New Cosmic Horizons : Space Astronomy from the V2 to the Hubble Space Telescope

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New Cosmic Horizons : Space Astronomy from the V2 to the Hubble Space Telescope

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 507 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521658331
  • DDC分類 520.9

Full Description


New Cosmic Horizons tells the extraordinary story of space-based astronomy since the Second World War. Starting with the launch of the V2 rocket in 1946, this book explores the triumphs of space experiments and spacecraft designs and the amazing astronomical results that they have produced. It also examines the fascinating way in which the changing political imperatives of the USA, USSR and Western Europe have modified their space astronomy programmes. This history of astronomy from space is extensively illustrated and unique in its coverage of such a broad range of topics in language accessible to amateur and professional astronomers, and other technically-minded readers. All major astronomy missions of the first fifty years of space research are covered: the Soviet Sputnik and American Explorer projects, the subsequent race to the moon, solar and planetary missions, and the wonders of modern astrophysics culminating in the exciting results of the Hubble Space Telescope.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            ix
The Sounding Rocket Era 1 (16)
Early Work with the V2 1 (3)
Solar X-Rays and the Earth's lonosphere 4 (5)
Non-Solar X-Ray Sources 9 (8)
The Start of the Space Race 17 (14)
Sputnik 1 17 (1)
The American Programme Pre-Sputnik 18 (3)
The Soviet Programme 21 (2)
Early Scientific Results 23 (6)
The Formation of NASA 29 (2)
Initial Exploration of the Solar System 31 (15)
Early Lunar Missions 31 (6)
The First Missions to Mars and Venus 37 (9)
Lunar Exploration 46 (21)
The American Ranger Programme 46 (6)
Korolev and the Russian Programme 52 (3)
Surveyor, Orbiter and Apollo 55 (10)
The Soviet Response 65 (2)
Mars and Venus: Early Results 67 (17)
Mariner 4 to Mars 67 (5)
Russian Disasters 72 (2)
Venera 4 74 (1)
Mariner 5 to Venus 75 (1)
Veneras 5 and 6 76 (1)
American Funding Problems 77 (3)
Mariners 6 and 7 80 (2)
Summary 82 (2)
Mars and Venus: The Middle Period 84 (36)
American Plans for the Early 1970s 84 (2)
Veneras 7 and 8 86 (4)
Mariner 10 90 (2)
Mariner 9, Mars 2 and 3, and the Great 92 (7)
Martian Dust Storm of 1971
Mars 4 to 7 99 (1)
Viking 100(10)
Veneras 9 and 10 110(3)
Pioneer-Venus 113(3)
Veneras 11 and 12 116(4)
Venus, Mars and Cometary Spacecraft Post-1980 120(35)
International Collaboration 120(1)
Veneras 13 to 16 121(4)
Planning The Halley Encounters 125(7)
Vegas 1 and 2 at Venus 132(1)
The Halley Intercepts 133(8)
Magellan 141(9)
The Phobos Spacecraft 150(2)
Mars Observer 152(3)
Early Missions to the Outer Planets 155(13)
Programmatics and Finance 155(4)
Pioneers 10 and 11 159(9)
The Voyager Missions to the Outer Planets 168(58)
The Voyager Spacecraft 168(2)
Voyager 1 at Jupiter 170(8)
Voyager 2 at Jupiter 178(4)
Voyager 1 at Saturn 182(9)
Voyager 2 at Saturn 191(5)
Voyager 2 at Uranus 196(13)
Voyager 2 at Neptune 209(17)
The Sun 226(63)
Early Work 226(6)
The Solar Wind 232(7)
Flares 239(7)
The Corona 246(1)
Skylab 247(7)
Summary 254(1)
Solar Max 255(6)
The Solar Constant 261(9)
Yohkoh 270(2)
Ulysses 272(8)
SOHO 280(7)
Summary 287(2)
Early Spacecraft Observations of Non-Solar 289(18)
System Sources
Introduction 289(2)
Explorer 11 and Gamma Rays 291(1)
Orbiting Astronomical Observatories and 291(2)
Ultraviolet Observations
X-rays 293(3)
Pulsars 296(2)
Uhuru 298(9)
A Period of Rapid Growth 307(23)
Copernicus 307(5)
The European Dimension 312(2)
TD-1 314(3)
Dwarf Novae 317(1)
ANS 318(2)
Ariel 5 320(4)
AM Herculis --- The First Polar 324(1)
Gamma-rays 325(3)
Summary 328(2)
The High Energy Astronomy Observatory 330(25)
Programme
Programmatics 330(2)
HEAO-1 332(4)
HEAO-2 or the Einstein Observatory 336(8)
SS 433 344(8)
HEAO-3 352(1)
Summary 353(2)
IUE, IRAS and Exosat --- Spacecraft for the 355(24)
Early 1980s
The International Ultraviolet Explorer 355(7)
The Infrared Astronomical Satellite 362(7)
Exosat 369(8)
Summary 377(2)
Hiatus 379(13)
COBE 379(7)
Supernova 1987A 386(6)
Business as Usual 392(28)
Rosat 392(8)
The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory 400(5)
Geminga 405(1)
Gamma Ray Bursts 406(5)
The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer 411(3)
The Infrared Space Observatory 414(6)
The Hubble Space Telescope 420(46)
Pre-Launch History 420(12)
The Spacecraft and its Instruments 432(5)
Launch and Post-Launch Checkout 437(3)
Scientific Results --- The First Three Years 440(7)
Hardware Problems and the First Servicing 447(3)
Mission
The Second Three Years 450(15)
Concluding Remarks 465(1)
Appendix 466(4)
Glossary 470(6)
Bibliography 476(6)
Units 482(1)
Abbreviations 483(3)
Name Index 486(6)
Spacecraft Index 492(4)
Subject Index 496