Reference and Computation : An Essay in Applied Philosophy of Language (Studies in Natural Language Processing)

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Reference and Computation : An Essay in Applied Philosophy of Language (Studies in Natural Language Processing)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 250 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521399821
  • DDC分類 401.43

Full Description


This book deals with a major problem in the study of languageproblem of reference. The ease with which we refer to things in conversation is deceptive. Upon closer scrutiny, it turns out that we hardly ever tell each other explicitly what object we mean, although we expect our interlocutor to discern it. Amichai Kronfeld provides an answer to two questions associated with this: how do we successfully refer, and how can a computer be programmed to achieve this? Beginning with the major theories of reference, Dr Kronfeld provides a consistent philosophical view which is a synthesis of Frege's and Russell's semantic insights with Grice's and Searle's pragmatic theories. This leads to a set of guiding principles, which are then applied to a computational model of referring. The discussion is made accessible to readers from a number of backgrounds: in particular, students and researchers in the areas of computational linguistics, artificial intelligence and the philosophy of language will want to read this book.

Table of Contents

        List of figures                            xi
Foreword xiii
Preface xix
Methods and scope 1 (16)
Internal and external perspectives 2 (5)
Referring as planning 7 (6)
Philosophical foundations 13 (2)
Summary of Chapter 1 15 (2)
The descriptive approach 17 (30)
The problem of reference 17 (3)
The descriptive research program 20 (6)
Objections 26 (7)
The referential/attributive distinction 26 (2)
Away with meanings 28 (2)
In praise of singular propositions 30 (2)
The status of de re beliefs 32 (1)
Identification reconsidered 33 (1)
Motivation 33 (12)
Summary of Chapter 2 45 (2)
First steps 47 (21)
Donnellan's distinction(s) 48 (2)
Having a particular object in mind 50 (7)
A three-tiered model of referring 57 (8)
Individuating sets 58 (2)
Referring intentions 60 (1)
Choice of referring expressions 61 (1)
Donnellan's distinction: final chord 62 (3)
Summary of Chapter 3 65 (3)
Referring intentions and goals 68 (17)
Communication intentions 68 (3)
The literal goal of referring 71 (4)
The discourse purpose of referring 75 (7)
Summary of Chapter 4 82 (3)
Conversationally relevant descriptions 85 (31)
Speaker's reference and indirect speech acts 86 (5)
Functional and conversational relevance 91 (6)
Descriptions as implicatures 97 (16)
Recognizing conversational relevance 100 (1)
Speaker's assertion 101 (1)
Extensional and intensional justification 102 (4)
The meaning of ``must'' 106 (4)
Nonassertives and indefinite descriptions 110 (3)
Summary of Chapter 5 113 (3)
Thoughts and objects 116 (25)
The essential indexical 117 (6)
The pragmatics of belief reports 123 (14)
A conflict of interest 127 (2)
The shortest spy revisited 129 (3)
Causality adn vividness 132 (2)
Individuating sets and the descriptive 134 (3)
view
Summary of Chapter 6 137 (4)
Computational models 141 (34)
General principles 141 (3)
A Prolog experimental system 144 (5)
Formalizing referring effects 149 (23)
Mutual individuation 150 (6)
Speech acts and rationality 156 (11)
Referring and rationality 167 (5)
Summary of Chapter 7 172 (3)
References 175 (6)
Index 181