Foundations of French Syntax (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics)

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Foundations of French Syntax (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 557 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521381048
  • DDC分類 448.2421

基本説明

Designed for students, this analysis of the principal areas of French grammar combines the insights of modern linguistic theorty with those of more traditional grammarians.

Full Description


Designed for students, this detailed analysis of the principal areas of French grammar combines the insights of modern linguistic theory with those of more traditional grammarians. Theory is placed firmly in the service of description and analysis, and students are guided to an understanding of the French language which will complement the information offered by traditional reference grammars. The book includes discussion of verbs and verb phrases, voice, tense and mood, the noun phrase and pronouns, prepositions and variations in sentence-structure. The author pays special attention to those areas of French grammar which pose difficulties for an English-speaking reader. Each chapter is followed by a set of problems and exercises, and by a useful guide to further reading. Foundations of French Syntax assumes no prior knowledge of linguistics, and will appeal to students and teachers of linguistics, French and other Romance languages.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xxi(4)
Notational conventions xxv
1 Introduction 1 (49)
1.1 SOME BASIC SYNTACTIC PATTERNS 1 (8)
1.1.1. Do human languages have a syntax? 1 (1)
1.1.2. Word classes 2 (1)
1.1.3. Phrase structure 3 (3)
1.1.4. Verb Phrases 6 (2)
1.1.5. Some terminology 8 (1)
1.2 GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS 9 (8)
1.2.1. Subjects and objects 9 (1)
1.2.2 Complements and modifiers 10 (2)
1.2.3 Transitivity 12 (1)
1.2.4 Theta-roles 12 (1)
1.2.5 Lexical entries 13 (1)
1.2.6 Complements of adjectives 14 (1)
1.2.7 Complements of nouns 15 (1)
1.2.8 Prepositions and their complements 16 (1)
1.3 CLAUSES 17 (3)
1.3.1 Complement clauses 17 (1)
1.3.2 Infinitival clauses 18 (1)
1.3.3 Recursion 18 (1)
1.3.4 Some preliminary conclusions 19 (1)
1.4 REFINING THE MODEL: THE `X-BAR' 20 (7)
FRAMEWORK
1.4.1 Structure of the NP 20 (3)
1.4.2 Generalising the `X-bar' framework 23 (1)
1.4.3 The `Inflection' node and the 24 (3)
structure of clauses
1.5 MOVEMENT RULES 27 (13)
1.5.1 Underlying and surface structures: 27 (1)
the position of pronouns
1.5.2 QU-movement and Inversion 28 (1)
1.5.3 `Grammatical' and `logical' 29 (2)
subjects: passive constructions
1.5.4 Extraposition 31 (2)
1.5.5 Topicalisation and Dislocation 33 (1)
1.5.6 Case 34 (3)
1.5.7 Properties of movement rules 37 (3)
1.6 SOME WIDER ISSUES 40 (10)
1.6.1 Approaches to grammar 40 (1)
1.6.2 Non-structural aspects of syntax 41 (1)
1.6.3 Syntactic variation 42 (1)
1.6.4 The limits of regularity 43 (3)
Exercises 46 (2)
Further reading 48 (2)
2 Verbs and verb Phrases 50 (49)
2.1 OVERVIEW 50 (1)
2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS 50 (4)
2.2.1 Are verbs `doing' words? 50 (1)
2.2.2 More than one category? 51 (1)
2.2.3 Causative and non-causative verbs 52 (2)
2.3 SYNTATIC CLASSIFICATION 54 (7)
2.3.1 Lexical entries of verbs 54 (2)
2.3.2 Three-place verbs 56 (1)
2.3.3 Two-place verbs 57 (1)
2.3.4 Clauses as direct or indirect 57 (2)
objects
2.3.5 Infinitival complement clauses 59 (2)
2.4 VARIATIONS IN ARGUMENT STRUCTURE 61 (6)
2.4.1 Optional complements 61 (1)
2.4.2 `Knock-on' effects 62 (1)
2.4.3 Eliminating or adding an Agent 63 (1)
2.4.4 Pronominal verbs 64 (1)
2.4.5 Impersonal verbs 65 (1)
2.4.6 Weatber verbs 66 (1)
2.5 COPULAR VERBS 67 (7)
2.5.1 Constructions with `etre' 67 (3)
2.5.2 `Small clauses' 70 (1)
2.5.3 Other copular verbs 71 (1)
2.5.4 Other small clause constructions 72 (2)
2.6 `HAVE' RELATIONS 74 (6)
2.6.1 Possessive and `associative' 74 (1)
relations
2.6.2 `Avoir soif' 75 (1)
2.6.3 `Avoir les yeux bleus' 76 (2)
2.6.4 Epistemic dative constructions 78 (2)
2.7 AUXILIARY VERBS 80 (8)
2.7.1 What are auxiliary verbs? 80 (1)
2.7.2 Auxiliary verbs and clitic pronouns 81 (1)
2.7.3 Auxiliaries and negation 82 (1)
2.7.4 Auxiliaries and Stylistic-inversion 83 (1)
2.7.5 Order of auxiliaries 84 (2)
2.7.6 Relationship of auxiliaries to the 86 (1)
lexical verb
2.7.7 Which are the auxiliary verbs? 86 (1)
2.7.8 Some differences between 87 (1)
auxiliaries in English and French
2.8 AUXILIARY CHOICE AND PAST-PARTICIPLE 88 (11)
AGREEMENT
2.8.1 Auxiliary choice 88 (2)
2.8.2 Unaccusative verbs 90 (2)
2.8.3 A structural approach to auxiliary 92 (1)
choice
2.8.4 Agreement of the past participle 93 (2)
Exercises 95 (2)
Further reading 97 (2)
3 Voice 99 (37)
3.1 OVERVIEW 99 (1)
3.2 PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS 99 (12)
3.2.1 General properties 99 (1)
3.2.2 A formal analysis 100(2)
3.2.3 Lexical restrictions on passives 102(1)
3.2.4 Idioms 103(1)
3.2.5 Syntactic restrictions on passives 103(1)
3.2.6 Double object constructions 104(2)
3.2.7 Passive vs adjectives 106(1)
3.2.8 Passive voice and tense 107(1)
3.2.9 'Par' or'de? 108(1)
3.2.10 Functions of the passive 109(1)
construction
3.2.11 Avoidance of the passive: 110(1)
alternative constructions
3.3 PRONOMINAL VOICE 111(9)
3.3.1 Types of pronominal verb 111(2)
constructions
3.3.2 Intrinsic and Neutral cases 113(1)
3.3.3 Pronominal verbs and 'true' 114(1)
reflexives
3.3.4 Middle and passive constructions 115(2)
3.3.5 Middle and Neutral constructions 117(3)
3.4 IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTIONS 120(16)
3.4.1 Intrinsic impersonal verbs 120(1)
3.4.2 Derived impersonal constructions 121(1)
3.4.3 NP-postposing 122(1)
3.4.4 The indefiniteness effect 123(1)
3.4.5 Unaccusativity and impersonal 124(2)
constructions
3.4.6 The existential function of 126(1)
derived impersonals
3.4.7 Clause-postposing 127(1)
3.4.8 'Il'vs'ce/ca' 127(1)
3.4.9 Semantic effects of 128(1)
Clause-postposing
3.4.10 Is Clause-postposing necessary? 129(1)
3.4.11 Impersonal passives 130(2)
Exercises 132(2)
Further reading 134(2)
4 Tense, aspect and mood 136(64)
4.1 OVERVIEW 136(1)
4.2 ANALYSING TENSE AND ASPECT 136(6)
4.2.1 The concept of tense 136(1)
4.2.2 Representing tense 137(2)
4.2.3 Aspect 139(2)
4.2.4 Encoding tense and aspect in 141(1)
English and French
4.3 THE EXPRESSION OF PAST TIME 142(12)
4.3.1 Past-historic vs imperfect 142(2)
4.3.2 Past tenses in narrative discourse 144(3)
4.3.3 Past-historic vs compound-past 147(3)
4.3.4 The `dramatic' imperfect 150(1)
4.3.5 Flashing back and moving forward 151(3)
4.4 THE PRESENT 154(4)
4.4.1 Describing events in the present 154(2)
4.4.2 The `narrative present' 156(1)
4.4.3 Describing the immediate past 157(1)
4.5 LOOKING AHEAD 158(5)
4.5.1 Describing the future 158(1)
4.5.2 Future tense and predictive 159(1)
modality
4.5.3 `Aller' vs the inflected-future 160(2)
4.5.4 Future in the past 162(1)
4.5.5 The future-perfect 163(1)
4.6 THE TENSE OF INFINITIVES 163(3)
4.7 TENSE AND ADVERBIAL EXPRESSIONS OF TIME 166(7)
4.7.1 Adverbial expressions of time 166(2)
4.7.2 `Dans trois jours' vs `trois jours 168(1)
apres'
4.7.3 `Deja' 169(1)
4.7.4 `Encore' and `toujours' 169(1)
4.7.5 Time clauses 170(1)
4.7.6 `Depuis' 171(2)
4.8 MODAL USES OF TENSE FORMS 173(6)
4.8.1 Conditional constructions 173(3)
4.8.2 Other modal uses of the conditional 176(1)
4.8.3 Modality or `tense harmony'? 177(2)
4.9 MOOD 179(21)
4.9.1 The concept of mood 179(1)
4.9.2 Mood and tense 179(1)
4.9.3 Mood in main clauses 180(2)
4.9.4 What do complement clauses 182(1)
represent?
4.9.5 Complements of cognitive verbs 183(3)
4.9.6 Complements of declarative verbs 186(1)
4.9.7 Complements of modal expressions 187(1)
4.9.8 complements of `emotive' and 188(2)
`manipulative' expressions
4.9.9 A syntactic condition on mood 190(1)
4.9.10 Adverbial clauses 191(2)
4.9.11 Subjunctive relative clauses 193(2)
Exercises 195(4)
Further reading 199(1)
5 The Noun Phrase 200(45)
5.1 OVERVIEW 200(1)
5.2 TYPES OF NOUN 200(8)
5.2.1 Common, and proper nouns 200(2)
5.2.2 Countability 202(2)
5.2.3 `Pluralia tantum' nouns 204(1)
5.2.4 Collective nouns 204(1)
5.2.5 Quantity nouns 205(1)
5.2.6 Compound nouns 206(1)
5.2.7 Gender 206(2)
5.3 THE DETERMINER SYSTEM 208(12)
5.3.1 Are determiners obligatory? 208(1)
5.3.2 Appositive NPs 210(1)
5.3.3 Other determinerless NPs 210(1)
5.3.4 Determiners vs prenominal 211(2)
adjectives
5.3.5 Definiteness and generic reference 213(2)
5.3.6 Indefinite quantifiers 215(2)
5.3.7 Partitive constructions 217(1)
5.3.8 Constructions with quantity and 218(2)
collective nouns
5.4 CONSTRUCTION WITH `DE' 220(13)
5.4.1 `De' as a Case marker 220(2)
5.4.2 `Un espece de cochon' 222(1)
5.4.3 `Quelque-choose d'interessant' 223(1)
5.4.4 Indefinite `du',`de la' and `des' 224(2)
5.4.5 `De' in negative sentences 226(1)
5.4.6 Remote quantification 227(1)
5.4.7 `De' with prenominal adjectives 228(1)
5.4.8 The `cacophony' phenomenon 229(2)
5.4.9 Complements of `sans' 231(2)
5.5 UNIVERSAL QUANTIFIERS 223(12)
5.5.1 `Tous' and `tout' 233(1)
5.5.2 `Tout' and `tous' as pronouns 234(2)
5.5.3 Quantifier floating 236(1)
5.5.4 Floating of `tout' 237(1)
5.5.5 `Chaque' and `chacun' 238(2)
5.5.6 `Tous les deux' 240(1)
Exercises 241(2)
Further reading 243(2)
6 Pronouns 245(65)
6.1 OVERVIEW 245(1)
6.2 CLITIC-PLACEMENT 246(6)
6.2.1 Clitic and disjunctive pronouns 246(1)
6.2.2 Structural conditions on 247(2)
Clitic-placement
6.2.3 Properties of clitic and 249(1)
disjunctive pronouns
6.2.4 Subject pronouns 249(2)
6.2.5 Dative clitics 251(1)
6.3 ORDER AND COMPATIBILITY OF CLITIC 252(5)
PRONOUNS
6.3.1 Declarative sentences 252(3)
6.3.2 Clitics in imperative sentences 255(2)
6.4 PERSONAL, DEMONSTRATIVE AND 257(7)
`ADVERBIAL' PRONOUNS
6.4.1 Referential properties of personal 257(1)
pronouns
6.4.2 Demonstrative pronouns 258(2)
6.4.3 Generic `ce'and `ca' 260(1)
6.4.4 Objects of prepositions 260(1)
6.4.5 `Adverbial' clitics 261(1)
6.4.6 `Y' and `en' as pro-PPs 262(1)
6.4.7 `Disjunctive pro-PPs 263(1)
6.4.8 A note on deixis 263(1)
6.5 THE PRO-PP `Y' 264(5)
6.5.1 Dative clitics and `y' 264(3)
6.5.2 Suppletive `y' 267(2)
6.6 THE PRO-PP `EN' 269(6)
6.6.1 `En' and `de' 269(1)
6.6.2 `En' or `son'? 269(2)
6.6.3 `En-avant' 271(1)
6.6.4 Indefinite `en' 272(3)
6.7 PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS 275(17)
6.7.1 Coreference across sentences 275(1)
6.7.2 Structural conditions on 276(3)
coreference
6.7.3 Reflexive and reciprocal pronouns 279(1)
6.7.4 Anaphors 280(1)
6.7.5 Derived subjects 281(1)
6.7.6 First-and second-person clitics 282(1)
6.7.7 Pronouns with `-meme' 283(2)
6.7.8 Possessive determiners 285(1)
6.7.9 `On' 286(2)
6.7.10 `Soi' 288(1)
6.7.11 `Les uns...les autres' 289(2)
6.7.12 Other constructions with `les 291(1)
uns' and `les autres'
6.8 INCIDENTAL DATIVES 292(9)
6.8.1 Dative clitics and `a' + NP 292(1)
6.8.2 Dative of interest 293(1)
6.8.3 Possessive datives 294(3)
6.8.4 `Il leve les mains' vs `Il se lave 297(1)
les mains'
6.8.5 `On l`a poignarde dans le dos' 298(1)
6.8.6 `On leur a tire dessus' vs `On a 299(1)
tire sur eux'
6.8.7 Ethic datives 300(1)
6.9 PRONOUNS IN COPULAR CONSTRUCTIONS 301(9)
6.9.1 Indetificational sentences 301(1)
6.9.2 Predicational sentences 301(2)
6.9.3 Predicational complements 303(2)
6.9.4 Impersonal small clauses 305(1)
Exercises 306(3)
Further reading 309(1)
7 Adjectives, adverbs and negation 310(66)
7.1 OVERVIEW 310(1)
7.2 TYPES OF ADJECTIVES 310(5)
7.2.1 Adnominal and predicative uses 310(1)
7.2.2 Gradability 311(1)
7.2.3 Classificatory and argumental 312(1)
adjectives
7.2.4 `Intensional' adjectives 313(1)
7.2.5 `Attitudinal' adjectives 313(1)
7.2.6 Specificational adjectives 314(1)
7.2.7 How adjectives modify nouns 314(1)
7.3 POSITIONS OF ADJECTIVES 315(17)
7.3.1 Restrictions on predicative use 315(3)
7.3.2 Prenominal and postnominal 318(5)
adjectives
7.3.3 Syntactic restrictions on the 323(1)
position of adnominal adjectives
7.3.4 Order of adjectives 324(3)
7.3.5 Some problems of agreement 327(1)
7.3.6 Adjectives as nouns 328(4)
7.4 COMPLEMENTS OF ADJECTIVES 332(4)
7.4.1 `Object-gap' constructions 332(2)
7.4.2 Constructions with `trop' and 334(2)
`assez'
7.5 ADVERBS 336(11)
7.5.1 What are adverbs? 336(1)
7.5.2 A traditional typology of adverbs 337(2)
7.5.3 Adverbs modifying adjectives, 339(1)
prepositions or other adverbs
7.5.4 VP adverbs 340(5)
7.5.5 Sentence adverbs 345(2)
7.6 NEGATION AND RELATED PHENOMENA 347(18)
7.6.1 The status of `ne' 347(1)
7.6.2 The syntax of `pas' and `not' 348(2)
7.6.3 `Pas' and other adverbs 350(1)
7.6.4 The `split Inflection' hypothesis 351(1)
7.6.5 Negative adverbs 352(1)
7.6.6 Negative pronouns and determiners 353(1)
7.6.7 Partial negation and negative 354(3)
polarity
7.6.8 Partial negation of complex 357(2)
sentences
7.6.9 `Ni...ni' 359(1)
7.6.10 `Ne...que' 360(2)
7.6.11 Total negation without `pas' 362(1)
7.6.12 Expletive uses of `ne' 363(1)
7.6.13 `Non pas' 363(2)
7.7 COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE 365(11)
CONSTRUCTIONS
7.7.1 Types of comparison 365(1)
7.7.2 Comparative degree items 366(1)
7.7.3 Expressing the `standard of 367(3)
comparison'
7.7.4 Superlative constructions 370(2)
7.7.5 `Plus...plus' 372(1)
Exercises 372(2)
Further reading 374(2)
8 Prepositions 376(36)
8.1 OVERVIEW 376(1)
8.2 STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF PREPOSITIONS 376(5)
8.2.1 The properties and functions of 376(2)
prepositions
8.2.2 Structure of the PP 378(1)
8.2.3 Conjoined PPs 379(2)
8.3 PREPOSITIONS AND THEIR COMPLEMENTS 381(7)
8.3.1 Prepositions which select PPs 381(1)
8.3.2 Prepositions and `subordinating 381(1)
conjunctions'
8.3.3 Prepositions vs complementisers 382(1)
8.3.4 `Que' deletion 383(2)
8.3.5 Prepositions with infinitives 385(1)
8.3.6 Intransitive prepositions 386(1)
8.3.7 Adverbs of place and time 387(1)
8.4 COMPLEX PREPOSITIONS 388(5)
8.4.1 Two structural approaches 388(2)
8.4.2 The status of `de' in `complex 390(2)
prepositions'
8.4.3 `Complex prepositions' with 391(1)
possessive determiners
8.4.4 `Complex prepositions' based on 392(1)
verbs
8.5 PREPOSITIONS AND THE EXPRESSION OF 393(9)
MOVEMENT
8.5.1 Locative prepositions in French 393(1)
and English
8.5.2 Specifying the Goal 394(2)
8.5.3 `Vers' and `jusque' 396(1)
8.5.4 The expression of `Source' 397(2)
8.5.5 Locative prepositions indicating 399(1)
Source
8.5.6 Some lexical gaps in French and 400(1)
English
8.5.7 The `chasse-croise' phenomenon 400(2)
8.6 PROBLEMS RELATING TO PARTICULAR 402(10)
PREPOSITIONS
8.6.1 The problem of `en' 402(1)
8.6.2 Prepositions with names of 403(1)
languages
8.6.3 Prepositions with names of countries 404(1)
8.6.4 Prepositions with names of seasons 404(1)
and dates
8.6.5 `En' vs `dans' 404(1)
8.6.6 `En' vs `a:a historical account 405(1)
8.6.7 Further uses of `en' 406(1)
8.6.8 `De' vs `avec' 406(3)
Exercises 409(2)
Further reading 411(1)
9 Infinitival clauses 412(51)
9.1 OVERVIEW 412(1)
9.2 INFINITIVES WITHOUT OVERT SUBJECTS 412(18)
9.2.1 The Control phenomenon 412(2)
9.2.2 Infinitives with `cognitive' verbs 414(2)
9.2.3 `Arbitrary PRO' and implicit 416(4)
Control
9.2.4 Subject-raising 420(1)
9.2.5 How to recognise Subject-raising 421(3)
constructions
9.2.6 Some syntactic `faux-amis' 424(1)
9.2.7 Some ambiguous or indeterminate 425(3)
cases
9.2.8 The modal verbs `pouvoir' and 428(2)
`devoir'
9.3 INFINITIVAL CONSTRUCTIONS WITH 430(14)
`FAIRE', `LAISSER' AND VERBS OF PERCEPTION
9.3.1 Expressing the subject 430(2)
9.3.2 The `par strategy 432(3)
9.3.3 Other constructions with `faire' 435(1)
and a missing subject
9.3.4 Constructions with `laisser' and 435(2)
verbs of perception
9.3.5 The accusative and dative 437(2)
strategies
9.3.6 Extensions of the dative strategy 439(2)
9.3.7 Lexical and syntactic causatives 441(3)
9.4 CLITIC PRONOUNS IN INFINITIVAL 444(12)
CONSTRUCTIONS
9.4.1 Accusative and Dative clitics 444(4)
9.4.2 Ordering of syntactic operations 448(1)
9.4.3 `En' and `Y' in causative 449(2)
constructions
9.4.4 Reflexive clitics in causative 451(3)
constructions
9.4.5 A note on agreement of the past 454(2)
participle
9.5 SOME FURTHER ISSUES 456(7)
9.5.1 Infinitival particles 456(1)
9.5.2 Gerundive constructions 457(2)
Exercises 459(3)
Further reading 462(1)
10 Inversion and QU-movement 463(72)
10.1 OVERVIEW 463(1)
10.2 TYPES OF INVERSION 464(8)
10.2.1 Inversion in questions 464(3)
10.2.2 Further cases of 467(2)
Stylistic-inversion
10.2.3 Subject-clitic Inversion in 469(1)
`peut-etre' constructions
10.2.4 Subject-clitic Inversion in 470(1)
condition clauses
10.2.5 Incises 471(1)
10.2.6 Inversion contexts: a summary 471(1)
10.3 THE SYNTAX OF INVERSION 472(12)
10.3.1 Simple Subject-clitic Inversion 472(1)
10.3.2 A note on `est-ce-que' 473(1)
10.3.3 Complex inversion and 474(2)
left-dislocation
10.3.4 Stylistic-inversion 476(4)
10.3.5 Avoidance of Inversion 480(2)
10.3.6 Subject-clitic Inversion and 482(2)
QU-movement
10.4 INTERROGATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS 484(14)
10.4.1 Interrogative pronouns 484(2)
(`qui',`que' and `quoi')
10.4.2 The item `quel' 486(3)
10.4.3 `Pourquoi' 489(1)
10.4.4 `Combien' 490(3)
10.4.5 Indirect questions 493(1)
10.4.6 `Que',`qui' and `quoi' in 494(2)
indirect questions
10.4.7 Infinitival questions 496(2)
10.5 RELATIVE CLAUSES 498(20)
10.5.1 The functions of relative clauses 498(2)
10.5.2 Structural properties of relative 500(1)
clauses
10.5.3 Relative clauses in English 500(2)
10.5.4 Relative pronouns 502(1)
10.5.5 Relative `adverbs' 502(2)
10.5.6 `Que' in relative clauses 504(2)
10.5.7 `Qui' in subject relatives 506(2)
10.5.8 The item `dont' 508(4)
10.5.9 Infinitival relatives 512(1)
10.5.10 Free relatives 513(2)
10.5.11 Non-restrictive relatives 515(2)
10.5.12 Relative clauses with resumptive 517(1)
pronouns
10.5.13 Apparent cases of preposition 517(1)
stranding
10.6 QU - EXCLAMATIVES 518(6)
10.6.1 Types of QU - exclamatives 518(2)
10.6.2 Exclamatives with `combien' 520(1)
10.6.3 Exclamatives with `comme' 521(1)
10.6.4 Exclamatives with `que' 522(1)
10.6.5 Exclamatives with `ce que' and 523(1)
`qu'est-ce que'
10.7 OTHER QU - CONSTRUCTIONS 524(11)
10.7.1 Pseudo-relatives 524(2)
10.7.2 Cleft constructions 526(2)
10.7.3 `Pseudo-cleft' constructions 528(1)
Exercises 529(4)
Further reading 533(2)
Bibliography 535(14)
Index 549