Policraticus : Of the Frivolities of Courtiers and the Footprints of Philosophers (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought)

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Policraticus : Of the Frivolities of Courtiers and the Footprints of Philosophers (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 288 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521367011
  • DDC分類 320.01


Ed. by Cary J. Nederman.

Full Description

John of Salisbury (c.1115-1180) was the foremost political theorist of his age. He was trained in scholastic theology and philosophy at Paris, and his writings are invaluable for summarising many of the metaphysical speculations of his time. The Policraticus is his main work, and is regarded as the first complete work of political theory to be written in the Latin Middle Ages. Cary Nederman's 1991 edition and translation is primarily aimed at undergraduate students of the history of political thought and medieval history. His translation shows how important this text is in understanding the mores, forms of conduct and beliefs of the most powerful and learned segments of twelfth-century Western Europe.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements                                   xiii
Editor's Introduction xv
Bibliographical note xxvii
Principal events in the life of John of xxix
Prologue 3 (6)
What most harms the fortunate 9 (1)
In what consists devotion to unsuitable goals 10 (1)
The distribution of duties according to the 10 (4)
political constitution of the ancients
Prologue 13 (1)
Of the universal and public welfare 14 (3)
That pride is the root of all evil and 17 (1)
passionate desire a general leprosy which
infects all
The flatterer, the today and the cajoler, 18 (1)
than whom none is more pernicious
The multiplication of flatterers is beyond 19 (3)
number and pushes out of distinguished houses
those who are honourable
That the Romans are dedicated to vanity and 22 (3)
what the ends of flatterers are
That it is only permitted to flatter him who 25 (3)
it is permitted to slay; and that the tyrant
is a public enemy
Prologue 27 (1)
On the difference between the prince and the 28 (2)
tyrant, and what the prince is
What law is; and that the prince, although he 30 (2)
is an absolutely binding law unto him-self,
still is the servant of law and equity, the
bearer of the public persona, and sheds blood
That the prince is a minister of priests and 32 (3)
their inferior; and what it is for rulers to
perform their ministry faithfully
That the authority of divine law consists in 35 (3)
the prince being subject to the justice of law
That the prince must be chaste and shun 38 (3)
That the ruler must have the law of God 41 (5)
always before his mind and eyes, and he is to
be proficient in letters, and he is to
receive counsel from men of letters
That the fear of God should be taught, and 46 (3)
humility should exist, and this humility
should be protected so that the authority of
the prince is not diminished; and that some
precepts are flexible, others inflexible
Of the moderation of the prince's justice and 49 (4)
mercy, which should be temperately mixed for
the utility of the republic
What it is to stray to the right or to the 53 (1)
left, which is forbidden to the prince
What utility princes may acquire from the 54 (2)
cultivation of justice
What are the other rewards of princes 56 (5)
By what cause rulership and kingdoms are 61 (4)
Prologue 65 (1)
Plutarch's letter instructing Trajan 65 (1)
According to Plutarch, what a republic is and 66 (2)
what place is held in it by the soul of the
What is principally directed by Plutarch's 68 (1)
Of the prince, who is the head of the 69 (6)
republic, and his election, and privileges,
and the rewards of virtue and sin; and that
blessed Job should be imitated; and of the
virtues of blessed Job
What bad and good happens to subjects on 75 (4)
account of the morals of princes; and that
the examples of some stratagems strengthen
Why Trajan seems to be preferable to all 79 (2)
Of those who hold the place of the heart, and 81 (4)
that the iniquitous are prevented from
counselling the powerful, and of the fear of
God, and wisdom, and philosophy
Of the flanks of the powerful, whose needs 85 (6)
are to be satisfied and whose malice is to be
Of the eyes, ears and tongue of the powerful, 91 (4)
and of the duties of governing, and that
judges ought to have a knowledge of right and
equity, a good will and the power of
execution, and that they should be bound by
oath to the laws and should be distanced from
the taint of presents
What pertains to the sacred calling of 95 (4)
proconsuls, governors and ordinary justices,
and to what extent it is permitted to reach
out for gifts; and of Cicero, Bernard, Martin
and Geoffrey of Chartres
Money is condemned in favour of wisdom; this 99 (5)
is also approved by the examples of the
ancient philosophers
Prologue 103 (1)
That the hand of the republic is either armed 104 (5)
or unarmed; and which one is unarmed, and
regarding its duties
That military service requires selection, 109 (3)
knowledge and practice
What ills arise from disregard by our 112 (2)
countrymen for the selection of soldiers, and
how Harold tamed the Welsh
What is the formula of the oath of the 114 (1)
soldier, and that no one is permitted to
serve in the army without it
The armed soldier is by necessity bound to 115 (2)
religion, in just the way that the clergy is
consecrated in obedience to God; and that
just as the title of soldier is one of
labour, so it is one of honour
That faith is owed to God in preference to 117 (1)
any man whomsoever, and man is not served
unless God is served
The examples of recent history, and how King 118 (4)
Henry the Second quelled the disturbances and
violence under King Stephen and pacified the
Of the honour to be exhibited by soldiers, 122 (3)
and of the modesty to be shown; and who are
the transmitters of the military arts, and of
certain of their general precepts
Who are the feet of the republic and 125 (2)
regarding the care devoted to them
The republic is arranged according to its 127 (2)
resemblance to nature, and its arrangement is
derived from the bees
That without prudence and forethought no 129 (2)
magistracy remains intact, nor does that
republic flourish the head of which is
The vices of the powerful are to be tolerated 131 (6)
because with them rests the prospect of
public safety, and because they are the
dispensers of safety just as the stomach in
the body of animals dispenses nourishment,
and this is by the judgment of the Lord Adrian
Of the coherence of the head and the members 137 (2)
of the republic; and that the prince is a
sort of image of the deity, and of the crime
of high treason and of that which is to be
kept in fidelity
That vices are to be endured or removed and 139 (3)
are distinguished from flagrant crimes; and
certain general matters about the office of
the prince; and a brief epilogue on how much
reverence is to be displayed towards him
That the people are moulded by the merits of 142 (6)
the prince and the government is moulded by
the merits of the people, and every creature
is subdued and serves man at God's pleasure
Prologue 145 (3)
That the Academics are more modest than other 148 (2)
philosophers whose rashness blinds them so
that they are given to false beliefs
Of the errors of the Academics; and who among 150 (3)
them it is permitted to imitate; and those
matters which are doubtful to the wise man
That some things are demonstrated by the 153 (3)
authority of the senses, others by reason,
others by religion; and that faith in any
doctrine is justified by some stable basis
that need not be demonstrated; and that some
things are known by the learned themselves,
others by the uncultivated; and to what
extent there is to be doubt; and that
stubbornness most often impedes the
examination of truth
That virtue is the unique path to being a 156 (4)
philosopher and to advancing towards
happiness; and of the three degrees of
aspirants and of the three schools of
What it is to be a true philosopher; and the 160 (2)
end towards which all writings are directed
in their aim
Of ambition, and that passion accompanies 162 (5)
foolishness; and what is the origin of
tyranny; and of the diverse paths of the
Of hypocrites who endeavour to conceal the 167 (8)
disgrace of ambition under the false pretext
of religion
Of the love and acclaim of liberty; and of 175 (7)
those ancestors who endured patiently free
speaking of the mind; and of the difference
between an offence and a taunt
Prologue 181 (1)
That some long to be modelled after beasts 182 (6)
and insensate creatures; and how much
humanity is to be afforded to slaves; and of
the pleasures of three senses
Of the four rivers which spring for 188 (2)
Epicureans from the fount of lustfulness and
which create a deluge by which the world is
nearly submerged; and of the opposite waters
and the garments of Esau
In what way the tyrant differs from the 190 (11)
prince; and of the tyranny of priests; and in
what way a shepherd, a thief and an employee
differ from one another
Tyrants are the ministers of God; and what a 201 (5)
tyrant is; and of the moral characters of
Gaius Caligula and his nephew Nero and each
of their ends
That by the authority of the divine book it 206 (4)
is lawful and glorious to kill public
tyrants, so long as the murderer is not
obligated to the tyrant by fealty nor
otherwise lets justice or honour slip
All tyrants reach a miserable end; and that 210 (3)
God exercises punishment against them if the
human hand refrains, and this is evident from
Julian the Apostate and many examples in
sacred scripture
Of Gideon, the model for rulers, and Antiochus 213 (3)
The counsel of Brutus is to be used against 216 (9)
those who not only fight but battle
schismatically for the supreme pontificate;
and that nothing is calm for tyrants
What is the most faithful path to be followed 225 (8)
towards what the Epicureans desire and promise
Index 233