function of Wave 214 (1)
Age
Model of Aerodynamic Roughness 215 (2)
Geostrophic Drag Coefficient 217 (1)
The Influence of Mesoscale Atmospheric 218 (14)
Processes
L. Hasse
R. A. Brown
Introduction 218 (1)
Influences of Open Ocean Subgridscale 219 (7)
Processes on Stress
Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes in Coastal 226 (4)
Seas
Consequences for Drag Determination 230 (2)
Wind, Stress and Wave Directions 232 (10)
C. A. Friehe
J. A. Smith
K. F. Rieder
N. E. Huang
J-P. Giovanangeli
G. L. Geernaert
Introduction 232 (1)
Definitions 232 (1)
Stress Directions in Boundary Layers 233 (1)
Laboratory Wind-wave Measurements 234 (1)
Aircraft Results 234 (1)
Numerical Models 234 (1)
Measurement Accuracy 235 (1)
Over-land Results 235 (1)
Tower and Open Ocean Experiments 236 (3)
Wind and Wave Alignment 239 (3)
The Influence of Surface Tension 242 (12)
H. Mitsuyasu
E. J. Bock
Introduction 242 (1)
Surfactants 243 (3)
Damping of Waves 246 (5)
The Impact of Surfactants 251 (1)
Field Studies 252 (2)
The Influence of Spatial Inhomogeneity: 254 (16)
Fronts and Current Boundaries
G. L. Geernaert
N. E. Huang
Introduction 254 (1)
Theory 255 (2)
Wind Stress Dynamics in the Vicinity of SST 257 (9)
Fronts
Atmospheric Fronts 266 (3)
Conclusions 269 (1)
Basin Boundaries 270 (7)
K. B. Katsaros
Effects of Boundaries 270 (1)
Basin Width 270 (1)
Shallow Water 271 (3)
Land-Sea Boundary 274 (1)
Conclusion 274 (3)
References 277 (28)
Index 305