Monitoring Ecological Change

Monitoring Ecological Change

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521366625
  • DDC分類 574.522

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           xi
Preface xiii
Acknowledgements xvi
Part A. Environmental and biological monitoring 1 (60)
The Science and Art of Monitoring 3 (23)
Introduction 3 (3)
Examples and applications 6 (7)
The importance and value of biological 13 (5)
monitoring
Terms, concepts and aims 18 (5)
References 23 (3)
World Programmes and Monitoring Organizations 26 (18)
An historical perspective 26 (4)
International monitoring organizations 30 (8)
International monitoring and surveillance 38 (4)
of wildlife and natural resources
References 42 (2)
Biological Monitoring in the United States 44 (17)
and in Europe
Introduction 44 (1)
Monitoring in the United States 44 (4)
Environmental and biological monitoring in 48 (1)
Europe
Biological and ecological monitoring in 49 (10)
Britain
References 59 (2)
Part B. A biological and ecological basis for 61 (118)
monitoring
Elements of Ecology and Ecological Methods 63 (30)
Introduction 63 (1)
Populations 63 (6)
Communities and ecosystems 69 (8)
Ecological methods 77 (11)
Data collection and recording 88 (2)
References 90 (3)
Biological Indicators 93 (19)
Introduction 93 (1)
Plant and animal indicators 94 (4)
Detectors and exploiters 98 (8)
Accumulators 106 (2)
Status of biological indicators in 108 (1)
monitoring programmes
References 109 (3)
Diversity 112 (19)
Introduction 112 (1)
Number of species, species composition and 112 (5)
abundance
Species diversity indices 117 (6)
Variation in species diversity 123 (2)
Application of diversity indices 125 (4)
References 129 (2)
Similarity 131 (11)
Introduction 131 (1)
Community similarity indices 131 (5)
Application of community similarity indices 136 (1)
Ranking, classification and ordination 136 (4)
References 140 (2)
Environmental and Biotic Indices 142 (18)
Introduction 142 (1)
Environmental indices 142 (2)
Wildlife indices 144 (1)
Biotic indices 145 (12)
Development of biotic indices 157 (1)
References 158 (2)
Biological Variables, Processes and Ecosystems 160 (19)
Introduction 160 (1)
Monitoring at different levels of 161 (1)
biological organization
Localities for ecosystem monitoring 161 (1)
Aquatic ecosystems 162 (4)
Woodlands and forests 166 (4)
Estuarine ecosystems 170 (5)
References 175 (4)
Part C. Monitoring in practice 179 (149)
Planning the Monitoring 181 (16)
Introduction 181 (2)
The format and structure of a biological 183 (11)
monitoring programme
Summary 194 (1)
References 195 (2)
Monitoring Bird Populations 197 (18)
Introduction 197 (1)
Sampling, recording and interpretation 197 (4)
Bird census and surveillance programmes 201 (3)
Data collection, analysis and interpretation 204 (9)
References 213 (2)
Freshwater Biological Monitoring 215 (23)
Introduction 215 (2)
Biological and chemical monitoring 217 (2)
Monitoring water quality 219 (6)
Monitoring effects of refinery aqueous 225 (4)
effluents
Classification of rivers and lakes for 229 (6)
monitoring and surveillance
References 235 (3)
Insularization and Nature Conservation 238 (15)
Introduction 238 (4)
Losses of wildlife and rates of 242 (2)
insularization
Nature reserves 244 (2)
Effects of insularization 246 (2)
Nature reserves and monitoring insular 248 (1)
communities
Monitoring the effects of insularization 248 (2)
The role of nature reserves as monitoring 250 (1)
sites
References 251 (2)
Monitoring Land Use and Landscapes 253 (19)
Introduction 253 (1)
Organizations and land use data 254 (2)
Collecting, storing and analysing data 256 (4)
Land classes and classification 260 (6)
Land use and land cover monitoring 266 (4)
programmes
References 270 (2)
Environmental Impact Assessments and 272 (19)
Monitoring
Introduction 272 (1)
History and nature of EIAS 273 (2)
The EIA process 275 (5)
Incidence of oil spills 280 (1)
Baseline surveys and environmental 281 (2)
assessments
Monitoring coastal communities 283 (5)
References 288 (3)
Species Monitoring and Conservation 291 (37)
Introduction 291 (1)
Objectives of species monitoring programmes 291 (3)
Long-term population studies 294 (1)
Monitoring for conservation 295 (10)
References 305 (3)
Appendixes
I Construction of a dendrogram 308 (3)
II Organizations 311 (11)
III Selected sources of information for 322 (6)
identification of taxa
Index 328