類型論と普遍性(第2版)<br>Typology and Universals (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics) (2ND)

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類型論と普遍性(第2版)
Typology and Universals (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics) (2ND)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 320 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521004992
  • DDC分類 410.1

基本説明

William Croft presents a comprehensive introduction to the method and theory used in studying typology and universals. The second edition of this essential textbook has been thoroughly rewritten and updated to reflect advances in typology and universals in the past decade.

Full Description


Comparison of the grammars of human languages reveals systematic patterns of variation. Typology and universals research uncovers those patterns to formulate universal constraints on language and seek their exploration. In this essential textbook, William Croft presents a comprehensive introduction to the method and theory used in studying typology and universals. The theoretical issues discussed range from the most fundamental to the most abstract. The book provides students and researchers with extensive examples of language universals in phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. This second edition has been thoroughly rewritten and updated to reflect advances in typology and universals in the past decade, including: new methodologies such as the semantic map model and questions of syntactic argumentation; discussion of current debates over deeper explanations for specific classes of universals; and comparison of the typological and generative approaches to language.

Table of Contents

        List of figures                            xii
List of tables xiii
Preface to the second edition xv
Preface to the first edition xvii
List of abbreviations xix
List of symbols xxiv
Introduction 1 (30)
What is typology? 1 (3)
Typology, universals and generative 4 (2)
grammar
Cross-linguistic comparison 6 (7)
The problem of cross-linguistic 13 (6)
comparability
Language sampling for cross-linguistic 19 (9)
research
Data sources 28 (3)
Typological classification 31 (18)
A cross-linguistically valid description 31 (11)
of morphosyntactic structures
Simple strategies 32 (1)
Relational strategies 33 (1)
Indexical strategies 34 (3)
Classifiers: indexical or relational? 37 (1)
More grammaticalized strategies 38 (2)
Summary 40 (2)
What is being classified? 42 (3)
Morphological typology 45 (4)
Implicational universals and competing 49 (38)
motivations
Restrictions on possible language types 49 (3)
Unrestricted and implicational universals 52 (7)
Competing motivations 59 (10)
Deeper explanations for word order and 69 (11)
affix order universals
Typology, universals and generative 80 (6)
grammar revisited
Conclusion 86 (1)
Grammatical categories: typological 87 (35)
markedness, economy and iconicity
Typological markedness 87 (14)
Structural coding 91 (4)
Behavioral potential 95 (5)
Neutral value: not a criterion for 100 (1)
typological markedness
Economy and iconicity 101 (9)
Structural coding, economy and 102 (2)
syntagmatic isomorphism
Economy, paradigmatic isomorphism and 104 (6)
polysemy
Frequency and deeper explanations for 110 (7)
economy and iconicity
Typological asymmetries in word order and 117 (3)
phonology
Conclusion 120 (2)
Grammatical hierarchies and the semantic 122 (36)
map model
Grammatical hierarchies and implicational 122 (6)
universals
The animacy and definiteness hierarchies 128 (5)
A deeper explanation for hierarchies and 133 (7)
categories: the semantic map model
Conceptual spaces, structural coding and 140 (2)
behavioral potential
The grammatical relations hierarchies 142 (13)
The external definition of grammatical 142 (2)
relations
Subject and object, ergative and 144 (8)
absolutive
Objects: direct and indirect, primary 152 (2)
and secondary
The conceptual space for grammatical 154 (1)
relations
Conclusion 155 (3)
Appendix: typological markedness 156 (2)
patterns in grammatical categories
Prototypes and the interaction of 158 (36)
typological patterns
Interactions of categories 158 (4)
Place of articulation 158 (2)
Person 160 (2)
Interactions of values: typological 162 (3)
prototypes
Grammatical relations 165 (18)
Animacy, definiteness and participant 166 (9)
roles
Transitivity 175 (3)
Deeper explanations for the typology of 178 (5)
grammatical relations
Parts of speech 183 (5)
Other prototypes and markedness reversals 188 (4)
Conclusion 192 (2)
Syntactic argumentation and syntactic 194 (38)
structure in typology
Typology and syntactic argumentation 195 (6)
Iconicity, economy and syntactic structure 201 (25)
Conceptual distance and constituent 205 (8)
structure
Syntactic and conceptual independence 213 (6)
The encoding of objects and events 219 (5)
Other universals of linguistic structure 224 (2)
Typological conspiracies and 226 (5)
communicative motivation
Conclusion 231 (1)
Diachronic typology 232 (48)
The dynamicization of synchronic typology 232 (12)
From states to processes 244 (9)
Grammaticalization 253 (19)
Phonological processes 254 (3)
Morphosyntactic processes 257 (4)
Functional processes 261 (3)
Issues in grammaticalization 264 (4)
Explanations for grammaticalization 268 (4)
Inferring diachrony from synchrony 272 (7)
Conclusion 279 (1)
Typology as an approach to language 280 (11)
Scientific approaches (research 280 (2)
traditions) and linguistic theories
Thinking like a typologist 282 (1)
Description, explanation and 283 (3)
generalization
Typology, the Saussurean dichotomies and 286 (5)
the evolutionary model
List of references 291 (22)
Map of languages cited 313 (11)
Author index 324 (5)
Language index 329 (4)
Subject index 333