Crop Ecology : Productivity and Management in Agricultural Systems

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Crop Ecology : Productivity and Management in Agricultural Systems

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 538 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521383790
  • DDC分類 631

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xiii
Part I Farming systems and their biological 1 (128)
components
Agricultural systems 3 (29)
Introduction 3 (1)
On the nature of agricultural systems 3 (5)
Management of farming systems 8 (2)
Plant production 10 (6)
Trophic systems in agriculture 16 (3)
Animal and human nutrition 19 (9)
Carrying capacity 28 (2)
Summary 30 (1)
Further reading 31 (1)
Community concepts 32 (28)
Introduction 32 (1)
Community change 32 (2)
Biomass accumulation 34 (8)
Responses to crowding in monoculture 42 (5)
Competition in mixtures 47 (7)
Community responses to limiting factors 54 (4)
Summary 58 (1)
Further reading 59 (1)
Stability 60 (22)
Introduction 60 (2)
Yield variation 62 (4)
Accommodating variation 66 (4)
Diversity and stability 70 (5)
Some uncertainties about the future 75 (4)
Maintenance of agricultural systems 79 (1)
Summary 80 (1)
Further reading 81 (1)
Genetic resources 82 (22)
Introduction 82 (1)
Genetic diversity in agriculture 82 (4)
Change in genetic structure 86 (5)
Cultivar development 91 (7)
Genetic advance and maintenance of diversity 98 (4)
Summary 102 (1)
Further reading 103 (1)
Development 104 (25)
Introduction 104 (1)
Developmental time 105 (3)
Developmental switches 108 (6)
Crop improvement 114 (2)
Quantifying phenological response 116 (5)
Seed germination and dormancy 121 (6)
Summary 127 (1)
Further reading 128 (1)
Part II Physical and chemical environments 129 (64)
Aerial environment 131 (33)
Introduction 131 (1)
Radiation concepts 132 (2)
The SW source 134 (1)
Sun--Earth geometry 135 (3)
SW penetration of the atmosphere 138 (3)
Radiation balance 141 (3)
Energy balance 144 (6)
Turbulent transport 150 (3)
Advection 153 (2)
Microclimate 155 (2)
Weather and climate 157 (5)
Summary 162 (1)
Further reading 163 (1)
Soil resources 164 (29)
On the nature of soil 164 (1)
Soil chemistry 164 (3)
Soil formation 167 (7)
Soil types 174 (2)
Soil properties 176 (6)
Water and air components 182 (6)
Soil temperature relations 188 (2)
Summary 190 (2)
Further reading 192 (1)
Part III Production processes 193 (124)
Nitrogen processes 195 (29)
Introduction 195 (1)
The nitrogen cycle 195 (4)
Decay and immobilization 199 (2)
Mineralization and nitrification 201 (1)
Loss of nitrogen 202 (4)
Assimilation of mineral nitrogen by plants 206 (1)
Nitrogen fixation 207 (4)
Example nitrogen cycles 211 (5)
Farming with organic sources of nitrogen 216 (6)
Summary 222 (1)
Further reading 223 (1)
Water relations 224 (33)
Introduction 224 (1)
Flow of water through a crop 225 (2)
Evapotranspiration and its components 227 (4)
Evaporation from drying soil 231 (1)
Collection of water by root systems 232 (4)
A model of crop water balance 236 (2)
Responses of crops to water deficit 238 (1)
Patterns of water shortage 238 (2)
Adaptation to drought 240 (12)
Water-use efficiency 252 (2)
Summary 254 (2)
Further reading 256 (1)
Photosynthesis 257 (32)
Overview 257 (1)
Photosynthetic systems 257 (4)
Leaf photosynthesis 261 (10)
Canopy photosynthesis 271 (4)
Modeling canopy photosynthesis 275 (5)
Canopy structure for productivity and 280 (7)
competitiveness
Summary 287 (1)
Further reading 288 (1)
Respiration and partitioning 289 (28)
Introduction 289 (1)
Carbon use in respiration and synthesis 289 (11)
Morphological aspects of partitioning 300 (15)
Summary 315 (1)
Further reading 316 (1)
Part IV Resource Management 317 (176)
Soil management and sustainability 319 (30)
Introduction 319 (1)
Plant nutrition 320 (4)
Management of soil fertility 324 (8)
Tillage 332 (5)
Drainage 337 (1)
Erosion 338 (7)
Land capability 345 (2)
Summary 347 (1)
Further reading 348 (1)
Strategies and tactics for rainfed agriculture 349 (29)
Introduction 349 (1)
Agriculture of west regions 349 (1)
Principles of the efficient use of water 350 (1)
Patterns of water shortage and crop types 351 (1)
Optimum pattern of water use 352 (4)
Cultivars and sowing time 356 (2)
Crop rotations and fertilizer 358 (3)
Density and planting arrangement 361 (1)
Fallow 362 (6)
Simulation models and the analysis of 368 (9)
cropping strategies
Summary 377 (1)
Further reading 377 (1)
Water management in irrigated agriculture 378 (22)
Introduction 378 (1)
Salinity and alkalinity 379 (5)
Water use and productivity 384 (2)
Irrigation methods 386 (5)
Irrigation scheduling 391 (2)
Allocation of water on farms 393 (1)
Management of water supply and drainage 394 (3)
Selection of areas for irrigation schemes 397 (1)
Summary 398 (1)
Further reading 399 (1)
Energy and labor 400 (28)
Introduction 400 (1)
Energy and food production 400 (7)
Sources and utilization of energy 407 (2)
Energy analyses 409 (2)
Improving the efficiency of energy use 411 (7)
Low-input farming 418 (2)
Energy from biomass 420 (4)
Future prospects for energy 424 (1)
Summary 425 (2)
Further reading 427 (1)
Analysis of wheat--sheep farming in southern 428 (22)
Australia
Introduction 428 (2)
Relationship to adjacent areas 430 (1)
Soils 430 (1)
Climate 430 (1)
Farming operations 431 (2)
Wheat production 433 (5)
Animal production 438 (2)
Pasture production 440 (4)
Nutrient balance of the system 444 (2)
Ecological stability 446 (2)
Summary 448 (1)
Further reading 449 (1)
Mixed farming in the North American Corn Belt 450 (25)
Introduction 450 (3)
Climate 453 (1)
Soils 454 (1)
Farming operations 455 (2)
Maize and soybean production 457 (3)
Oat and forage production 460 (1)
Pasture production 461 (1)
Cattle operations 462 (3)
Hydrology 465 (1)
Nutrient dynamics 466 (4)
Assessments 470 (3)
Outlook 473 (1)
Further reading 474 (1)
Towards an uncertain future 475 (18)
Introduction 475 (1)
Population and food supply 475 (3)
Food production since 1940 478 (4)
The importance of a technological 482 (5)
agriculture
Improving technology 487 (5)
Conclusions 492 (1)
Further reading 492 (1)
References 493 (22)
Species list 515 (3)
Conversions and constants useful in crop ecology 518 (2)
Index 520