Environmental Toxicology (Cambridge Environmental Chemistry Series)

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Environmental Toxicology (Cambridge Environmental Chemistry Series)

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  • Cambridge Univ Pr(2002/04発売)
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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 630 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521588607
  • DDC分類 615.902

Full Description


Environmental Toxicology is a comprehensive introductory textbook dealing with most aspects of the subject, from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Early chapters deal with basic and advanced concepts, methods and approaches. The next tier discusses the environmental toxicology of individual or groups of substances. The third part addresses complex issues, in which many of the concepts, approaches and substances covered in earlier tiers are incorporated. The fourth part includes chapters on risk assessment, rehabilitation and regulatory toxicology. The book concludes with a summary of present and future areas of emphasis. Each chapter contains a comprehensive list of references and further reading, case studies from different jurisdictions, and student exercises. Environmental Toxicology is primarily a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, ecotoxicology, applied ecology, environmental management, and risk assessment. It will also be valuable for specialists in ecology, environmental science, and chemistry.

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           xvii
Preface xix
Abbreviations xxi
Acknowledgements xxv
The emergence of environmental toxicology as 1 (20)
science
The context 1 (1)
The historical background: Classical 2 (3)
toxicology, ecotoxicology, and
environmental toxicology
Social aspects: The environmental movement 5 (4)
Social aspects: Regulation 9 (7)
Education in environmental toxicology 16 (1)
The role of technology 16 (2)
Questions 18 (1)
References 19 (1)
Further reading 20 (1)
The science of environmental toxicology: 21 (49)
Concepts and definitions
The development of environmental toxicology 21 (3)
An historical perspective on the science 21 (1)
of environmental toxicology
An evolutionary perspective on 21 (3)
environmental toxicology
Assessment of toxicity 24 (26)
The dose-response 25 (6)
The acute toxicity bioassay 31 (1)
Subacute (chronic) toxicity assays 31 (2)
The relationship between acute and 33 (5)
chronic toxicity
Statistical considerations 38 (5)
Comparative bioassays 43 (6)
Sediment toxicity assays 49 (1)
Toxicity at the molecular level 50 (15)
Carcinogenesis 52 (6)
Genotoxicity assays 58 (1)
Chromosome studies 59 (1)
The concept of threshold toxicity 59 (2)
Hormesis 61 (1)
Receptors 61 (4)
Questions 65 (1)
References 66 (4)
Routes and kinetics of toxicant uptake 70 (27)
General considerations 70 (1)
Route of toxicant uptake 71 (7)
Skin 72 (1)
Lungs 73 (1)
Gills 74 (2)
Digestive system 76 (1)
Toxicant uptake by plants 77 (1)
Uptake at the tissue and cellular level 78 (16)
Toxicokinetics 80 (1)
Single-compartment model 81 (2)
Two-compartment model 83 (3)
Volume of distribution 86 (1)
Transporter-mediated transport 87 (3)
Lethal body burden (critical body residue) 90 (4)
Questions 94 (1)
References 95 (1)
Further reading 96 (1)
Methodological approaches 97 (121)
Introduction 97 (3)
The general concepts and principles for 100 (6)
biological indicators
Tolerance and resistance to potentially 106 (10)
toxic substances
Some conundrums related to tolerance in 106 (3)
the context of environmental assessment
Selection for tolerance, mechanisms of 109 (7)
tolerance, and potential practical
applications of the phenomenon
Biological scale 116 (27)
Principles and properties of biochemical 117 (2)
markers/biochemical indicators
Some of the more commonly used groups of 119 (8)
biochemical markers
Individual species as indicators or 127 (15)
monitors
Surrogates for ecosystem indicators 142 (1)
Community and higher level indicators: The 143 (17)
ecological approach to toxicology
Interspecies effects of toxic substances 143 (3)
Interaction between and among trophic 146 (1)
levels as affected by toxic substances
Population and community end-points 147 (11)
Ecosystem equilibrium. Fact or fiction? 158 (2)
Modelling 160 (14)
The concepts of modelling 160 (4)
Mass balance models 164 (8)
Some other models for use in 172 (1)
environmental toxicology
Advantages, limitations; and pitfalls in 173 (1)
the modelling for environmental toxicology
Examples of methods and approaches for 174 (9)
community or higher level responses
Enclosures: Microcosms and mesocosms 175 (3)
Whole system manipulations 178 (5)
The role of technical advances in methods 183 (3)
for environmental toxicology
Choice of approaches 186 (4)
Case studies 190 (17)
Benthic invertebrate communities in 190 (3)
metal-contaminated sites exceeding
criteria for acceptable sediment quality
Biomarkers of organic chemical 193 (3)
contamination in fish from Puget Sound
The effect of coal-ash pollution on 196 (1)
bullfrogs: An energy budget approach
Phytotoxicology assessment for Nanticoke 197 (4)
Generating Station: Biological indicators
and monitors of air pollution
Chesapeake Bay - A study of 201 (1)
eutrophication and complex trophic
interactions
The use of lentic mesocosms in toxicity 202 (1)
testing
The cadmium spike experiment, 203 (4)
Experimental Lakes Area
Questions 207 (2)
References 209 (8)
Further reading 217 (1)
Factors affecting toxicity 218 (31)
Introduction 218 (1)
Biotic factors affecting toxicity 219 (2)
Taxonomic group 219 (2)
Age/body size 221 (1)
Abiotic factors affecting toxicity 221 (15)
Temperature 221 (3)
pH and alkalinity 224 (3)
Salinity 227 (2)
Hardness 229 (1)
Chemical mixtures 230 (4)
Dissolved organic carbon 234 (2)
Role of particulates 236 (6)
The importance of food 239 (3)
Quantitative structure-activity 242 (1)
relationships
Implications for future environmental 242 (2)
regulation
Questions 244 (1)
References 245 (3)
Further reading 248 (1)
Metals and other inorganic chemicals 249 (100)
Introduction 249 (4)
The properties and environmental behaviour 253 (16)
of metals and metalloids
General properties of metals and 253 (1)
metalloids
The mobilisation, binding, and chemical 254 (2)
forms of metals in the environment
The biological availability of metals in 256 (6)
the environment
Approaches for determining the chemical 262 (5)
species and. Availability of metals
The persistence of metals in the 267 (1)
environment
Bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, and 267 (2)
biomagnification of metals in the
environment
Analytical methods, temporal and spatial 269 (5)
distribution of metals and metalloids in
the environment
Analytical chemistry 269 (1)
Historical records 270 (1)
Spatial records and source signatures 271 (3)
Mercury 274 (13)
The background to environmental concerns 274 (1)
for mercury
The properties, occurrence, and 275 (7)
environmental behaviour of mercury
The toxicity of mercury and populations 282 (5)
at risk
The reservoir problem 287 (1)
Lead 287 (11)
The occurrence, sources, and properties 287 (3)
of lead
The environmental transport and behaviour 290 (1)
of lead
Environmental exposure and toxicity of 291 (7)
lead
Cadmium 298 (3)
The occurrence, sources, and properties 298 (1)
of cadmium
The physiological and ecological 299 (1)
behaviour of cadmium
The toxicity of cadmium 300 (1)
Copper 301 (3)
The occurrence, sources, and properties 301 (1)
of copper
The physiological and ecological 302 (1)
behaviour of copper
The toxicity of copper 302 (2)
Nickel 304 (2)
The occurrence, sources, and properties 304 (1)
of nickel
The physiological and ecological 305 (1)
behaviour of nickel
The toxicity of nickel 305 (1)
Selenium 306 (2)
The occurrence, sources, and properties 306 (1)
of selenium
The physiological and ecological 307 (1)
behaviour of selenium
The toxicity of selenium 307 (1)
Phosphorus 308 (5)
The occurrence, sources, and behaviour of 308 (1)
phosphorus
The physiological and ecological 308 (5)
behaviour of phosphorus
Fluorine 313 (2)
The occurrence, sources, and behaviour of 313 (1)
fluorine
The toxicity of fluoride 313 (2)
Questions 315 (1)
References 316 (3)
Further reading 319 (30)
Appendix: Properties of selected metals 319 (30)
and metalloids
Organic compounds 349 (59)
The nature of organic compounds 349 (6)
Behaviour and transport 353 (2)
Pesticides 355 (11)
Chlorinated organics 356 (5)
Organophosphate pesticides 361 (1)
Carbamate pesticides 362 (1)
Phenoxyacid herbicides 363 (2)
Bipyridilium herbicides 365 (1)
Triazine herbicides 365 (1)
Polychlorinated biphenyls 366 (4)
Chemistry and effects 366 (3)
Evidence of decline in environmental PCBs 369 (1)
Debenzodioxins and dibenzofurans 370 (2)
Organic chemicals as environmental 372 (7)
estrogens (endocrine disrupters)
Rationale 372 (1)
Proposed mechanism for the action of 372 (3)
estrogenic compounds
Effect of organic chemicals on male 375 (1)
reproductive health
Environmental influences on breast cancer 376 (1)
Peroxisome proliferases 377 (1)
Pharmaceuticals in the environment 378 (1)
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons 379 (2)
Petroleum hydrocarbons 381 (3)
Organotins 384 (1)
Metabolism of organics 385 (11)
Introduction 385 (1)
Phase I reactions 386 (3)
Important mixed function oxidase reactions 389 (5)
Reductions 394 (1)
Phase II reactions 395 (1)
Environmental mobility of organic compounds 396 (3)
Case studies 399 (4)
Pathology of beluga whales in the St. 399 (1)
Lawrence estuary, Quebec, Canada
Recovery of double-crested cormorants 400 (1)
(Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Great Lakes
Feminisation of fish in English rivers 401 (2)
Questions 403 (2)
References 405 (3)
Ionising radiation 408 (27)
Introduction 408 (1)
Definitions 409 (4)
What is ionising radiation? 409 (3)
Units of measurement 412 (1)
Effects of radiation at the molecular and 413 (3)
cellular level
Molecular interactions 413 (2)
Effects of radiation on the immune system 415 (1)
Assessment of risk from radiation 416 (5)
Sources of radiation 421 (9)
Background radiation 421 (1)
Electricity production from nuclear power 422 (5)
Radioisotopes of biological importance 427 (3)
Ecological effects of radiation 430 (1)
Case study 431 (2)
The Chernobyl accident 431 (2)
Questions 433 (1)
References 433 (2)
Complex issues 435 (65)
Introduction and rationale 435 (1)
The mining and smelting of metals 436 (10)
The issue 436 (1)
Processes involved in the extraction and 437 (2)
purification of metals
Substances of concern that are mobilised 439 (1)
or formed and released during mining,
smelting, and other purification processes
The environmental toxicology of metal 440 (6)
mining and smelting
Environmental impacts of pulp and paper 446 (5)
mills
The issue 446 (1)
Substances of concern I: Nutrient 447 (1)
enrichment from pulp mills
Substances of concern II: Chlorinated 448 (1)
products of paper pulp
The environmental toxicology of mill 449 (1)
effluent
Mitigation: Means for minimising the 450 (1)
impacts of pulp mills
Electrical power generation 451 (11)
The issue of producing electricity from 451 (1)
fossil fuel
The issue of producing electricity from 452 (6)
nuclear energy
The issue of hydroelectric power 458 (1)
Socioeconomic considerations 459 (3)
Global warming 462 (3)
The issue 462 (1)
The greenhouse effect 462 (1)
Substances of concern: Greenhouse gases 463 (1)
and their sources
Global climate models 464 (1)
Atmospheric pollution 465 (9)
The issue 465 (1)
Substances of concern: Photochemical 466 (4)
oxidants
The environmental toxicology of 470 (1)
photochemical oxidants
Substances of concern: Acidic 471 (1)
precipitation
The environmental toxicology of acid 472 (2)
precipitation
Agriculture 474 (13)
The issue 474 (3)
Substances of concern: Fertilisers 477 (1)
The environmental toxicology of 478 (5)
fertilisers
Substances of concern: Pesticides 483 (3)
The environmental toxicology of pesticides 486 (1)
Oil extraction, transportation, and 487 (7)
processing
The issue 487 (2)
The environmental toxicology of oil 489 (4)
Oil spill legislation and control 493 (1)
Use of oil dispersants 493 (1)
Case study 494 (1)
The Florida Everglades: A case study of 494 (1)
eutrophication related to agriculture and
restoration
References 495 (4)
Further reading 499 (1)
Risk assessment 500 (20)
The context and rationale for ecological 500 (2)
risk assessment
The methodology of ecological risk 502 (6)
assessment and risk management
Risk assessment 502 (6)
Risk management 508 (1)
Site-specific risk assessment 508 (2)
Dealing with uncertainty 510 (1)
Factors triggering risk assessment 511 (1)
Case studies 512 (6)
Risk assessment of the Clark River 512 (2)
Superfund site
The Belle Park Island landfill site, 514 (2)
Cataraqui Park, Kingston, Ontario:
Site-specific risk assessment
An environmental risk assessment for 516 (2)
ditallow dimethyl ammonium chloride in
the Netherlands
References 518 (1)
Further reading 519 (1)
Recovery, rehabilitation, and reclamation 520 (30)
The context for site contamination and 520 (1)
recovery
Exposure and hazard 521 (1)
Site use 522 (1)
Technical approaches 523 (5)
Removal of the source of contamination 523 (2)
Restriction of site use 525 (1)
Reconstruction of the site 526 (1)
Removal of the contaminated material 526 (1)
On-site containment 527 (1)
In situ treatment 527 (1)
Remedial action plans 528 (1)
Responsibilities 529 (1)
Routes for recovery 530 (2)
Recent regulatory approaches to 532 (3)
contaminated sites
Case studies 535 (12)
The Thames Estuary: Compound pollution 535 (3)
and recovery
Lake Erie recovery 538 (2)
Deacidification trends in Clearwater Lake 540 (2)
near Sudbury, Ontario, 1973-1992
The Inco, Mine Tailings reclamation, 542 (3)
Sudbury, Canada: Ecosystem reconstruction
Clean-up of lead-contaminated sites: The 545 (2)
Ontario urban clean-up experience
References 547 (3)
Regulatory toxicology 550 (41)
Introduction 550 (1)
Possible legal approaches to the regulation 551 (2)
of toxic substances
Procedures and policies, including 553 (16)
voluntary abatement
Types of approach 553 (3)
Objectives, standards, and related 556 (5)
concepts
Risk assessment in a regulatory context 561 (1)
Voluntary systems of regulation 562 (3)
International considerations: Treaties 565 (4)
and informal agreements
Definitions 569 (18)
Types of law 569 (1)
The common law 570 (1)
Some general legal terms 571 (1)
Terms used in assessment and regulation 571 (16)
of toxic substances
Federal statutes 587 (1)
The United Kingdom and Europe 587 (1)
Canada 587 (1)
The United States of America 587 (1)
Case studies 588 (1)
European convention on long-range 588 (1)
transboundary air pollution
Implementation of the Basel Convention: 588 (1)
Turning back waste from Hungary
Questions 589 (1)
References 589 (1)
Further reading 590 (1)
An overall perspective, or where to from here? 591 (17)
Introduction 591 (1)
Updating risk assessment 592 (8)
Expressing toxic action 592 (4)
Bioavailability and uptake pathways as 596 (1)
management tools
Pathways/vectors of chemical exposure 597 (3)
Future paradigm of hazard assessment 600 (1)
The question of biological scale 600 (2)
Genotoxicity 602 (1)
Society and the environment 603 (2)
References 605 (3)
Glossary 608 (13)
Index 621