An Introduction to X-Ray Crystallography (2 SUB)

An Introduction to X-Ray Crystallography (2 SUB)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 401 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521412711
  • DDC分類 548.83

Table of Contents

Preface to the First Edition                       x
Preface to the Second Edition xii
The geometry of the crystalline state 1 (31)
The general features of crystals 1 (1)
The external symmetry of crystals 1 (6)
The seven crystal systems 7 (2)
The thirty-two crystal classes 9 (3)
The unit cell 12 (3)
Miller indices 15 (1)
Space lattices 16 (4)
Symmetry elements 20 (3)
Space groups 23 (7)
Space group and crystal class 30 (2)
Problems to Chapter 1 31 (1)
The scattering of X-rays 32 (18)
A general description of the scattering 32 (2)
process
Scattering from a pair of points 34 (2)
Scattering from a general distribution of 36 (1)
point scatterers
Thomson scattering 37 (5)
Compton scattering 42 (1)
The scattering of X-rays by atoms 43 (7)
Problems to Chapter 2 48 (2)
Diffraction from a crystal 50 (26)
Diffraction from a one-dimensional array of 50 (6)
atoms
Diffraction from a two-dimensional array of 56 (1)
atoms
Diffraction from a three-dimensional array 57 (2)
of atoms
The reciprocal lattice 59 (5)
Diffraction from a crystal - the structure 64 (3)
factor
Bragg's law 67 (5)
The structure factor in terms of indices of 72 (4)
reflection
Problems to Chapter 3 74 (2)
The Fourier transform 76 (32)
The Fourier series 76 (3)
Numerical application of Fourier series 79 (4)
Fourier series in two and three dimensions 83 (2)
The Fourier transform 85 (7)
Diffraction and the Fourier transform 92 (2)
Convolution 94 (5)
Diffraction by a periodic distribution 99 (1)
The electron-density equation 99 (9)
Problems to Chapter 4 106(2)
Experimental collection of diffraction data 108(48)
The conditions for diffraction to occur 108(4)
The powder camera 112(6)
The oscillation camera 118(7)
The Weissenberg camera 125(5)
The precession camera 130(5)
The photographic measurement of intensities 135(5)
Diffractometers 140(3)
X-ray sources 143(7)
Image-plate systems 150(1)
The modern Laue method 151(5)
Problems to Chapter 5 154(2)
The factors affecting X-ray intensities 156(34)
Diffraction from a rotating crystal 156(6)
Absorption of X-rays 162(7)
Primary extinction 169(4)
Secondary extinction 173(2)
The temperature factor 175(4)
Anomalous scattering 179(11)
Problems to Chapter 6 188(2)
The determination of space groups 190(41)
Tests for the lack of a centre of symmetry 190(6)
The optical properties of crystals 196(12)
The symmetry of X-ray photographs 208(2)
Information from systematic absences 210(5)
Intensity statistics 215(12)
Detection of mirror planes and diad axes 227(4)
Problems to Chapter 7 229(2)
The determination of crystal structures 231(70)
Trial-and-error methods 231(2)
The Patterson function 233(16)
The heavy-atom method 249(6)
Isomorphous replacement 255(12)
The application of anomalous scattering 267(7)
Inequality relationships 274(8)
Sign relationships 282(8)
General phase relationships 290(7)
A general survey of methods 297(4)
Problems to Chapter 8 298(3)
Accuracy and refinement processes 301(24)
The determination of unit-cell parameters 301(6)
The scaling of observed data 307(2)
Fourier refinement 309(8)
Least-squares refinement 317(3)
The parameter-shift method 320(5)
Problems to Chapter 9 322(3)
Physical constants and tables 325(2)
Appendices 327(40)
Program listings
Strucfac 328(5)
Four 1 333(2)
Simp 1 335(1)
Four 2 336(3)
Ftoue 339(7)
Heavy 346(3)
Isofile 349(1)
Isocoeff 350(2)
Anofile 352(1)
Pscoeff 353(1)
Mindir 354(12)
Calobs 366(1)
Solutions to Problems 367(28)
References 395(2)
Bibliography 397(2)
Index 399