The Seismic Wavefield : Interpretation of Seismograms on Regional and Global Scales 〈2〉

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The Seismic Wavefield : Interpretation of Seismograms on Regional and Global Scales 〈2〉

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 520 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521006651
  • DDC分類 551.220287

Full Description


The two volumes which make up The Seismic Wavefield provide a comprehensive guide to the understanding of seismograms in terms of physical propagation processes within the Earth. The focus is on the observation of earthquakes and man-made sources on all scales, for both body waves and surface waves. Volume I provided a general introduction and a development of the theoretical background for seismic waves. This material is exploited in Volume II to look at the way in which observed seismograms relate to the propagation processes. Volume II discusses local and regional seismic events, global wave propagation, and the three-dimensional Earth. The combination of observation and theoretical development with a strong visual focus will greatly appeal to graduate students in seismology. The two volumes will also be valuable to researchers and professionals in academia and the petroleum industry.

Table of Contents

Preface to Volume II                               xi
Part III: Local and Regional Events 1 (186)
Near Events 3 (25)
Nature of the local wavefield 3 (2)
Interaction of source and structure 5 (3)
Strong-motion observations 8 (8)
1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan 8 (3)
1995 Kobe earthquake, Japan 11 (5)
Aftershock studies 16 (12)
1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, Northern 16 (2)
California
1994 Northridge earthquake, Southern 18 (5)
California
Tennant Creek, Australia 23 (5)
Propagation Effects at Near Distances 28 (14)
Effect of surface structure 28 (2)
Effect of sedimentary basins 30 (4)
From strong ground motion to regional 34 (3)
phases
Controlled source experiments 37 (5)
Continental profiles 37 (3)
Marine profiles 40 (2)
Regional Phases I - Propagation in the 42 (36)
Crust and Uppermost Mantle
The character of regional phases 44 (4)
Crustal arrivals: Pg, Sg, Lg, Rg 45 (3)
Mantle arrivals: Pn, Sn 48 (1)
Description of regional phases 48 (8)
Near-source and near-receiver effects 51 (1)
Crustal phases: Pg, Sg, Lg 52 (2)
Mantle phases: Pn, Sn 54 (2)
Modelling of the regional wavefield 56 (7)
Evolution of the P-SV and SH wavefields 57 (2)
Influence of source depth and mechanism 59 (4)
Three component records of regional phases 63 (11)
The vector character of the regional 70 (2)
seismic wavefield
Amplitude ratios as a function of 72 (2)
distance
Regional propagation at lower frequencies 74 (4)
Regional Phases II - The Influence of 78 (30)
Structure
The crust and uppermost mantle as a 79 (6)
waveguide
The influence of structure 85 (9)
Comparison of oceanic and continental 85 (5)
environments
The effect of subduction zones 90 (2)
The nature of the crust-mantle 92 (2)
transition
Blockage of regional phases 94 (14)
Central Asia 95 (3)
North Sea, NW Europe 98 (6)
The Japanese islands 104(4)
Propagation in the Upper Mantle 108(18)
Far-regional seismograms 109(3)
Representations of upper mantle wavefields 112(5)
Ray representations of body waves 112(2)
Synthetic seismograms for body waves 114(2)
Numerical simulation of the wavefield 116(1)
Multiply reflected phases 117(9)
Fundamental and higher mode surface 120(3)
waves
Influence of heterogeneity 123(3)
Upper Mantle Structure 126(37)
The uppermost mantle 126(4)
Short-period observations 130(15)
Soviet ultra-long-range profiles 132(4)
Western America 136(4)
Northern Australia 140(2)
Northwest Pacific 142(3)
Evidence for tectonic differences using 145(2)
long-period observations
Broad-band studies 147(9)
Modelling individual seismograms 147(2)
P and S wave structure in the 149(7)
Australian region
Nature of structures in the upper part of 156(7)
the mantle
Lithospheric mantle 156(1)
Upper mantle and transition zone 157(6)
Analysis of Regional and Far-Regional 163(24)
Seismograms
Regional array analysis and event location 164(6)
Attribute analysis for regional 170(12)
seismograms
Particle motion 171(1)
Wavefield parameters 172(5)
Wavefield decomposition 177(5)
Shear-wave splitting for upper mantle 182(3)
phases
Inferences on the nature of sources 185(2)
Part IV: Global Wave Propagation 187(212)
The Nature of the Global Wavefield 189(34)
The seismic wavefield for a shallow source 190(19)
Ray behaviour for major seismic phases 190(1)
Wavefield evolution 191(18)
Synthetic seismograms 209(1)
The wavefield from a deep source 209(3)
Record sections from 2001 January 9, 212(5)
Vanuatu event
Surface waves and free oscillations of 217(6)
the Earth
Properties of the normal modes 217(5)
Observations of modal eigenfrequencies 222(1)
Body Waves in the Mantle 223(35)
Mantle phases 223(12)
Record sections for mantle phases 225(2)
The patterns of mantle arrivals 227(3)
Studying specific seismic phases 230(5)
P, S and core reflections 235(10)
Teleseismic body waves 235(5)
Core reflections 240(3)
Secondary phases 243(2)
Mantle reverberation studies 245(3)
Exploring D'' 248(10)
Long wavelength structure and CMB 249(3)
topography
D'' discontinuity 252(2)
Ultra-low velocity zones 254(1)
Shear wave anisotropy in D'' 255(3)
Body Waves and the Earth's Core 258(22)
Representation of core propagation 258(2)
processes
The character of major core phases 260(9)
PKP 260(4)
SKS 264(3)
SKP, PKS 267(2)
Internal reflections in the core 269(5)
PKP multiples 269(2)
SKS multiples 271(3)
The nature of the inner core 274(3)
Scattering of core phases 277(3)
Surface Waves and Modal Analysis 280(39)
The nature of surface waves 280(5)
Globe circling surface waves 285(5)
Analysis of surface wave records 290(17)
Estimation of surface wave dispersion 293(12)
Exploiting higher modes 305(2)
The influence of propagation path 307(12)
Mapping fundamental mode dispersion 310(4)
Higher mode dispersion 314(1)
Influence of anisotropy 315(4)
Receiver Based Studies 319(34)
The teleseismic wavefield at the surface 319(3)
Receiver functions 322(19)
Examination of receiver terms 324(9)
Inversion for crustal structure 333(3)
Receiver functions and upper mantle 336(3)
structure
Multi-station analysis of teleseismic 339(2)
coda
Shear-wave splitting 341(10)
Splitting results for stratified media 343(4)
SKS splitting 347(4)
Other classes of shear wave splitting 351(1)
Anisotropy from long-period P polarisation 351(2)
Analysis of Seismic Records 353(46)
Seismic source estimation 353(20)
Source location 354(10)
The nature of the seismic source 364(4)
Example of source characterisation 368(5)
Detection and characterisation of 373(15)
teleseisms
Phase detection and characterisation 374(8)
Exploitation of phase information 382(6)
Stacking of seismograms 388(11)
Beamforming 389(2)
Stacking at a regional network 391(4)
Studies of mantle discontinuities 395(2)
Scattered arrivals 397(2)
Part V: The Three-Dimensional Earth 399(89)
The Influence of Heterogeneity 401(25)
Representation of the wavefield 403(3)
Perturbation methods 406(3)
Direct calculation schemes 409(8)
Discretisation of differential operators 409(2)
Discretisation of the medium 411(3)
Direct solution method 414(3)
Examples of propagation in heterogeneous 417(9)
models
Propagation in a heterogeneous 417(4)
spherical model
3-D simulation of the regional seismic 421(5)
wavefield
Imaging the Earth 426(13)
Elements of seismic tomography 426(3)
Data sources and analysis 429(1)
Tomographic inversion 430(9)
Treatment of data and models 430(3)
Parameter optimisation 433(1)
Implementation of tomographic inversion 434(1)
Partitioned inversion 435(2)
Resolution and model assessment 437(2)
3-D Global Structure 439(22)
Global modal tomography 440(7)
Sources of information 441(2)
Path approximations 443(2)
Surface wave dispersion 445(2)
Global body wave tomography 447(10)
Styles of model representation 448(1)
Cellular tomography 449(8)
Global tomography with multiple data-sets 457(4)
Mapping the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle 461(27)
Regional surface-wave tomography 461(15)
Waveform inversion 463(7)
Integrating dispersion and waveform 470(4)
information
Extensions of waveform inversion methods 474(2)
Regional body-wave tomography 476(12)
An example of regional body-wave 479(5)
tomography for P waves
Joint inversion of P and S travel times 484(4)
on a regional scale
Appendix: Paths and Travel times 488(14)
A.1 Geometry for source-receiver paths 488(2)
A.2 Travel times for major seismic phases 490(12)
Phase displays 490(1)
Travel-time Tables 491(5)
Regional Phases 496(1)
Phases for surface focus to 120° 497(3)
Phases from 110° to 180° 500(2)
Bibliography 502(28)
Index 530