The Phytogeography of Northern Europe : (British Isles, Fennoscandia and Adjacent Areas)

The Phytogeography of Northern Europe : (British Isles, Fennoscandia and Adjacent Areas)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 297 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521383585
  • DDC分類 581.948

Table of Contents

Preface                                            ix (2)
John Birks
Acknowledgements xi
1 Introduction 1 (14)
The interpretation of plant distribution 3 (4)
patterns
The experimental approach 7 (2)
The field approach 9 (2)
Climatic correlations 11 (1)
Floristic elements 12 (3)
2 Climate 15 (7)
3 Edaphic factors 22 (4)
4 The geological history of the present 26 (14)
European flora
The late Tertiary 26 (1)
The Pleistocene 27 (1)
The maximum Pleistocene glaciation 28 (3)
The Weichselian glacial stage 31 (2)
The late-glacial period 33 (1)
The immigration of the flora after the 34 (6)
Weichselian glacial stage
5 The atlantic and oceanic elements 40 (15)
The atlantic element 40 (8)
The oceanic element of bryophytes and 48 (7)
lichens
6 The thermophilic element 55 (26)
Introduction 55 (1)
Timber-lines 56 (4)
Respiration and growth 60 (5)
Calculation of respiration sums 65 (1)
The Iversen thermal-limit diagrams 65 (2)
Correlations between distribution limits 67 (8)
and respiration sums (R-values)
Effect of changing parameters 75 (2)
Effects of low summer temperatures on plants 77 (3)
Palaeoecological considerations 80 (1)
7 The boreal element 81 (12)
Climatic correlations 81 (6)
Ecophysiology 87 (4)
Palaeoecological implications 91 (2)
8 The arctic, alpine and montane elements 93 (17)
Climatic correlations 94 (8)
Ecophysiology 102(7)
Palaeoecological considerations 109(1)
9 Endemic, disjunct and centric distribution 110(39)
patterns
Introduction 110(1)
Ecology of periglacial survival 111(2)
Endemics 113(9)
Disjunct and relict occurences 122(21)
Centric distributions 143(4)
Alternative phytogeographic explanations 147(2)
10 Anthropochorous plants 149(8)
Appendix I Calculation of climatic parameters 157(5)
for comparison with plant distributional data
Appendix II The Northern European species of 162(73)
Flora Europaea with indications of their status
and climatic correlations
Appendix III Arctic species of vascular plants 235(1)
Appendix IV Endemic species of vascular 236(8)
plants, bryophytes and lichens
Appendix V Extra-European disjunctions -- 244(3)
bryophytes and lichens
References 247(22)
Index 269