Biology : Concepts and Applications (7TH)

Biology : Concepts and Applications (7TH)

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  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495119814
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Table of Contents

Introduction
Invitation to Biology
Impacts, Issues Lost Worlds and Other 2 (2)
Wonders
Life's Levels of Organization 4 (2)
Making Sense of the World 4 (1)
A Pattern in Life's Organization 4 (2)
Overview of Life's Unity 6 (2)
Energy and Life's Organization 6 (1)
Organisms Sense and Respond to Change 6 (1)
Organisms Grow and Reproduce 7 (1)
If So Much Unity, Why So Many Species? 8 (2)
An Evolutionary View of Diversity 10 (1)
Critical Thinking and Science 11 (1)
Thinking About Thinking 11 (1)
The Scope and Limits of Science 11 (1)
How Science Works 12 (2)
Observations, Hypotheses, and Tests 12 (1)
About the Word ``Theory'' 12 (1)
Some Terms Used in Experiments 13 (1)
The Power of Experimental Tests 14 (2)
Potato Chips and Gas 14 (1)
Butterflies and Birds 14 (1)
Asking Useful Questions 15 (1)
Focus on Science Sampling Error in 16 (4)
Experiments
UNIT I PRINCIPLES OF CELLULAR LIFE
Life's Chemical Basis
Impacts, Issues What Are You Worth? 20 (2)
Start with Atoms 22 (1)
Characteristics of Atoms 22 (1)
The Periodic Table 22 (1)
Focus on Science Putting Radioisotopes to 23 (1)
Use
Why Electrons Matter 24 (2)
Electrons and Energy Levels 24 (1)
Why Atoms Interact 24 (1)
Shells and Electrons 24 (1)
Atoms and Ions 25 (1)
From Atoms to Molecules 25 (1)
What Happens When Atoms Interact? 26 (2)
Ionic Bonding 26 (1)
Covalent Bonding 26 (1)
Hydrogen Bonding 27 (1)
Water's Life-Giving Properties 28 (2)
Polarity of the Water Molecule 28 (1)
Water's Temperature-Stabilizing Effects 28 (1)
Water's Solvent Properties 29 (1)
Water's Cohesion 29 (1)
Acids and Bases 30 (4)
The pH Scale 30 (1)
How Do Acids and Bases Differ? 30 (1)
Salts and Water 31 (1)
Buffers Against Shifts in pH 31 (3)
Molecules of Life
Impacts, Issues Science or Supernatural? 34 (2)
Molecules of Life---From Structure to 36 (2)
Function
Carbon's Bonding Behavior 36 (1)
Functional Groups 36 (1)
What Cells Do to Organic Compounds 37 (1)
Carbohydrates---The Most Abundant Ones 38 (2)
Simple Sugars 38 (1)
Short-Chain Carbohydrates 38 (1)
Complex Carbohydrates 38 (2)
Greasy, Oily---Must Be Lipids 40 (2)
Fats 40 (1)
Phospholipids 41 (1)
Waxes 41 (1)
Cholesterol and Other Sterols 41 (1)
Proteins---Diversity in Structure and 42 (2)
Function
Proteins and Amino Acids 42 (1)
Levels of Protein Structure 42 (2)
Why is Protein Structure So Important? 44 (2)
Just One Wrong Amino Acid . . . 44 (1)
Proteins Undone-Denaturation 44 (2)
Nucleotides, DNA, and the RNAs 46 (4)
Cell Structure and Function
Impacts, Issues Animalcules and Cells 50 (2)
Fill'd with Juices
What is a Cell? 52 (2)
The Basics of Cell Structure 52 (1)
Preview of Cell Membranes 52 (1)
Cell Sizes and Shapes 52 (2)
Focus on Science How Do We See Cells? 54 (2)
The Cell Theory 54 (1)
Modern Microscopes 54 (2)
Connections Membrane Structure and 56 (2)
Function
The Fluid Mosaic Model 56 (1)
The Main Categories of Proteins 56 (1)
Variations on the Model 56 (1)
Differences in Membrane Composition 56 (1)
Differences in Fluidity 56 (2)
Introducing Prokaryotic Cells 58 (1)
Focus on the Environment Microbial Mobs 59 (1)
Introducing Eukaryotic Cells 60 (1)
The Nucleus 61 (1)
The Endomembrane System 62 (2)
Endoplasmic Reticulum 62 (1)
Golgi Bodies 62 (1)
A Variety of Vesicles 63 (1)
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 64 (1)
Mitochondria 64 (1)
Chloroplasts 64 (1)
Visual Summary of Eukaryotic Cell 65 (1)
Components
Cell Surface Specializations 66 (2)
Eukaryotic Cell Walls 66 (1)
Matrixes Between Animal Cells 66 (1)
Cell Junctions 67 (1)
The Dynamic Cytoskeleton 68 (4)
Components of the Cytoskeleton 68 (1)
Cilia, Flagella, and False Feet 68 (4)
Ground Rules of Metabolism
Impacts, Issues Alcohol, Enzymes, and 72 (2)
Your Liver
Energy and the World of Life 74 (2)
Energy Disperses 74 (1)
Energy In, Energy Out 74 (1)
The Great One-Way Flow of Energy 75 (1)
ATP in Metabolism 76 (1)
Enzymes in Metabolism 76 (2)
Activation Energy--Why the World Does 76 (1)
Not Go Up in Flames
Enzyme Structure and Function 76 (2)
Enzymes Don't Work Alone 78 (2)
Controls Over Enzymes 78 (1)
Effects of Temperature, pH, and Salinity 78 (1)
Help from Cofactors 79 (1)
Metabolism---Organized, Enzyme-Mediated 80 (2)
Reactions
Types of Metabolic Pathways 80 (1)
The Direction of Metabolic Reactions 80 (1)
Redox Reactions 81 (1)
Diffusion, Membranes, and Metabolism 82 (2)
What is a Concentration Gradient? 82 (1)
Diffusion Rates 82 (1)
Diffusion and Membrane Permeability 82 (1)
How Substances Cross Membranes 83 (1)
Working with and Against Gradients 84 (2)
Passive Transport 84 (1)
Active Transport 84 (2)
Which Way Will Water Move? 86 (2)
Movement of Water 86 (1)
Effects of Tonicity 86 (1)
Effects of Fluid Pressure 86 (2)
Membrane Traffic To and from the Cell 88 (1)
Surface
Endocytosis and Exocytosis 88 (1)
Membrane Cycling 89 (1)
Focus on Science Night Lights 89 (3)
Where It Starts---Photosynthesis
Impacts, Issues Sunlight and Survival 92 (2)
Sunlight as an Energy Source 94 (2)
Properties of Light 94 (1)
The Rainbow Catchers 94 (2)
Focus on Science Exploring the Rainbow 96 (1)
Overview of Photosynthesis 97 (1)
Light-Dependent Reactions 98 (2)
Capturing Energy for Photosynthesis 98 (1)
Electron Flow in a Noncyclic Pathway 98 (1)
Using Electrons to Make ATP 98 (1)
Replacing Lost Electrons 98 (1)
Electron Flow in a Cyclic Pathway 99 (1)
Focus on Science Energy Flow in 100(1)
Photosynthesis
Tight-Independent Reactions: The Sugar 101(1)
Factory
Adaptations: Different Carbon-Fixing 102(1)
Pathways
Focus on the Environment A Burning Concern 103(3)
How Cells Release Chemical Energy
Impacts, Issues When Mitochondria Spin 106(2)
Their Wheels
Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown 108(2)
Pathways
Comparison of the Main Pathways 108(1)
Overview of Aerobic Respiration 109(1)
Glycolysis---Glucose Breakdown Starts 110(2)
Second Stage of Aerobic Respiration 112(2)
Acetyl-CoA Formation 112(1)
The Krebs Cycle 112(1)
Abnormal Structure, Altered Function 113(1)
Aerobic Respiration's Big Energy Payoff 114(2)
Electron Transfer Phosphorylation 114(1)
Summing Up: The Energy Harvest 114(2)
Anaerobic Energy-Releasing Pathways 116(1)
Fermentation Pathways 116(1)
Alcoholic Fermentation 116(1)
Lactate Fermentation 117(1)
Focus on Health the Twitchers 117(1)
Alternative Energy Sources in the Body 118(2)
The Fate of Glucose at Mealtime and 118(1)
Between Meals
Energy from Fats 118(1)
Energy from Proteins 118(2)
Connections Reflections on Life's Unity 120(4)
UNIT II PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE
How Cells Reproduce
Impacts, Issues Henrietta's Immortal Cells 124(2)
Overview of Cell Division Mechanisms 126(2)
Mitosis, Meiosis, and the Prokaryotes 126(1)
Key Points About Chromosome Structure 126(2)
Introducing the Cell Cycle 128(2)
The Wonder of Interphase 128(1)
Mitosis and the Chromosome Number 129(1)
A Closer Look at Mitosis 130(2)
Cytoplasmic Division Mechanisms 132(2)
How Do Animal Cells Divide? 132(1)
How Do Plant Cells Divide? 133(1)
Appreciate the Process! 133(1)
Focus on Health When Control Is Lost 134(4)
The Cell Cycle Revisited 134(1)
Checkpoint Failure and Tumors 134(1)
Characteristics of Cancer 135(3)
Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Impacts, Issues Why Sex? 138(2)
Introducing Alleles 140(1)
What Meiosis Does 140(2)
Think ``Homologues'' 140(1)
Two Divisions, Not One 141(1)
Visual Tour of Meiosis 142(2)
How Meiosis Introduces Variations in 144(2)
Traits
Crossing Over in Prophase I 144(1)
Metaphase I Alignments 145(1)
From Gametes to Offspring 146(2)
Gamete Formation in Plants 146(1)
Gamete Formation in Animals 146(1)
More Shufflings at Fertilization 146(2)
Connections Mitosis and Meiosis---An 148(4)
Ancestral Connection?
Observing Patterns in Inherited Traits
Impacts, Issues Menacing Mucus 152(2)
Mendel, Pea Plants, and Inheritance 154(2)
Patterns
Mendel's Experimental Approach 154(1)
Terms Used in Modern Genetics 155(1)
Mendel's Theory of Segregation 156(2)
Testcrosses 157(1)
Mendel's Theory of Independent Assortment 158(2)
Beyond Simple Dominance 160(2)
Codominance in ABO Blood Types 160(1)
Incomplete Dominance 160(1)
Epistasis 161(6)
Single Genes with a Wide Reach 167
Linkage Groups 162(1)
Genes and the Environment 163(1)
Complex Variations in Traits 164(4)
Continuous Variation in Populations 164(1)
Regarding the Unexpected Phenotype 165(3)
Chromosomes and Human Inheritance
Impacts, Issues Strange Genes, Tortured 168(2)
Minds
Human Chromosomes 170(2)
Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes 170(1)
Sex Determination 170(1)
Karyotyping 171(1)
Examples of Autosomal Inheritance Patterns 172(1)
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance 172(1)
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance 172(1)
What About Neurobiological Disorders? 173(1)
Focus on Health Young, Yet Old 173(1)
Examples of X-Linked Inheritance Patterns 174(2)
Hemophilia A 174(1)
Red-Green Color Blindness 175(1)
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy 175(1)
Heritable Changes in Chromosome Structure 176(2)
Main Categories of Structural Change 176(1)
Duplication 176(1)
Deletion 176(1)
Inversion 176(1)
Translocation 176(1)
Does Chromosome Structure Evolve? 177(1)
Heritable Changes in the Chromosome Number 178(2)
Autosomal Change and Down Syndrome 178(1)
Change in the Sex Chromosome Number 179(1)
Female Sex Chromosome Abnormalities 179(1)
Male Sex Chromosome Abnormalities 179(1)
Human Genetic Analysis 180(2)
Focus on Health Prospects in Human 182(4)
Genetics
Genetic Counseling 182(1)
Prenatal Diagnosis 182(1)
Preimplantation Diagnosis 183(1)
Phenotypic Treatments 183(1)
Regarding Abortion 183(1)
Genetic Screening 183(3)
DNA Structure and Function
Impacts, Issues Here, Kitty, Kitty, 186(2)
Kitty, Kitty, Kitty
The Hunt for Fame, Fortune, and DNA 188(2)
Early and Puzzling Clues 188(1)
Confirmation of DNA Function 188(1)
Enter Watson and Crick 189(1)
The Discovery of DNA's Structure 190(2)
DNA's Building Blocks 190(1)
Patterns of Base Pairing 191(1)
Focus on Bioethics Fame and Glory 192(1)
Replication and Repair 192(2)
How DNA Gets Copied 192(1)
Checking for Mistakes 193(1)
Focus on Science Using DNA To Duplicate 194(2)
Existing Mammals
From DNA to Protein
Impacts, Issues Ricin and Your Ribosomes 196(2)
Transcription 198(2)
The Genetic Code 200(1)
tRNA and rRNA 201(1)
The Three Stages of Translation 202(2)
Mutated Genes and Their Protein Products 204(4)
Common Gene Mutations 204(1)
How Do Mutations Arise? 204(1)
The Proof is in the Protein 205(3)
Controls Over Genes
Impacts, Issues Between You and Eternity 208(2)
Gene Expression in Eukaryotic Cells 210(2)
Which Genes Get Tapped? 210(1)
Control of Transcription 210(1)
Mrna Processing and Transport 211(1)
Translational Control 211(1)
Controls After Translation 211(1)
A Few Outcomes of Gene Controls 212(2)
X Chromosome Inactivation 212(1)
Gene Control of Flower Formation 213(1)
Focus on Science There's a Fly in My 214(2)
Research
Discovery of Homeotic Genes 214(1)
Knockout Experiments 214(1)
Filling in Details of Body Plans 215(1)
Prokaryotic Gene Control 216(4)
Negative Control of the Lactose Operon 216(1)
Positive Control of the Lactose Operon 217(1)
Lactose Intolerance 217(3)
Studying and Manipulating Genomes
Impacts, Issues Golden Rice, or 220(2)
Frankenfood?
A Molecular Toolkit 222(2)
Cut and Paste 222(1)
Cloning Vectors 222(1)
cDNA Cloning 223(1)
From Haystacks to Needles 224(2)
Isolating Genes 224(1)
Big-Time Amplification: PCR 224(2)
DNA Sequencing 226(1)
Focus on Science Analyzing DNA 227(1)
Fingerprints
The Rise of Genomics 228(2)
The Human Genome Project 228(1)
Genomics 229(1)
DNA Chips 229(1)
Genetic Engineering 230(1)
Designer Plants 230(2)
How Plants Get Engineered 230(1)
Genetically Engineered Plants 230(2)
Biotech Barnyards 232(1)
Of Mice and Men 232(1)
Knockout Cells and Organ Factories 232(1)
Safety Issues 233(1)
Connections Modified Humans? 234(4)
Who Gets Well? 234(1)
Who Gets Enhanced? 234(4)
UNIT III PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTION
Evidence of Evolution
Impacts, Issues Measuring Time 238(2)
Early Beliefs, Confounding Discoveries 240(2)
Questions from Biogeography 240(1)
Questions from Comparative Morphology 241(1)
Questions About Fossils 241(1)
A Flurry of New Theories 242(2)
Squeezing New Evidence Into Old Beliefs 242(1)
Voyage of the Beagle 242(2)
Darwin, Wallace, and Natural Selection 244(2)
Old Bones and Armadillos 244(1)
A Key Insight---Variation in Traits 244(1)
Natural Selection Defined 245(1)
Fossils---Evidence of Ancient Life 246(2)
How Do Fossils Form? 246(1)
Fossils in Sedimentary Rock Layers 247(1)
Interpreting the Fossil Record 247(1)
Dating Pieces of the Puzzle 248(2)
Radiometric Dating 248(1)
Placing Fossils in Geologic Time 248(2)
Drifting Continents, Changing Seas 250(2)
An Outrageous Hypothesis 250(1)
A Big Connection 251(1)
Divergences from a Shared Ancestor 252(2)
Morphological Divergence 252(1)
Morphological Convergence 253(1)
Changes in Patterns of Development 254(2)
Genes and Variation in Plants 254(1)
Genes and Variation in Animals 254(1)
How Many Legs? 254(1)
Chimps and Humans 254(2)
Clues in DNA, RNA, and Proteins 256(2)
Molecular Clocks 256(1)
Protein Comparisons 256(1)
Nucleic Acid Comparisons 256(2)
Organizing Information About Species 258(2)
The Higher Taxa 258(1)
A Cladistic Approach 258(2)
Focus on Science How to Construct a 260(1)
Cladogram
Preview of Life S Evolutionary History 261(3)
Processes of Evolution
Impacts, Issues Rise of the Super Rats 264(2)
Individuals Don't Evolve, Populations Do 266(2)
Variation in Populations 266(1)
The Gene Pool 266(1)
Mutation Revisited 266(1)
Stability and Change in Allele 267(1)
Frequencies
Focus on Science When is a Population Not 268(1)
Evolving?
The Hardy-Weinberg Formula 268(1)
Applying the Rule 269(1)
Natural Selection Revisited 269(1)
Directional Selection 270(2)
Effects of Predation 270(1)
The Peppered Moth 270(1)
Pocket Mice 270(1)
Resistance to Antibiotics 271(1)
Selection Against or in Favor of Extreme 272(2)
Phenotypes
Stabilizing Selection 272(1)
Disruptive Selection 273(1)
Maintaining Variation 274(2)
Sexual Selection 274(1)
Balanced Polymorphism 275(1)
Genetic Drift---The Chance Changes 276(1)
Bottlenecks and the Founder Effect 276(1)
Inbred Populations 277(1)
Gene Flow 277(1)
Reproductive Isolation 278(2)
Species and Speciation 278(1)
Prezygotic Isolating Mechanisms 278(1)
Temporal Isolation 278(1)
Mechanical Isolation 279(1)
Behavioral Isolation 279(1)
Ecological Isolation 279(1)
Gamete Incompatibility 279(1)
Postzygotic Isolating Mechanisms 279(1)
Allopatric Speciation 280(2)
The Inviting Archipelagos 280(2)
Other Speciation Models 282(2)
Sympatric Speciation 282(1)
Polyploidy 282(1)
Other Examples 282(1)
Isolation at Hybrid Zones 283(1)
Macroevolution 284(2)
The Rate of Evolutionary Change 284(1)
Patterns of Macroevolution 284(1)
Preadaptation 284(1)
Adaptive Radiation 284(1)
Coevolution 284(1)
Extinction 285(1)
Evolutionary Theory 285(1)
Focus on Evolution for the Birds 286(1)
Connections Adaptation to What? 286(4)
Salt-Tolerant Tomatoes 286(1)
No Polar Bears in the Desert 287(1)
Adaptation to What? a Word of Caution 287(3)
Life's Origin and Early Evolution
Impacts, Issues Looking for Life in All 290(2)
the Odd Places
In the Beginning ... 292(2)
Conditions on the Early Earth 292(1)
Origin of the Molecules of Life 293(1)
How Did Cells Emerge? 294(2)
Origin of Agents of Metabolism 294(1)
Origin of the Plasma Membrane 294(1)
Origin of Self-Replicating Genetic 295(1)
Systems
The First Cells 296(2)
The Golden Age of Prokaryotes 296(1)
The Rise of Eukaryotes 296(2)
Connections Where Did Organelles Come 298(2)
From?
Origin of the Nucleus. Er, and Golgi 298(1)
Body
The Role of Endosymbiosis 298(1)
Evidence of Endosymbiosis 299(1)
Time Line for Life's Origin and Evolution 300(4)
UNIT IV EVOLUTION AND BIODIVERSITY
Prokaryotes and Viruses
Impacts, Issues West Nile Virus Takes Off 304(2)
Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells 306(2)
Cell Sizes, Shapes, and Structures 306(1)
Metabolic Diversity 306(1)
Reproduction and Gene Transfers 307(1)
Classification and Phylogeny 307(1)
The Bacteria 308(2)
Representative Diversity 308(1)
Regarding the ``Simple'' Bacteria 309(1)
The Archaeans 310(2)
The Third Domain 310(1)
Here, There, Everywhere 310(2)
The Viruses 312(2)
The Structure of Virus Particles 312(1)
Viral Multiplication 312(2)
Focus on Science Viroids and Prions 314(1)
The Smallest Pathogens 314(1)
Fatal Misfoldings 314(1)
Connections Evolution and Disease 315(3)
The Nature of Disease 315(1)
Drug-Resistant Pathogens 315(3)
Protists---The Simplest Eukaryotes
Impacts, Issues Tiny Critters, Big Impacts 318(2)
An Evolutionary Road Map 320(1)
Evolutionary Ancient Flagellates 321(1)
Shelled Amoebas 322(1)
Alveolates 322(2)
Ciliates 322(1)
Dinoflagellates 322(1)
Apicomplexans 323(1)
Focus on Health Malaria and the 324(1)
Night-Feeding Mosquitoes
Single-Celled Stramenopiles 325(1)
Brown Algae 326(1)
Green Algae 326(2)
Chlorophytes 326(1)
Charophytes 327(1)
Red Algae 328(1)
Focus on Science Amoeboid Cells at the 329(3)
Crossroads
Plant Evolution
Impacts, Issues Beginnings, and Endings 332(2)
Connections Evolutionary Trends Among 334(2)
Plants
From Haploid to Diploid Dominance 334(1)
Roots, Stems, and Leaves 334(1)
Pollen and Seeds 335(1)
The Bryophytes---No Vascular Tissues 336(2)
Seedless Vascular Plants 338(2)
Club Mosses and Spike Mosses 338(1)
Whisk Ferns and Horsetails 338(1)
Ferns-No Seeds, But Much Diversity 339(1)
Focus on the Environment Ancient Carbon 340(7)
Treasures
The Rise of Seed-Bearing Plants 347
Gymnosperms---Plants with Naked Seeds 342(2)
Conifers 342(1)
Lesser Known Gymnosperms 342(1)
A Representative Life Cycle 343(1)
Angiosperms---The Flowering Plants 344(2)
Coevolution with Pollinators 344(1)
Flowering Plant Diversity 344(2)
Focus on a Flowering Plant Life Cycle 346(1)
Focus on Science the World's Most 347(3)
Nutritious Plant
Fungi
Impacts, Issues Food, Forests, and Fungi 350(2)
Characteristics of Fungi 352(1)
Fungal Groups 352(1)
Overview of Fungal Life Cycles 352(1)
Zygomycetes---The Zygote Fungi 353(1)
Ascomycetes---The Sac Fungi 354(1)
Key Characteristics 354(1)
A Sampling of Diversity 354(1)
Basidiomycetes---The Club Fungi 355(1)
The Fungal Symbionts 356(1)
Lichens Revisited 356(1)
Fungal Endophytes 356(1)
Mycorrhizae-The Fungus Roots 356(1)
Focus on Health an Unloved Few 357(3)
Animal Evolution---The Invertebrates
Impacts, Issues Old Genes, New Drugs 360(2)
Animal Traits and Trends 362(2)
What is an Animal? 362(1)
Animal Tissues 362(1)
Body Size Revisited 362(1)
Overview of Animal Body Plans 362(2)
Animal Origins and Early Radiations 364(1)
Sponges---Success in Simplicity 365(1)
General Characteristics 365(1)
Sponge Reproduction 365(1)
Cnidarians---Simple Tissues, No Organs 366(2)
General Characteristics 366(1)
Unique Cnidarian Weapons 367(1)
Life Cycles 367(1)
Flatworms---Simple Organ Systems 368(2)
Structure of a Free-Living Flatworm 368(1)
Flukes and Tapeworms-The Parasites 368(2)
Annelids---Segments Galore 370(2)
Simple to Highly Modified Segments 370(1)
Annelid Adaptations-A Case in Point 370(2)
The Pliable Mollusks 372(2)
Hiding Out, or Not 372(1)
On the Cephalopod Need for Speed 373(1)
Roundworms 374(1)
Why Such Spectacular Arthropod Diversity? 375(1)
Major Groups 375(1)
Key Arthropod Adaptations 375(1)
Hardened Exoskeleton 375(1)
Jointed Appendages 375(1)
Highly Modified Segments 375(1)
Respiratory Structures 375(1)
Sensory Specializations 375(1)
Specialized Stages of Development 375(1)
Spiders and Their Relatives 376(1)
A Look at the Crustaceans 377(1)
A Look at Insect Diversity 378(2)
Focus on Health Unwelcome Arthropods 380(1)
Harmful Spiders 380(1)
Terrible Ticks 380(1)
The Mosquito Menace 380(1)
The Spiny-Skinned Echinoderms 381(3)
Animal Evolution---The Vertebrates
Impacts, Issues Interpreting and 384(2)
Misinterpreting the Past
The Chordate Heritage 386(2)
Chordate Characteristics 386(1)
Invertebrate Chordates 386(1)
Tunicates 386(1)
Lancelets 386(1)
A Braincase But No Backbone 387(1)
Connections Evolutionary Trends Among the 388(2)
Vertebrates
Early Craniates 388(1)
Key Innovations 388(1)
Major Vertebrate Groups 389(1)
Jawed Fishes and the Rise of Tetrapods 390(2)
Cartilaginous Fishes 390(1)
Bony Fishes 391(1)
The First Tetrapods 391(1)
Amphibians---First Tetrapods on Land 392(1)
Evolutionary High Points 392(1)
The Main Modern Groups 393(1)
Focus on the Environment Vanishing Acts 393(1)
The Rise of Amniotes 394(1)
Focus on Evolution So Long, Dinosaurs 395(1)
Portfolio of Modern ``Reptiles'' 396(2)
General Characteristics 396(1)
Major Groups 396(1)
Turtles 396(1)
Lizards 396(1)
Tuataras 396(1)
Snakes 396(1)
Crocodilians 397(1)
Birds---The Feathered Ones 398(2)
The Rise of Mammals 400(2)
From Early Primates to Hominids 402(2)
Overview of Key Trends 402(1)
Origins and Early Divergences 403(1)
Emergence of Early Humans 404(2)
Early Hominids 404(1)
Early Humans 405(1)
Emergence of Modern Humans 406(4)
Branchings of the Human Lineage 406(1)
Where Did Modern Humans Originate? 406(1)
Multiregional Model 406(1)
Replacement Model 406(1)
Leaving Home 407(3)
Plants and Animals---Common Challenges
Impacts, Issues A Cautionary Tale 410(2)
Levels of Structural Organization 412(2)
From Cells to Multicelled Organisms 412(1)
Growth Versus Development 412(1)
Structural Organization Has a History 412(1)
The Body's Internal Environment 413(1)
Start Thinking ``Homeostasis'' 413(1)
Recurring Challenges to Survival 414(2)
Gas Exchange in Large Bodies 414(1)
Internal Transport in Large Bodies 414(1)
Maintaining the Water-Solute Balance 414(1)
Cell-To-Cell Communication 415(60)
On Variations in Resources and Threats 475
Homeostasis in Animals 416(2)
Negative Feedback 416(1)
Positive Feedback 417(1)
Does Homeostasis Occur in Plants? 418(2)
Walling Off Threats 418(1)
Sand, Wind, and the Yellow Bush Lupine 418(1)
About Rhythmic Leaf Folding 419(1)
How Cells Receive and Respond to Signals 420(4)
UNIT V HOW PLANTS WORK
Plant Tissues
Impacts, Issues Droughts Versus 424(2)
Civilization
Components of the Plant Body 426(2)
The Basic Body Plan 426(1)
Overview of the Tissue Systems 426(1)
Eudicots and Monocots-Same Tissues, 426(1)
Different Features
Introducing Meristems 426(2)
Components of Plant Tissues 428(2)
Cells of Simple Tissues 428(1)
Cells of Complex Tissues 428(1)
Vascular Tissues 428(1)
Dermal Tissues 429(1)
Primary Structure of Shoots 430(2)
Behind the Apical Meristem 430(1)
Inside the Stem 430(2)
A Closer Look at Leaves 432(2)
Leaf Similarities and Differences 432(1)
Leaf Fine Structure 432(1)
Leaf Epidermis 432(1)
Mesophyll---Photosynthetic Ground Tissue 432(1)
Veins---The Leaf's Vascular Bundles 433(1)
Primary Structure of Roots 434(2)
Taproot and Fibrous Root Systems 434(1)
Internal Structure of Roots 434(2)
Accumulated Secondary Growth---The Woody 436(4)
Plants
Focus on Science Keeping Secrets 438(2)
Plant Nutrition and Transport
Impacts, Issues Leafy Clean-Up Crews 440(2)
Plant Nutrients and Availability in Soil 442(2)
The Required Nutrients 442(1)
Properties of Soil 442(1)
Soils and Plant Growth 442(1)
How Soils Develop 443(1)
Leaching and Erosion 443(1)
How Do Roots Absorb Water and Mineral 444(2)
Ions?
Specialized Absorptive Structures 444(1)
Mycorrhizae 444(1)
Root Nodules 444(1)
Root Hairs 444(1)
How Roots Control Water Uptake 445(1)
How Does Water Move Through Plants? 446(2)
Transpiration Defined 446(1)
Cohesion-Tension Theory 446(2)
A How Do Stems and Leaves Conserve Water? 448(1)
The Water-Conserving Cuticle 448(1)
Controlled Water Loss at Stomata 448(1)
Focus on the Environment the Bad Ozone 449(1)
How Do Organic Compounds Move Through 450(4)
Plants?
Conducting Tubes in Phloem 450(1)
Translocation 450(4)
Plant Reproduction and Development
Impacts, Issues Imperiled Sexual Partners 454(2)
Reproductive Structures of Flowering 456(2)
Plants
Floral Structure and Function 456(1)
Revisiting the Pollinators 456(2)
A New Generation Begins 458(2)
Microspore and Megaspore Formation 458(1)
Pollination and Fertilization 458(2)
From Zygotes to Seeds and Fruits 460(2)
The Embryo Sporophyte 460(1)
Seed and Fruit Formation 460(2)
Seed Dispersal---The Function of Fruits 462(1)
Asexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants 462(2)
Overview of Plant Development 464(2)
Seed Germination 464(1)
Patterns of Early Growth 464(2)
Plant Hormones and Other Signaling 466(2)
Molecules
Major Types of Plant Hormones 466(1)
Gibberellins 466(1)
Auxins 466(1)
Cytokinins 466(1)
Ethylene 467(1)
Abscisic Acid 467(1)
Other Signaling Molecules 467(1)
Adjusting the Direction and Rates of 468(2)
Growth
Responses to Gravity 468(1)
Responses to Light 468(1)
Responses to Contact 469(1)
Responses to Mechanical Stress 469(1)
Sensing Recurring Environmental Changes 470(2)
Biological Clocks 470(1)
Setting the Clock 470(1)
When to Flower? 470(2)
Entering and Breaking Dormancy 472(4)
Abscission and Senescence 472(1)
Dormancy 472(4)
UNIT VI HOW ANIMALS WORK
Animal Tissues and Organ Systems
Impacts, Issues Open or Close the Stem 476(2)
Cell Factories?
Epithelial Tissue 478(2)
General Characteristics 478(1)
Glandular Epithelium 478(1)
Cell Junctions 479(1)
Connective Tissues 480(2)
Soft Connective Tissues 480(1)
Specialized Connective Tissues 480(2)
Muscle Tissues 482(1)
Skeletal Muscle Tissue 482(1)
Cardiac Muscle Tissue 482(1)
Smooth Muscle Tissue 483(1)
Nervous Tissue 483(1)
Overview of Major Organ Systems 484(2)
Development of Tissues and Organs 484(1)
Vertebrate Organ Systems 484(2)
Focus on Health Vertebrate Skin---Example 486(4)
of an Organ System
The Dermis 486(1)
The Epidermis 486(1)
Suntans and Shoe-Leather Skin 487(1)
Evolution of Skin Color 487(3)
Neural Control
Impacts, Issues In Pursuit of Ecstasy 490(2)
Evolution of Nervous Systems 492(2)
The Cnidarian Nerve Net 492(1)
Bilateral, Cephalized Systems 492(1)
The Vertebrate Nervous System 493(1)
Neurons---The Great Communicators 494(2)
Neurons and Their Functional Zones 494(1)
Membrane Gradients and Potentials 494(2)
A Look at Action Potentials 496(2)
Approaching Threshold 496(1)
An All-Or-Nothing Spike 496(1)
Direction of Propagation 497(1)
How Neurons Send Messages to Other Cells 498(2)
Chemical Synapses 498(1)
Synaptic Integration 499(1)
A Smorgasbord of Signals 500(1)
Neurotransmitter Diversity 500(1)
The Neuropeptides 500(1)
Cleaning the Cleft 500(1)
Focus on Health Drugs and Disrupted 501(1)
Signaling
Stimulants 501(1)
Depressants 501(1)
Analgesics 501(1)
Hallucinogens 501(1)
Organization of Neurons in Nervous Systems 502(2)
Blocks and Cables of Neurons 502(1)
Reflex Arcs 503(1)
What Are the Major Expressways? 504(2)
Peripheral Nervous System 504(1)
Somatic and Autonomic Systems 504(1)
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic 504(1)
Divisions
Spinal Cord 505(1)
The Vertebrate Brain 506(2)
The Brain's Subdivisions 506(1)
Protection at the Blood-Brain Barrier 506(1)
The Human Brain 507(1)
The Human Cerebrum 508(2)
Functions of the Cerebral Cortex 508(1)
Connections with the L1mbic System 509(1)
Making Memories 509(1)
Neuroglia 510(2)
Sensory Perception
Impacts, Issues A Whale of a Dilemma 512(2)
Overview of Sensory Pathways 514(1)
Somatic Sensations 515(1)
Sampling the Chemical World 516(1)
Sense of Smell 516(1)
Sense of Taste 516(1)
Keeping the Body Balanced 517(1)
Collecting, Amplifying, and Sorting Out 518(2)
Sounds
Properties of Sound 518(1)
The Vertebrate Ear 518(2)
Do You See What I See? 520(2)
Requirements for Vision 520(1)
The Human Eye 520(1)
Visual Accommodation 521(1)
From the Retina to the Visual Cortex 522(1)
Focus on Health Visual Disorders 523(3)
Color Blindness 523(1)
Lack of Focus 523(1)
Age-Related Disorders 523(3)
Endocrine Control
Impacts, Issues Hormones in the Balance 526(2)
Introducing the Vertebrate Endocrine 528(2)
System
Categories of Signaling Molecules 528(1)
Overview of the Endocrine System 528(2)
The Nature of Hormone Action 530(2)
Signal Reception. Transduction, Response 530(1)
Intracellular Receptors 530(1)
Receptors at the Plasma Membrane 530(1)
Variations in the Responses 530(2)
The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 532(2)
Posterior Pituitary Function 532(1)
Anterior Pituitary Function 532(1)
Abnormal Pituitary Outputs 533(1)
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands 534(1)
Feedback Control of Thyroid Function 534(1)
Parathyroid Glands and Calcium Levels 534(1)
The Adrenal Glands 535(1)
The Adrenal Cortex 535(1)
The Adrenal Medulla 535(1)
Stress and Health 535(1)
Pancreatic Hormones 536(1)
Focus on Health Blood Sugar Disorders 537(1)
Type 1 Diabetes 537(1)
Type 2 Diabetes 537(1)
Hypoglycemia 537(1)
Other Endocrine Glands 538(1)
The Gonads 538(1)
The Pineal Gland 538(1)
The Thymus 538(1)
A Comparative Look at a Few Invertebrates 539(1)
Evolution of Receptor Diversity 539(1)
Control of Molting 539(1)
Connections the Hormone Connection 540(4)
Structural Support and Movement
Impacts, Issues Pumping Up Muscles 544(2)
Animal Skeletons 546(2)
Zooming in on Bones and Joints 548(2)
Bone Structure and Function 548(1)
Bone Formation and Remodeling 548(1)
Where Bones Meet-Skeletal Joints 549(1)
Skeletal-Muscular Systems 550(2)
How Does Skeletal Muscle Contract? 552(2)
Fine Structure of Skeletal Muscle 552(1)
Sliding-Filament Model for Contraction 553(1)
From Signal to Responses 554(2)
Nervous Control of Contraction 554(1)
Motor Units and Muscle Tension 554(1)
Exercise and Aging 554(1)
Energy for Contraction 555(1)
Muscular Dystrophies 555(1)
Focus on Health Oh, Clostridium! 556(2)
Circulation
Impacts, Issues And Then My Heart Stood 558(2)
Still
Connections the Nature of Blood 560(2)
Circulation
From Structure to Function 560(1)
Evolution of Circulation in Vertebrates 560(2)
Characteristics of Blood 562(2)
Functions of Blood 562(1)
Blood Volume and Composition 562(1)
Plasma 562(1)
Red Blood Cells 562(1)
White Blood Cells 563(1)
Platelets 563(1)
Focus on Health Blood Disorders 564(1)
Red Blood Cell Disorders 564(1)
White Blood Cell Disorders 564(1)
Blood Typing 564(2)
ABO Blood Typing 564(1)
Rh Blood Typing 565(1)
Human Cardiovascular System 566(2)
The Heart is a Lonely Pumper 568(2)
Heart Structure and Function 568(1)
How Does Cardiac Muscle Contract? 568(1)
Cardiac Muscle Revisited 568(1)
How the Heart Beats 569(1)
Pressure, Transport, and Flow Distribution 570(2)
Rapid Transport in Arteries 570(1)
Flow Distribution at Arterioles 570(1)
Controlling Blood Pressure 571(1)
Diffusion at Capillaries, Then Back to 572(2)
the Heart
Capillary Function 572(1)
Venous Pressure 573(1)
Focus on Health Cardiovascular Disorders 574(2)
Good Clot, Bad Clot 574(1)
Atherosclerosis 574(1)
Hypertension-A Silent Killer 575(1)
Rhythms and Arrythmias 575(1)
Risk Factors 575(1)
Interactions with the Lymphatic System 576(4)
Lymph Vascular System 576(1)
Lymphoid Organs and Tissues 577(3)
Immunity
Impacts, Issues Viruses, Vulnerability, 580(2)
and Vaccines
Integrated Responses to Threats 582(1)
Evolution of the Body's Defenses 582(1)
Three Lines of Defense 582(1)
The Defenders 582(1)
Surface Barriers 583(1)
Innate Immune Responses 584(2)
Phagocytes and Complement 584(1)
Inflammation 584(1)
Fever 585(1)
Overview of Adaptive Immunity 586(2)
Tailoring Responses to Specific Threats 586(1)
First Step-The Antigen Alert 586(1)
Two Arms of Adaptive Immunity 586(1)
Intercepting and Clearing Out Antigen 587(1)
The Antibody-Mediated Immune Response 588(2)
Antibody Structure and Function 588(1)
An Antibody-Mediated Response 588(2)
The Cell-Mediated Response 590(1)
Focus on Health Remember to Floss 591(1)
Defenses Enhanced or Compromised 592(2)
Immunization 592(1)
Allergies 592(1)
Autoimmune Disorders 593(1)
Deficient Immune Responses 593(1)
Connections Aids Revisited---Immunity Lost 594(4)
HIV Infection 594(1)
HIV Revisited 594(1)
A Titanic Struggle Begins 594(1)
How is HIV Transmitted? 595(1)
What About Drugs and Vaccines? 595(3)
Respiration
Impacts, Issues Up in Smoke 598(2)
The Nature of Respiration 600(1)
The Basis of Gas Exchange 600(1)
Factors Affecting Diffusion Rates 600(1)
Surface-to-Volume Ratio 600(1)
Ventilation 600(1)
Respiratory Proteins 600(1)
Invertebrate Respiration 601(1)
Vertebrate Respiration 602(2)
Vertebrate Gills 602(1)
Evolution of Paired Lungs 602(2)
Human Respiratory System 604(2)
The System's Many Functions 604(1)
From Airways to Alveoli 605(1)
The Respiratory Passageways 605(1)
The Paired Lungs 605(1)
Muscles and Respiration 605(1)
Gas Exchange and Transport 606(2)
The Respiratory Membrane 606(1)
Oxygen Transport 606(1)
Carbon Dioxide Transport 606(1)
The Carbon Monoxide Threat 607(1)
Cyclic Reversals in Air Pressure Gradients 608(2)
The Respiratory Cycle 608(1)
Respiratory Volumes 608(1)
Control of Breathing 609(1)
Focus on Health Respiratory Diseases and 610(2)
Disorders
Interrupted Breathing 610(1)
Potentially Deadly Infections 610(1)
Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema 610(1)
Smoking's Impact 611(1)
High Climbers and Deep Divers 612(4)
Respiration at High Altitudes 612(1)
Deep-Sea Divers 612(4)
Digestion and Human Nutrition
Impacts, Issues Hominids, Hips, and Hunger 616(2)
The Nature of Digestive Systems 618(2)
Incomplete and Complete Systems 618(1)
Dietary Adaptations 619(1)
Overview of the Human Digestive System 620(1)
Food in the Mouth 621(1)
Food Breakdown in the Stomach and Small 622(2)
Intestine
Digestion in the Stomach 622(1)
Digestion in the Small Intestine 623(1)
Controls Over Digestion 623(1)
Absorption from the Small Intestine 624(2)
From Structure to Function 624(1)
What Are the Absorption Mechanisms? 624(1)
Water and Solute Absorption 624(1)
Fat Absorption 625(1)
The Large Intestine 626(1)
Colon Structure and Function 626(1)
Health and the Colon 626(1)
What Happens to Absorbed Organic 627(1)
Compounds?
Human Nutritional Requirements 628(2)
USDA Dietary Recommendations 628(1)
Energy-Rich Carbohydrates 628(1)
Good Fat, Bad Fat 628(1)
Body-Building Proteins 629(1)
Regarding the Alternative Diets 629(1)
Vitamins and Minerals 630(2)
Focus on Health Weighty Questions, 632(4)
Tantalizing Answers
What is the ``Right'' Body Weight? 632(1)
A Question of Portion Sizes 632(1)
Genes, Hormones, and Obesity 633(3)
The Internal Environment
Impacts, Issues Truth in a Test Tube 636(2)
Gains and Losses in Water and Solutes 638(1)
Water, Salts, and the ECF 638(1)
Vertebrate Balancing Acts 638(1)
Water-Solute Balance in Humans 638(1)
A Comparative Look at Other Vertebrates 638(1)
Focus on the Environment Desert Rats 639(1)
Structure of the Urinary System 640(2)
Components of the System 640(1)
Introducing the Nephrons 641(1)
Overview of Nephron Structure 641(1)
Blood Vessels Around Nephrons 641(1)
Urine Formation 642(2)
Glomerular Filtration 642(1)
Tubular Reabsorption 642(1)
Tubular Secretion 642(1)
Concentrating the Urine 643(1)
Hormonal Controls 643(1)
Focus on Health Kidney Disease 644(1)
Acid-Base Balance 644(1)
Heat Gains and Losses 645(1)
How the Core Temperature Can Change 645(1)
Endotherm? Ectotherm? Heterotherm? 645(1)
Temperature Regulation in Mammals 646(4)
Responses to Heat Stress 646(1)
Responses to Cold Stress 646(4)
Animal Reproduction and Development
Impacts, Issues Mind-Boggling Births 650(2)
Reflections on Sexual Reproduction 652(2)
Sexual Versus Asexual Reproduction 652(1)
Costs of Sexual Reproduction 652(2)
Stages of Reproduction and Development 654(2)
Early Marching Orders 656(2)
Information in the Cytoplasm 656(1)
Cleavage-The Start of Multicellularity 656(1)
From Blastula to Gastrula 657(1)
Specialized Cells, Tissues, and Organs 658(2)
Cell Differentiation 658(1)
Cell Communication in Development 658(1)
Morphogenesis 658(1)
Pattern Formation 659(1)
Evolution and Development 659(1)
Reproductive System of Human Males 660(2)
When Male Gonads Form and Become Active 660(1)
Structure and Function of the Male 660(1)
Reproductive System
Cancers of the Prostate and Testes 661(1)
Sperm Formation 662(2)
From Germ Cells to Mature Sperm 662(1)
Hormonal Controls 662(2)
Reproductive System of Human Females 664(1)
Components of the System 664(1)
Overview of the Menstrual Cycle 665(1)
Focus on Health Female Troubles 665(1)
PMS 665(1)
Menstrual Pain 665(1)
Hot Flashes, Night Sweats 665(1)
The Menstrual Cycle 666(2)
Phases of the Cycle 666(1)
Changes in the Ovary and Uterus 666(2)
Focus on Health FSH and Twins 668(1)
Pregnancy Happens 668(2)
Sexual Intercourse 668(1)
Physiology of Sex 668(1)
Regarding Viagra 668(1)
Fertilization 669(1)
Focus on Health Preventing or Seeking 670(2)
Pregnancy
Fertility Control Options 670(1)
Regarding Abortion 671(1)
Assisted Reproductive Technology 671(1)
Focus on Health Sexually Transmitted 672(2)
Diseases ( Consequences of Infection
Major Agents of STDS 672(1)
HPV 672(1)
Trichomoniasis 672(1)
Chlamydia 672(1)
Genital Herpes 672(1)
Gonorrhea 672(1)
Syphilis 673(1)
AIDS 673(1)
Formation of the Early Embryo 674(2)
Cleavage and Implantation 674(1)
Extraembryonic Membranes 674(1)
Early Hormone Production 675(1)
Emergence of the Vertebrate Body Plan 676(1)
The Function of the Placenta 677(1)
Emergence of Distinctly Human Features 678(2)
Focus on Health Mother as Provider and 680(1)
Protector
Nutritional Considerations 680(1)
Infectious Diseases 680(1)
Alcohol Use 680(1)
Smoking 680(1)
Prescription Drugs 680(1)
Birth and Lactation 681(1)
Giving Birth 681(1)
Nourishing the Newborn 681(1)
Maturation, Aging, and Death 682(4)
Stages of the Life Cycle 682(1)
Why We Age and Die 682(4)
UNIT VII PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY
Population Ecology
Impacts, Issues The Numbers Game 686(2)
Population Demographics 688(1)
Focus on Science Elusive Heads to Count 689(1)
Population Size and Exponential Growth 690(2)
Gains and Losses in Population Size 690(1)
From Zero to Exponential Growth 690(1)
What is the Biotic Potential? 691(1)
Limits on Population Growth 692(2)
Environmental Limits on Growth 692(1)
Carrying Capacity and Logistic Growth 692(1)
Two Categories of Limiting Factors 693(1)
Life History Patterns 694(2)
Life Tables 694(1)
Patterns of Survival and Reproduction 694(1)
Type I Curves 695(1)
Type II Curves 695(1)
Type III Curves 695(1)
Focus on Science Natural Selection and 696(2)
Life Histories
Predation on Guppies in Trinidad 696(1)
Overfishing and the Atlantic Cod 697(1)
Human Population Growth 698(2)
The Human Population Today 698(1)
Extraordinary Foundations for Growth 698(1)
Geographic Expansion 698(1)
Increased Carrying Capacity 698(1)
Sidestepped Limiting Factors 699(1)
Fertility Rates and Age Structure 700(2)
Some Projections 700(1)
Shifiting Fertility Rates 700(2)
Population Growth and Economic Effects 702(1)
Demographic Transitions 702(1)
Resource Consumption 702(1)
A No-Growth Society 703(3)
Community Structure and Biodiversity
Impacts, Issues Fire Ants in the Pants 706(2)
Which Factors Shape Community Structure? 708(1)
The Niche 708(1)
Categories of Species Interactions 708(1)
Mutualism 709(1)
Competitive Interactions 710(2)
Effects of Competition 710(1)
Resource Partitioning 711(1)
Predator-Prey Interactions 712(2)
Models for Predator-Prey Interactions 712(1)
The Canadian Lynx and Snowshoe Hare 712(61)
Coevolution of Predators and Prey 773
Focus on Evolution an Evolutionary Arms 714(2)
Race
Prey Defenses 714(1)
Adaptive Responses of Predators 715(1)
Parasite-Host Interactions 716(1)
Parasites and Parasitoids 716(1)
Uses as Biological Controls 717(1)
Focus on Evolution Cowbird Chutzpah 717(1)
Ecological Succession 718(2)
Successional Change 718(1)
Factors That Influence Succession 718(2)
Species Interactions and Community 720(2)
Instability
The Role of Keystone Species 720(2)
How Species Introductions Tip the 722(1)
Balance
Focus on the Environment Exotic Invaders 722(2)
The Alga Triumphant 722(1)
The Plants That Ate Georgia 722(1)
The Rabbits That Ate Australia 723(1)
Biogeographic Patterns in Community 724(2)
Structure
Mainland and Marine Patterns 724(1)
Island Patterns 724(2)
Threats to Biodiversity 726(2)
On the Newly Endangered Species 726(1)
Species Introductions 726(1)
Habitat Loss and Fragmentation 726(1)
Overharvesting and Poaching 727(1)
Conservation Biology 727(1)
Sustaining Biodiversity and Human 728(4)
Populations
Identifying Areas at Risk 728(1)
Economics and Sustainable Development 728(1)
Ecotourism 729(1)
Sustainable Logging 729(1)
Responsible Ranching 729(3)
Ecosystems
Impacts, Issues Bye-Bye, Blue Bayou 732(2)
The Nature of Ecosystems 734(2)
Overview of the Participants 734(1)
Trophic Structure of Ecosystems 734(2)
The Nature of Food Webs 736(2)
How Many Transfers? 736(1)
Two Categories of Food Webs 737(1)
Focus on Health Biological Magnification 738(2)
in Food Webs
Ecosystem Analysis 738(1)
Some Chemical Background 738(1)
DDT in Food Webs 739(1)
Studying Energy Flow Through Ecosystems 740(1)
What is Primary Productivity? 740(1)
Ecological Pyramids 740(1)
Ecological Efficiency 740(1)
Biogeochemical Cycles 741(1)
The Water Cycle 742(2)
How and Where Water Moves 742(1)
A Global Water Crisis 742(2)
Carbon Cycle 744(2)
Focus on the Environment Greenhouse 746(2)
Gases, Global Warming
Nitrogen Cycle 748(2)
Inputs Into Ecosystems 748(1)
Natural Losses from Ecosystems 749(1)
Disruptions By Human Activities 749(1)
The Phosphorus Cycle 750(4)
The Biosphere
Impacts, Issues Surfers, Seals, and the 754(2)
Sea
Global Air Circulation Patterns 756(2)
Climate and Temperature Zones 756(1)
Harnessing the Sun and Wind 757(1)
Focus on the Environment Circulating 758(2)
Airborne Pollutants
A Fence of Wind and Ozone Thinning 758(1)
No Wind, Lots of Pollutants, and Smog 758(1)
Winds and Acid Rain 759(1)
Windborne Particles and Health 759(1)
The Ocean, Landforms, and Climates 760(2)
Ocean Currents and Their Effects 760(1)
Rain Shadows and Monsoons 761(1)
Biogeographic Realms and Biomes 762(2)
Availability of Sunlight, Soils, and 764(2)
Moisture
Moisture-Challenged Biomes 766(2)
Deserts 766(1)
Dry Shrublands, Woodlands, and 766(2)
Grasslands
More Rain, Broadleaf Forests 768(1)
Tropical Rain Forests 768(1)
Semi-Evergreen and Deciduous Broadleaf 768(1)
Forests
Focus on Bioethics You and the Tropical 769(1)
Forests
Coniferous Forests 770(1)
Brief Summers and Long, Icy Winters 771(1)
Freshwater Ecosystems 772(2)
Lakes 772(1)
Seasonal Changes 772(1)
Nutrient Content and Succession 773(1)
Streams and Rivers 773(1)
Focus on Health ``Fresh'' Water? 774(1)
Life at Land's End 774(2)
Wetlands and the Intertidal Zone 774(1)
Rocky and Sandy Coastlines 775(1)
Focus on the Environment the Once and 776(2)
Future Reefs
The Open Ocean 778(2)
Astounding Diversity 778(1)
Upwelling and Downwelling 778(1)
Ocean as Garbage Dump 779(1)
Connections Climate, Copepods, and Cholera 780(4)
Behavioral Ecology
Impacts, Issues My Pheromones Made Me Do 784(2)
It
Behavior's Heritable Basis 786(1)
Genetic Variation in Behavior 786(1)
Hormones and Behavior 786(1)
Instinct and Learning 787(1)
Instinctive Behavior 787(1)
Learned Behavior 787(1)
Adaptive Behavior 788(1)
Communication Signals 788(2)
Mates, Offspring, and Reproductive Success 790(2)
Sexual Selection and Mating Behavior 790(1)
Parental Care 791(1)
Living in Groups 792(2)
Defense Against Predators 792(1)
Improved Feeding Opportunities 792(1)
Dominance Hierarchies 793(1)
Regarding the Costs 793(1)
Why Sacrifice Yourself? 794(1)
Social Insects 794(1)
Social Mole-Rats 794(1)
Evolution of Altruism 794(1)
Focus on Science Human Behavior 795(3)
Hormones and Pheromones 795(1)
Morality and Behavior 795(3)
Epilogue Biological Principles and the Human 798
Imperative
Appendix I Classification System
Appendix II Annotations to a Journal Article
Appendix III Answers to Self-Quizzes and
Genetics Problems
Appendix IV Periodic Table of the Elements
Appendix V Molecular Models
Appendix VI Closer Look at Some Major Metabolic
Pathways
Appendix VII A Plain English Map of the Human
Chromosomes
Appendix VIII Restless Earth---Life's Changing
Geologic Stage
Appendix IX Units of Measure
Appendix X A Comparative View of Mitosis in
Plant and Animal Cells