Natural Hazards and Disasters (2ND)

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Natural Hazards and Disasters (2ND)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 555 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495316671
  • DDC分類 363.34

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xvi
Natural Hazards and Disasters 1 (11)
Living in Harm's Way 1 (1)
Catastrophes in Nature 2 (1)
Human Impact of Natural Disasters 3 (1)
Predicting Catastrophe 3 (3)
Relationships Among Events 6 (1)
Mitigating Hazards 7 (2)
Land Use Planning 7 (1)
Insurance 8 (1)
The Role of the Government 8 (1)
The Role of Public Education 9 (1)
Living with Nature 9 (3)
Key Points 10 (1)
Key Terms 11 (1)
Questions for Review 11 (1)
Plate Tectonics and Physical Hazards 12 (20)
The Big Picture 12 (1)
Development of a Theory 13 (4)
Earth Structure 17 (4)
Hazards and Plate Boundaries 21 (11)
Divergent Boundaries 21 (2)
Convergent Boundaries 23 (2)
Collision of Continents 25 (1)
Transform Boundaries 26 (1)
Hotspot Volcanoes 27 (3)
Key Points 30 (1)
Key Terms 30 (1)
Questions for Review 31 (1)
Earthquakes and Their Causes 32 (29)
Earthquake Devastates South Asia 32 (1)
Faults and Earthquakes 33 (3)
Causes of Earthquakes 33 (3)
Tectonic Environments of Faults 36 (8)
Transform Faults 37 (2)
Subduction Zones 39 (2)
Continental Spreading Zones 41 (1)
Intraplate Earthquakes 42 (2)
Earthquake Waves 44 (3)
Types of Earthquake Waves 44 (1)
Seismographs 45 (1)
Locating Earthquakes 46 (1)
Earthquake Size and Characteristics 47 (3)
Earthquake Intensity 47 (1)
Earthquake Magnitude 48 (2)
Ground Motion and Failure During 50 (11)
Earthquakes
Ground Acceleration and Shaking Time 50 (2)
Secondary Ground Effects 52 (2)
Case in Point: A Major Earthquake on a 54 (1)
Blind Thrust Fault---Northridge
Earthquake, California, 1994
Case in Point: A Major Subduction-Zone 55 (1)
Earthquake---Chile, 1960
Case in Point: Paleoseismology Provides 56 (1)
a Record of a Giant Event---Pacific
Northwest Earthquake, 1700
Case in Point: Damage Mitigated by 56 (1)
Depth of Focus---Nisqually Earthquake,
Washington, 2001
Case in Point: Amplified Shaking over 57 (2)
Loose Sediment---Mexico City
Earthquake, 1985
Key Points 59 (1)
Key Terms 59 (1)
Questions for Review 60 (1)
Earthquake Prediction and Mitigation 61 (36)
Predicted Earthquake Arrives on Schedule 61 (1)
Predicting Earthquakes 62 (3)
Earthquake Precursors 63 (1)
Early Warning Systems 64 (1)
Prediction Consequences 64 (1)
Earthquake Probability 65 (5)
Forecasting Where Faults Will Move 65 (5)
Populations at Risk 70 (4)
The San Francisco Bay Area 72 (2)
The Los Angeles Area 74 (1)
Minimizing Earthquake Damage 74 (20)
Structural Damage and Retrofitting 75 (6)
Earthquake Preparedness 81 (1)
Land Use Planning and Building Codes 82 (3)
Case in Point: Earthquake Fills a 85 (2)
Seismic Gap---Loma Prieta Earthquake,
California, 1989
Case in Point: One in a Series of 87 (1)
Migrating Earthquakes---Izmit
Earthquake, Turkey, 1999
Case in Point: A Case of Equal-Interval 88 (1)
Earthquakes---Parkfield Earthquakes,
California
Case in Point: Devastating Fire Caused 88 (2)
by an Earthquake---San Francisco,
California, 1906
Case in Point: Damage Depends on 90 (1)
Building Design---Kobe Earthquake,
Japan, 1995
Case in Point: Collapse of Poorly 91 (2)
Constructed Buildings---Kashmir
Earthquake, Pakistan, 2005
Case in Point: Building Code Not 93 (1)
Enforced---Bhuj Earthquake, India, 2001
Critical View 94 (3)
Key Points 95 (1)
Key Terms 95 (1)
Questions for Review 96 (1)
Tsunami 97 (27)
Swept Away 97 (1)
Tsunami Generation 98 (4)
Earthquake-Generated Tsunami 98 (1)
Tsunami Generated by Volcanic Eruptions 99 (1)
Tsunami from Fast-Moving Landslides or 100(1)
Rockfalls
Tsunami from Volcano Flank Collapse 100(1)
Tsunami from Asteroid Impact 101(1)
Tsunami Movement 102(1)
Tsunami on Shore 103(2)
Coastal Effects 103(1)
Run-Up 104(1)
Period 104(1)
Tsunami Hazard Mitigation 105(3)
Tsunami Warnings 106(2)
Surviving a Tsunami 108(1)
Future Giant Tsunami 108(13)
Pacific Northwest Tsunami: Historical 108(2)
Record of Giant Tsunami
Kilauea, Hawaii: Potentially 110(1)
Catastrophic Volcano Flank Collapse
Canary Islands: Potential Catastrophe 111(1)
in Coastal Cities Across the Atlantic
Case in Point: Immense Local Tsunami 112(2)
from a Landslide---Lituya Bay, Alaska,
1958
Case in Point: An Ocean-Wide Tsunami 114(2)
from a Giant Earthquake---Chile
Tsunami, 1960
Case in Point: Lack of Warning and 116(3)
Education Costs Lives---Sumatra
Tsunami, 2004
Case in Point: Subduction-Zone 119(2)
Earthquake Generates a Major
Tsunami---Anchorage, Alaska, 1964
Critical View 121(3)
Key Points 122(1)
Key Terms 123(1)
Questions for Review 123(1)
Volcanoes: Tectonic Environments and 124(26)
Eruptions
Cascade Range Volcanoes Are Active 124(1)
Introduction to Volcanoes: Generation of 125(4)
Magmas
Magma Properties and Volcanic Behavior 125(4)
Tectonic Environments of Volcanoes 129(2)
Spreading Zones 129(1)
Subduction Zones 130(1)
Hotspots 130(1)
Volcanic Eruptions and Products 131(4)
Nonexplosive Eruptions: Lava Flows 131(1)
Explosive Eruptions: Pyroclastic 131(3)
Materials
Styles of Explosive Eruptions 134(1)
Types of Volcanoes 135(15)
Shield Volcanoes 135(4)
Cinder Cones 139(1)
Stratovolcanoes 140(1)
Lava Domes 141(1)
Giant Continental Calderas 141(1)
Case in Point: Deadly Lahar---Mount 142(3)
Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991
Case in Point: Long Periods Between 145(1)
Collapse--Caldera
Eruptions---Santorini, Greece
Case in Point: Future Eruptions of a 146(2)
Giant Caldera Volcano---Yellowstone
Volcano, Wyoming
Key Points 148(1)
Key Terms 148(1)
Questions for Review 148(2)
Volcanoes: Hazards and Mitigation 150(38)
Mount St. Helens Erupts 150(2)
Volcanic Hazards 152(10)
Lava Flows 152(1)
Pyroclastic Flows and Surges 153(2)
Ash and Pumice Falls 155(2)
Volcanic Mudflows 157(3)
Poisonous Gases 160(2)
Predicting Eruptions 162(3)
Examining Ancient Eruptions 162(2)
Eruption Warnings: Volcanic Precursors 164(1)
Mitigation of Damage 165(1)
Controlling Lava Flows 165(1)
Warning of Mudflows 165(1)
Populations at Risk 165(20)
Vesuvius and Its Neighbors 165(3)
The Cascades of Western North America 168(6)
A Look Ahead 174(1)
Case in Point: Volcanic 174(5)
Precursors---Mount St. Helens Eruption,
Washington, 1980
Case in Point: Pyroclastic Flows Can Be 179(2)
Deadly---Mount Pelee, Martinique, West
Indies
Case in Point: The Catastrophic Nature 181(2)
of Pyroclastic Flows---Mount Vesuvius,
Italy
Case in Point: Even a Small Eruption 183(2)
Can Trigger a Major Debris
Avalanche---Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia,
1985
Critical View 185(3)
Key Points 186(1)
Key Terms 186(1)
Questions for Review 187(1)
Landslides and Other Downslope Movements 188(37)
Falling Mountains 188(1)
Slope Processes 189(4)
Slope and Load 189(1)
Frictional Resistance 190(1)
Cohesion and Water 191(2)
Slope Material 193(1)
Internal Surfaces 193(1)
Clays and Clay Behavior 193(1)
Causes of Landslides 194(2)
Oversteepening 194(1)
Overloading 195(1)
Adding Water 195(1)
Overlapping Causes 195(1)
Types of Downslope Movement 196(12)
Rockfalls 196(2)
Debris Avalanches 198(3)
Rotational Slides and Slumps 201(2)
Translational Slides 203(1)
Lateral-Spreading Slides 204(1)
Soil Creep 204(1)
Snow Avalanches 205(3)
Hazards Related to Landslides 208(4)
Earthquakes 208(1)
Failure of Landslide Dams 209(3)
Mitigation of Damages from Landslides 212(10)
Record of Past Landslides 212(1)
Landslide Hazard Maps 212(2)
Engineering Solutions 214(2)
Case in Point: Slippery Smectite 216(1)
Deposits Create Conditions for
Landslide---Forest City Bridge, South
Dakota
Case in Point: A Coherent Translational 217(2)
Slide Triggered by Filling a
Reservoir---The Vaiont Landslide, Italy
Case in Point: A Rockfall Triggered by 219(1)
Blasting---Frank Slide, Alberta
Case in Point: Cliffs Above Houses Can 220(1)
Pose a Severe Rockfall
Hazard---Rockville Rockfall,
Southwestern Utah
Case in Point: A High-Velocity Rock 221(1)
Avalanche Buoyed Up by Air---Elm,
Switzerland
Critical View 222(3)
Key Points 223(1)
Key Terms 224(1)
Questions for Review 224(1)
Sinkholes, Land Subsidence, and Swelling 225(24)
Soils
Shrinking Ground 225(1)
Types of Ground Movement 226(1)
Sinkholes 226(5)
Processes Related to Sinkholes 226(1)
Types of Sinkholes 227(2)
Areas That Experience Sinkholes 229(2)
Land Subsidence 231(7)
Mining Groundwater and Petroleum 231(1)
Drainage of Organic Soils 232(2)
Drying of Clays 234(2)
Permafrost Thaw and Ground Settling 236(2)
Swelling Soils 238(8)
Case in Point: Excessive Mining Causes 241(1)
Roof Collapse---Genessee Valley, New
York State
Case in Point: Subsidence Due to 242(2)
Groundwater Extraction---Venice, Italy
Case in Point: Subsidence Due to 244(1)
Groundwater Extraction---Mexico City,
Mexico
Case in Point: Differential Expansion 244(2)
over Layers of Smectite Clay---Denver,
Colorado
Critical View 246(3)
Key Points 247(1)
Key Terms 247(1)
Questions for Review 248(1)
Climate Change and Weather Related to 249(41)
Hazards
Rapid Melting in the Arctic 249(1)
Basic Elements of Climate and Weather 250(6)
Hydrologic Cycle 250(1)
Adiabatic Cooling and Condensation 251(1)
Atmospheric Pressure and Weather 252(1)
Coriolis Effect 252(1)
Global Air Circulation 253(1)
Weather Fronts 254(1)
Jet Stream 255(1)
Climatic Cycles 256(6)
Days to Seasons 256(1)
El Nino 257(2)
North Atlantic Oscillation 259(1)
Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation 260(1)
Long-Term Climatic Cycles 260(2)
Hazards Related to Weather and Climate 262(8)
Drought 262(2)
Growing Deserts 264(2)
Heat Waves 266(1)
Snow and Ice 267(1)
Atmospheric Cooling 268(2)
Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect 270(3)
The Greenhouse Effect 270(1)
Rising Levels of Greenhouse Gases 271(2)
Consequences of Climate Change 273(5)
Warming Oceans 274(1)
Precipitation Changes 274(1)
Arctic Thaw 275(1)
Sea-Level Rise 276(1)
Global Ocean Circulation 277(1)
Mitigation of Climate Change 278(8)
The Kyoto Protocol 279(1)
Alternative Energies 280(1)
Sequestration of Greenhouse Gases 281(1)
Carbon Trading 282(1)
The Political Side of the Emissions 282(1)
Problem
Case in Point: Climate Cooling from a 283(1)
Major Volcanic Eruption---Mount
Tambora, Indonesia
Case in Point: Rising Sea Level 283(2)
Heightens Risk to Populations Living on
a Sea-Level Delta---Bangladesh and
Calcutta, India
Case in Point: CO2 Sequestration 285(1)
Underground---The Weyburn Pilot Project
Critical View 286(4)
Key Points 287(1)
Key Terms 288(1)
Questions for Review 288(2)
Streams and Flood Processes 290(35)
Too Close to a River 290(1)
Stream Flow and Sediment Transport 291(4)
Stream Flow 291(1)
Sediment Load and Grain Size 292(2)
Sediment Transport and Flooding 294(1)
Channel Patterns 295(4)
Meandering Streams 295(1)
Braided Steams 296(2)
Bedrock Streams 298(1)
Climate Controls on Stream Flow 299(1)
Flooding Processes 300(2)
Bankfull Channel Width, Depth, and 300(1)
Capacity
Precipitation Intensity and Surface 301(1)
Runoff
Floods on Water-Saturated or Frozen 301(1)
Ground
Flood Intensity 302(2)
Stream Order 302(1)
Flood Crests Move Downstream 302(1)
Flash Floods 303(1)
Flood Frequency and Recurrence Intervals 304(5)
100-Year Floods and Floodplains 304(1)
Recurrence Intervals and Discharge 305(1)
Paleoflood Analysis 305(3)
Problems with Recurrence Intervals 308(1)
Mudflows, Debris Flows, and Other 309(16)
Flood-Related Hazards
Mudflows and Lahars 309(1)
Debris Flows 310(2)
Glacial Outburst Floods: Jokulhlaups 312(2)
Other Hazards Related to Flooding 314(1)
Case in Point: Heavy Rainfall on 315(1)
Near-Surface Bedrock Triggers
Flooding---Guadalupe River Upstream of
New Braunfels, Texas, 2002
Case in Point: Major Flooding from a 316(1)
Minor Hurricane---Hurricane Agnes, June
1972
Case in Point: Spring Thaw from the 317(2)
South on a North-Flowing River---The
Red River, North Dakota
Case in Point: A Flash Flood from an 319(2)
Afternoon Thunderstorm---Big Thompson
Canyon, Northwest of Denver
Case in Point: Desert Debris Flows and 321(1)
Housing on Alluvial Fans---Tucson,
Arizona, Debris Flows, 2006
Case in Point: Prolonged Summer Storms 322(1)
on Thick Soils---Blue Ridge Mountains
Debris Flows
Key Points 323(1)
Key Terms 324(1)
Questions for Review 324(1)
Floods and Human Interactions 325(32)
The Great Flood of 1993 325(1)
Development Effects on Floodplains 326(3)
Urbanization 326(1)
Fires, Logging, and Overgrazing 327(1)
Mining 328(1)
Bridges 329(1)
Levees 329(3)
Levee Failure 330(1)
Unintended Consequences of Levees 331(1)
Wing Dams 332(1)
Dams and Stream Equilibrium 332(2)
Floods Caused by Failure of Human-Made 332(2)
Dams
Reducing Flood Damage 334(3)
Land Use on Floodplains 334(1)
Flood Insurance 335(2)
Environmental Protection 337(1)
Reducing Damage from Debris Flows 337(17)
Early Warning Systems 338(1)
Trapping Debris Flows 339(1)
Case in Point: Addition of Sediment 340(1)
Triggers Flooding---Hydraulic Placer
Mining, California Gold Rush, 1860s
Case in Point: Streambed Mining Causes 341(1)
Erosion and Damage---Healdsburg,
California
Case in Point: The Potential for 342(2)
Catastrophic Avulsion---New Orleans
Case in Point: A Long History of 344(1)
Avulsion---Yellow River of China
Case in Point: Repeated Flooding in 345(4)
Spite of Levees---Mississippi River
Basin Flood, 1993
Case in Point: Dams Can Fail---Failure 349(1)
of Teton Dam, Idaho
Case in Point: Catastrophic Floods of a 350(1)
Long-Established City---Arno River
Flood, Florence, Italy, 1966
Case in Point: Proposed Development on 351(2)
a Floodplain---Sacramento--San Joaquin
Valley, California
Case in Point: Alluvial Fans Are 353(1)
Dangerous Places to Live---Venezuela
Flash Flood and Debris Flow, 1999
Critical View 354(3)
Key Points 355(1)
Key Terms 355(1)
Questions for Review 356(1)
Waves, Beaches, and Coastal Erosion 357(29)
Coastal Cliff Collapse 357(2)
Living on Dangerous Coasts 359(1)
Waves and Sediment Transport 359(4)
Wave Refraction and Longshore Drift 361(1)
Waves on Irregular Coastlines 362(1)
Rip Currents 362(1)
Beaches and Sand Supply 363(3)
Beach Slope: An Equilibrium Profile 364(1)
Loss of Sand from the Beach 364(2)
Sand Supply 366(1)
Erosion of Gently Sloping Coasts and 366(5)
Barrier Islands
Development on Barrier Islands 367(2)
Dunes 369(2)
Sea-Cliff Erosion 371(3)
Human Intervention and Mitigation of 374(9)
Coastal Change
Engineered Beach Protection Structures 374(2)
Beach Replenishment 376(3)
Zoning for Appropriate Coastal Land Uses 379(1)
Case in Point: Extreme Beach 380(1)
Hardening---New Jersey Coast
Case in Point: Repeated Beach 381(2)
Nourishment---Long Island, New York
Critical View 383(3)
Key Points 384(1)
Key Terms 385(1)
Questions for Review 385(1)
Hurricanes and Nor'easters 386(44)
Costliest Natural Disaster in U.S. History 386(1)
Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones 387(4)
Formation of Hurricanes and Cyclones 387(1)
Hurricane-Strength Winds 388(1)
Areas at Risk 388(3)
Storm Damages 391(12)
Storm Surges 392(3)
Waves and Wave Damage 395(2)
Winds and Wind Damage 397(3)
Rainfall and Flooding 400(1)
Deaths 400(1)
Social and Economic Impacts 401(1)
Climate Change and Hurricane Damage 402(1)
Hurricane Prediction and Planning 403(2)
Uncertainty in Hurricane Prediction 403(1)
Planning for Hurricanes 403(1)
Evacuation 404(1)
Managing Future Damages 405(3)
Natural Protections 405(1)
Building Codes 406(1)
Flood Insurance 407(1)
Homeowners Insurance 407(1)
Extratropical Cyclones and Nor'easters 408(19)
Case in Point: City Drowns in Spite of 411(7)
Levees---Hurricane Katrina
Case in Point: Trapped on a Barrier 418(2)
Island---Galveston Hurricane, 1900
Case in Point: Back-to-Back Hurricanes 420(1)
Amplify Flooding---Hurricanes Dennis
and Floyd, 1999
Case in Point: Floods, Landslides, and 421(2)
a Huge Death Toll in Poor
Countries---Hurricane Mitch, Nicaragua
and Honduras
Case in Point: Unpredictable Behavior 423(2)
of Hurricanes---Florida Hurricanes of
2004
Case in Point: Choosing to Ignore 425(2)
Evacuation During a Major
Hurricane---Hurricane Hugo
Critical View 427(3)
Key Points 428(1)
Key Terms 429(1)
Questions for Review 429(1)
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes 430(21)
Twister Demolished Kansas Town 430(1)
Thunderstorms 431(4)
Lightning 432(2)
Downbursts 434(1)
Hail 434(1)
Safety During Thunderstorms 435(1)
Tornadoes 435(13)
Tornado Development 438(3)
Tornado Damages 441(2)
Fujita Tornado Scale 443(3)
Safety During Tornadoes 446(1)
Case in Point: Tornado Safety---Jarrell 447(1)
Tornado, Texas, 1997
Critical View 448(3)
Key Points 449(1)
Key Terms 450(1)
Questions for Review 450(1)
Wildfires 451(20)
A Deadly Wildfire 451(1)
Fire Process and Behavior 452(3)
Fuel 452(1)
Ignition and Spreading 453(1)
Topography 454(1)
Weather Conditions 454(1)
Secondary Effects of Wildfires 455(1)
Erosion Following Fire 455(1)
Mitigation of Erosion 456(1)
Wildfire Management and Mitigation 456(12)
Government Policy 457(1)
Fighting Wildfires 457(1)
Risk Assessments and Warnings 458(1)
Protecting Homes from Fire 458(3)
Public Cost of Fires 461(1)
Case in Point: Debris Flows Follow a 462(1)
Tragic Fire---Storm King Fire,
Colorado, 1994
Case in Point: Firestorms Threaten a 463(2)
Major City---Southern California
Firestorms, 2003 and 2007
Case in Point: A Major Wildfire after 465(3)
Years of Fire Suppression---Bitterroot
Valley Fires, Montana, 2000
Critical View 468(3)
Key Points 469(1)
Key Terms 469(1)
Questions for Review 470(1)
Impact of Asteroids and Comets 471(18)
The Ultimate Catastrophe? 471(1)
Projectiles from Space 472(3)
Asteroids 472(1)
Comets 473(1)
Meteors and Meteorites 473(1)
Identification of Meteorites 474(1)
Evidence of Past Impacts 475(4)
Impact Energy 475(1)
Impact Craters 476(1)
Shatter Cones and Impact Melt 476(2)
Fallout of Meteoric Dust 478(1)
Multiple Impacts 479(1)
Consequences of Impacts with Earth 479(1)
Immediate Effects of Impact 479(1)
Impacts as Triggers for Other Hazards 479(1)
Mass Extinctions 480(1)
Evaluating the Risk of Impact 480(2)
Your Personal Chance of Being Hit by a 481(1)
Meteorite
Chances of a Significant Impact on Earth 481(1)
What Could We Do about an Incoming 482(4)
Asteroid?
Case in Point: A Round Hole in the 483(1)
Desert---Meteor Crater, Arizona
Case in Point: A Nickel Mine at an 483(1)
Impact Site---The Sudbury Complex,
Ontario
Case in Point: An Impact Sprays 484(1)
Droplets of Melt---Ries Crater in
Germany
Case in Point: A Close Grazing 485(1)
Encounter---Tunguska, Siberia
Critical View 486(3)
Key Points 487(1)
Key Terms 487(1)
Questions for Review 488(1)
The Future: Where Do We Go From Here? 489(11)
We Are the Problem 489(2)
Hazard Assessment and Mitigation 491(1)
Societal Attitudes 491(2)
After a Disaster 492(1)
Education 493(1)
Different Ground Rules for the Poor 493(2)
Worse Problems to Come? 495(2)
Critical View 497(3)
Key Points 498(1)
Key Terms 498(1)
Questions for Review 499(1)
Appendix 1 Geological Time Scale 500(1)
Appendix 2 Mineral and Rock Characteristics 501(11)
Related to Hazards
Appendix 3 Conversion Factors 512(2)
Glossary 514(13)
Index 527