Rock Magnetism : Fundamentals and Frontiers (Cambridge Studies in Magnetism, 3) (Reprint)

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Rock Magnetism : Fundamentals and Frontiers (Cambridge Studies in Magnetism, 3) (Reprint)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 596 p., 400 line diagrams
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780521000987
  • DDC分類 551

基本説明

New in paperback. Hardcover was published in 1997.

Full Description


Rock Magnetism, first published in 1997, is a comprehensive treatment of fine particle magnetism and the magnetic properties of rocks. Starting from atomic magnetism and magnetostatic principles, the authors explain why domains and micromagnetic structures form in ferromagnetic crystals and how these lead to magnetic memory in the form of thermal, chemical and other remanent magnetizations. The phenomenal stability of these magnetizations, providing a record of plate tectonic motions over millions of years, is explained by thermal activation theory. One chapter is devoted to practical tests of domain state and paleomagnetic stability; another deals with pseudo-single-domain magnetism. The final four chapters place magnetism in the context of igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, and extraterrestrial rocks. This book will be of great value to graduate students and researchers in geophysics and geology, particularly in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, as well as physicists and electrical engineers interested in fine-particle magnetism and magnetic recording.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xix
Magnetism in nature 1 (15)
A brief history 1 (6)
Earth magnetism 1 (2)
Ferromagnetism and magnetic domains 3 (2)
Rock magnetism 5 (2)
How rock magnetism is applied 7 (8)
Magnetic lineations: the seafloor 7 (1)
record of reversals
Other magnetic anomalies 8 (1)
Records of geomagnetic field variation 9 (2)
Paleointensity determination 11 (1)
Paleomagnetism and plate motions 12 (2)
Biomagnetism 14 (1)
Environmental magnetism 14 (1)
Plan of the book 15 (1)
Fundamentals of magnetism 16 (29)
Introduction 16 (1)
Magnetic moments of dipoles and current 17 (3)
loops
Magnetic moments of atoms and ions 20 (2)
Diamagnetism and paramagnetism 22 (3)
Ferromagnetism 25 (3)
Exchange coupling and exchange energy 28 (3)
Ferrimagnetism and antiferromagnetism 31 (5)
Magnetic sublattices 31 (1)
Ferrimagnetism 32 (3)
Antiferromagnetism 35 (1)
Magnetocrystalline anisotropy and 36 (9)
magnetostriction
Macroscopic description of 36 (2)
magnetocrystalline anisotropy
Microscopic view of magnetocrystalline 38 (2)
anisotropy
Temperature dependence of 40 (2)
magnetocrystalline anisotropy
Magnetostriction and magnetoelastic 42 (3)
anisotropy
Terrestrial magnetic minerals 45 (38)
Introduction 45 (3)
Magnetite 48 (8)
Crystal structure and magnetic 48 (2)
sublattices
Magnetocrystalline anisotropy 50 (4)
Magnetostriction 54 (2)
Maghemite 56 (4)
Structure and saturation magnetization 56 (3)
Inversion and Curie temperatures 59 (1)
Magnetocrystalline anisotropy and 60 (1)
magnetostriction
Magnetite-maghemite solid-solution series 60 (1)
Titanomagnetites 61 (5)
Titanomaghemites 66 (3)
Hematite 69 (4)
Titanohematites 73 (1)
Iron oxyhydroxides 74 (2)
Iron sulphides 76 (3)
Other magnetic minerals 79 (1)
Magnetism in silicates 80 (1)
Biogenic magnetic minerals 80 (3)
Magnetostatic fields and energies 83 (20)
Introduction 83 (1)
Self-demagnetization and the internal 84 (9)
demagnetizing field
The parallel-plate capacitor: an 84 (1)
electrostatic analog
Rectangular prism of magnetic material 85 (3)
Uniformly magnetized sphere 88 (1)
Uniformly magnetized spheroid and shape 89 (2)
anisotropy
Other bodies with uniform or nearly 91 (2)
uniform magnetization
General methods for finding internal 93 (7)
fields
The magnetostatic potential 93 (2)
Internal and external fields of a 95 (1)
uniformly magnetized sphere
Internal field of a uniformly 96 (1)
magnetized cylinder
Internal field in cubes with uniform 97 (3)
and non-uniform M
The demagnetizing energy or magnetostatic 100(3)
self-energy
Elementary domain structures and hysteresis 103(41)
Introduction 103(3)
Simple domain structures and their 106(7)
energies
Alternative domain states of a particle 106(1)
Demagnetizing energy of lamellar domain 107(6)
structures
Width and energy of domain walls 113(9)
180°ree; Bloch walls 113(5)
70.5°ree; and 109.5°ree; Bloch 118(4)
walls
Width and energy of domains 122(7)
Equilibrium number and width of 122(1)
lamellar domains
The effect of closure domains 123(2)
Wall energy in magnetite estimated from 125(3)
Neel spikes
Non-equilibrium domain structures 128(1)
The single-domain range 129(4)
Critical single-domain size 129(3)
Superparamagnetic threshold 132(1)
Magnetic hysteresis of multidomain grains 133(4)
Wall displacement, nucleation, and 133(1)
domain rotation
Susceptibility, remanence and 134(3)
coercivity of MD grains
Magnetic hysteresis of single-domain 137(5)
grains
Susceptibility, remanence and 137(3)
coercivity of SD grains
Superparamagnetic magnetization 140(2)
Domain wall magnetization 142(2)
Domain observations 144(27)
Introduction 144(1)
Bitter-pattern observations on pyrrhotite 145(3)
Bitter-pattern observations on magnetite 148(6)
Bitter-pattern observations on 154(3)
titanomagnetite
Bitter-pattern observations on hematite 157(2)
High-temperature domain observations 159(3)
Pyrrhotite 159(1)
Magnetite 159(2)
Titanomagnetite 161(1)
Electron microscope observations 162(4)
SEM observations 162(2)
TEM observations 164(2)
MOKE observations 166(3)
Magnetic force microscopy 169(2)
Micromagnetic calculations 171(30)
Introduction 171(2)
Constrained calculations 173(1)
One-dimensional micromagnetic calculations 174(2)
Non-equilibrium or LEM states 176(2)
Two-and three-dimensional micromagnetic 178(6)
calculations
Methodology 178(1)
Three-dimensional LEM states 179(3)
Two-dimensional LEM states 182(1)
Domain-wall structure 183(1)
Modelling hysteresis 184(2)
Modelling grain size changes 186(4)
Modelling temperature changes 190(2)
Domain structure changes 192(5)
Single-domain reversals 192(3)
Transdomain transitions 195(2)
Transdomain TRM 197(4)
Single-domain thermoremanent magnetization 201(33)
Introduction 201(2)
Some experimental properties of TRM 203(3)
Coherent rotation without thermal 206(4)
activation
Magnetization relaxation due to thermal 210(4)
fluctuations
A simple model of single-domain TRM 210(2)
Thermal relaxation theory 212(2)
Relaxation times for identical SD grains 214(3)
Blocking temperature and TRM of identical 217(3)
SD grains
Effect of thermal fluctuations on 220(3)
observed coercivity
Grain distributions and laws governing 223(1)
partial TRM's
Theoretical basis of paleofield intensity 224(2)
determination
Neel diagrams and the 226(3)
blocking-temperature spectrum
AF demagnetization and the coercivity 229(3)
spectrum
Measuring and using the grain 232(2)
distribution, f(V,HKO)
Multidomain thermoremanent magnetization 234(28)
Introduction 234(1)
Wall displacement and hysteresis in a 235(3)
2-domain grain
Wall pinning and total energy 235(1)
Susceptibility and microscopic coercive 236(2)
force
A simple model of multidomain TRM 238(1)
The Neel theory of TRM in 2D grains 239(8)
TRM in the absence of thermal 239(5)
fluctuations
TRM in the presence of thermal 244(3)
fluctuations
Thermal demagnetization of total and 247(5)
partial TRM
Acquisition of partial TRM and 252(4)
paleointensity determination
AF demagnetization and the 256(1)
microcoercivity spectrum
Domain nucleation and TRM 256(3)
Nucleation failure and TRM 259(3)
Viscous and thermoviscous magnetization 262(26)
Introduction 262(2)
Experimental properties of viscous 264(8)
magnetization
Size effects in magnetic viscosity 264(2)
Temperature dependence of magnetic 266(2)
viscosity and susceptibility
Magnetic viscosity of TM60 and oceanic 268(2)
basalts
Initial states and multidomain viscous 270(2)
magnetization
Theory of single-domain VRM 272(4)
Exact theory of viscous magnetization 272(1)
Blocking theory of VRM 273(2)
Thermal demagnetization of VRM 275(1)
AF demagnetization of VRM 275(1)
Theory of multidomain VRM 276(1)
Viscous noise problems 277(1)
Thermoviscous remagnetization 278(8)
Thermal demagnetization of 278(6)
thermoviscous overprints
AF and low-temperature demagnetization 284(2)
of thermoviscous overprints
Cooling rate dependence of TRM 286(1)
VRM as a dating method 287(1)
Granulometry using magnetic viscosity 287(1)
Isothermal magnetization and demagnetization 288(40)
Introduction 288(1)
Single-domain coercivity spectrum and AF 289(2)
demagnetization
Acquisition and `DC demagnetization' of 291(5)
IRM
Lightning and drilling-induced IRM's 292(2)
Laboratory acquisition and 294(2)
demagnetization of IRM
Anysteretic remance and other AF-related 296(5)
remanences
Anhysteretic remanent magnetization 296(4)
(ARM)
Gyromagnetic remanent magnetization 300(1)
(GRM)
AF demagnetization of SIRM of multidimain 301(5)
grains
A simple theory 302(2)
Exponential AF demagnetization curves 304(2)
The Lowrie-Fuller test 306(4)
Grain interactions and the Wohlfarth 310(2)
relations
The Preisach diagram 312(4)
Hysteresis and magnetic granulometry 316(12)
Information from hysteresis loops 316(1)
Mrs/Ms and Hcr/Hc for ideal MD grains 317(3)
Mrs/Ms and Hcr/Hc for SD grains 320(1)
Correlation plot of Mrs/Ms versus Hcr/Hc 321(2)
Hysteresis of mixtures 323(1)
Hysteresis as a function of temperature 324(4)
Pseudo-single-domain remanence 328(39)
Introduction 328(1)
Lines of evidence for 329(3)
pseudo-single-domain behaviour
Grain-size dependence of magnetic 332(3)
properties
TRM and ARM 332(1)
Hysteresis parameters 332(3)
Low-temperature demagnetization and memory 335(7)
Low-temperature transition in magnetite 335(3)
AF demagnetization of low-temperature 338(4)
memory
Thermal demagnetization of TRM and 342(4)
partial TRM
Pseudo-single-domain models 346(6)
Moments related to dislocations 346(2)
Surface and volume moments 348(2)
Moments due to residual wall 350(2)
displacements
Domain-wall moments 352(2)
Metastable SD grains 354(4)
The observational evidence 354(3)
The Halgedahl and Fuller theory 357(1)
Testing the models 358(9)
Testing AF demagnetization behaviour 358(1)
Tests of TRM acquisition 359(3)
Testing predicted grain size dependences 362(4)
Testing the temperature dependence of do 366(1)
Crystallization remanent magnetization 367(24)
Introduction 367(1)
Single-phase or grain-growth CRM 368(5)
Superparamagnetism 368(2)
CRM acquisition by grain growth 370(2)
Examples of grain-growth or 372(1)
single-phase CRM
CRM during low-temperature oxidation 373(3)
Low-temperature oxidation by oxygen 374(1)
addition
Low-temperature oxidation by iron 375(1)
removal
Low-temperature oxidation on the 376(1)
seafloor and magnetic stripes
CRM with a change of lattice 376(11)
Change of crystal structure and phase 376(1)
coupling
Oxidation of magnetite to hematite 377(3)
Reduction of hematite to magnetite 380(1)
Inversion of maghemite to hematite 380(1)
Oxyexsolution of titanomagnetite 381(3)
Lepidocrocite dehydration and maghemite 384(2)
inversion
Partial oxidation of pyrrhotite to 386(1)
magnetite
Chemicoviscous remanent magnetization 387(4)
(CVRM)
Magnetism of igneous rocks and baked 391(34)
materials
The oceanic lithosphere and linear 391(3)
magnetic anomalies
The Vine and Matthews' model 391(2)
The nature of the magnetic anomaly 393(1)
source
Submarine basalts 394(9)
Primary homogenous titanomagnetite 394(1)
Structure and cation distribution of 395(1)
titanomagnetite
Identification and magnetic properties 396(1)
of titanomagnetite
Low-temperature oxidation of 397(1)
titanomagnetite
Properties of titanomagnetite 398(1)
Inversion of titanomagnetite 398(1)
CRM of titanomagnetite 399(1)
Intensity and stability of CRM due to 400(2)
maghemitization
Viscous remagnetization of submarine 402(1)
basalts
Summary 402(1)
Oceanic intrusive and plutonic rocks 403(1)
Subaerial basalts and andesites 404(8)
High-temperature oxidation of 407(2)
titanomagnetite
Thermochemical remanent magnetization 409(1)
(TCRM)
Effective grain size of oxidized 410(2)
titanomagnetite grains
Subaerial felsic volcanics and 412(5)
pyroclastics
Titanomagnetite in felsic volcanic rocks 412(1)
Titanomagnetite 412(1)
Self-reversal mechanisms 413(2)
Self-reversal of TRM in titanohematite 415(2)
Continental intrusive and plutonic rocks 417(6)
Introduction 417(1)
Continental mafic dikes and sills 418(1)
Continental plutonic rocks 419(3)
Pyrrhotite 422(1)
Bricks, pottery, and other baked materials 423(2)
Magnetism of sediments and sedimentary rocks 425(36)
Introduction 425(1)
Detrital and post-depositional remanent 426(11)
magnetizations
Theory of detrital remanent 426(2)
magnetization (DRM)
Inclination and other errors in DRM 428(3)
Effect of thermal fluctuations on DRM 431(1)
Post-depositional remanent 432(3)
magnetization (PDRM)
Paleointensity determination using 435(2)
sediments
Oceanic and continental sediments and 437(11)
sedimentary rocks
Deep-sea sediments 437(2)
Fresh-water and marginal-sea sediments 439(3)
Soils and loess 442(2)
Sedimentary rocks 444(2)
Chemical remagnetization 446(2)
Magnetic properties of hematite 448(4)
Antiferromagnetism of hematite 448(1)
Parasitic ferromagnetism of hematite 449(1)
Low-temperature memory 450(1)
Coercivity of hematite 451(1)
Red Sedimentary rocks 452(9)
CRM of hematite pigment 452(1)
Grain growth CRM 453(1)
Hard VRM in red beds 454(2)
The best method for cleaning red beds 456(2)
The reliability of red bed results 458(3)
Magnetism of metamorphic rocks 461(42)
Metamorphic regimes 461(5)
Contact metamorphism 461(2)
Hydrothermal alteration during 463(1)
low-grade metamorphism
Medium-grade and high-grade regional 464(1)
metamorphism
Stress and deformation 464(2)
Chemical remagnetization during 466(4)
metamorphism
Low-grade metamorphism of basaltic rocks 466(3)
Moderate-and high-grade metamorphism 469(1)
Thermoviscous remagnetization during 470(14)
metamorphism
Metamorphic blocking temperature 471(1)
Thermoviscous overprinting viewed 471(3)
graphically
Survival of primary NRM in thermal 474(1)
metamorphism
Prediction of thermoviscous effects 475(1)
Experimental findings 476(4)
Blocking temperatures in continuous 480(1)
cooling
Relative ages of thermally overprinted 480(1)
NRM components
Thermal overprinting of radiometric 481(3)
dates and absolute ages of NRM
components
Strees, deformation and anisotropy effects 484(17)
Anisotropy of petrofabric and its 484(4)
effect on TRM
Reversible piezomagnetic effects 488(2)
Effects of hydrostatic pressure 490(2)
Uniaxial stress and piezoremanent 492(2)
effects: single-domain theory
Piezoremanent effects: experimental 494(3)
results
Overprinting by combined stress and 497(2)
temperature
Shock metamorphism and shock remanence 499(1)
Summary of stress effects 499(2)
The reliability of paleomagnetic results 501(2)
from metamorphic rocks
Magnetism of extraterrestrial rocks 503(24)
Introduction 503(1)
Magnetic properties of iron and of lunar 504(5)
rocks
Lunar rock types 504(1)
Magnetic properties of iron and 505(2)
iron-nickel
Domain structure, hysteresis, and 507(2)
magnetic viscosity of lunar rocks
Lunar paleomagnetism 509(7)
The NRM of lunar rocks 509(4)
Lunar paleofield intensity 513(3)
Paleomagnetism of meteorites 516(8)
Origin and types of meteorites 516(1)
The NRM of meteorites 517(1)
Anisotropic and spontaneous remanence 518(2)
in iron meteorites
Overprinting of NRM in achondrites 520(1)
NRM of ordinary chondrites 520(2)
Paleomagnetism of carbonaceous 522(2)
chondrites and their chondrules
Paleofields in the early solar system 524(3)
References 527(38)
Index 565