Social Psychology and Human Nature (1 Brief)

Social Psychology and Human Nature (1 Brief)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 507 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495116332
  • DDC分類 302

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xvii
The Mission and the Method 3 (26)
A Brief History of Social Psychology 5 (3)
What Do Social Psychologists Do? 8 (1)
Social Psychology's Place in the World 9 (3)
Social Psychology's Place in the Social 9 (1)
Sciences
Social Psychology's Place Within 10 (2)
Psychology
Why People Study Social Psychology 12 (2)
Curiosity About People 12 (1)
Experimental Philosophy 12 (1)
Making the World Better 12 (1)
Social Psychology Is Fun! 13 (1)
How Do Social Psychologists Answer Their 14 (2)
Own Questions?
Accumulated Common Wisdom 14 (1)
Overview of the Scientific Method 15 (1)
Scientific Theories 15 (1)
Food for Thought: Does Chicken Soup 16 (6)
Reduce Cold Symptoms?
Research Design 17 (5)
How Much of Social Psychology Is True? 22 (2)
Self-Correcting Nature of Science 22 (1)
Reliance on Student Samples 23 (1)
Cultural Relativity 23 (1)
Chapter Summary 24 (5)
Culture and Nature 29 (40)
Explaining the Psyche 31 (10)
Nature Defined 32 (1)
Evolution, and Doing What's Natural 32 (2)
Culture Defined 34 (2)
Cultural Influence, Meaning, and the 36 (2)
Power of Ideas
Are People the Same Everywhere? 38 (1)
Social Animal or Cultural Animal? 39 (2)
The Individual and Society 41 (4)
Social Brain Theory 41 (1)
Evolved for Culture? 42 (3)
Facts of Life 45 (2)
Food and Sex 45 (1)
Bad Is Stronger Than Good 46 (1)
Food for Thought: Virtuous Vegetarians 47 (1)
The Social Side of Sex: Sex and Culture 48 (2)
Tradeoffs: When You Can't Have It All 49 (1)
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: Bad, Good, 50 (3)
and Positive Psychology
Tradeoffs: Political Tradeoffs 53 (1)
Important Features of Human Social Life 53 (10)
The Duplex Mind 54 (4)
The Long Road to Social Acceptance 58 (1)
Built to Relate 58 (1)
Nature Says Go, Culture Says Stop 59 (1)
Selfish Impulse Versus Social Conscience 60 (1)
Putting People First 61 (2)
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 63 (1)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 64 (5)
The Self 69 (46)
What Is the Self? 71 (8)
The Self's Main Jobs 71 (1)
Who Makes the Self: The Individual or 72 (3)
Society?
Self-Awareness 75 (4)
Food for Thought: Eating Binges and 79 (1)
Escaping the Self
Where Self-Knowledge Comes From 80 (9)
Looking Outside: The Looking-Glass Self 80 (1)
Looking Inside: Introspection 81 (1)
Looking at Others: Social Comparison 82 (1)
Self-Perception and the Over 83 (2)
justification Effect
The Fluctuating Image(s) of Self 85 (1)
Why People Seek Self-Knowledge 86 (3)
Tradeoffs: Self-Handicapping 89 (1)
Self and Information Processing 90 (5)
Anything That Touches the Self . . . 90 (2)
Can the Self-Concept Change? 92 (3)
Self-Esteem, Self-Deception, and Positive 95 (2)
Illusions
Self-Esteem 95 (1)
Reality and Illusion 96 (1)
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: Basking and 97 (4)
Blasting
How People Fool Themselves 98 (2)
Benefits of Self-Esteem 100 (1)
The Social Side of Sex: Self-Esteem and 101 (4)
Saying No to Sex
Why Do We Care? 102 (1)
Is High Self-Esteem Always Good? 103 (1)
Pursuing Self-Esteem 104 (1)
Self-Presentation 105 (5)
Who's Looking? 106 (1)
Making an Impression 107 (2)
Self-Presentation and Risky Behavior 109 (1)
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 110 (2)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 112 (3)
Behavior Control: The Self in Action 115 (30)
What You Do, and What It Means 117 (8)
Action Identification 118 (2)
Goals, Plans, Intentions 120 (5)
Freedom and Choice 125 (4)
Freedom of Action 126 (1)
Making Choices 127 (2)
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: Avoiding 129 (1)
Losses Versus Pursuing Gains
The Social Side of Sex: Gender, Sex, and 130 (2)
Decisions
Self-Regulation 132 (3)
Food for Thought: Dieting as 135 (1)
Self-Regulation
Irrationality and Self-Destruction 136 (2)
Self-Defeating Acts: Being Your Own 136 (2)
Worst Enemy
Tradeoffs: Now Versus Tomorrow: Delay of 138 (2)
Gratification
Suicide 138 (2)
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 140 (1)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 141 (4)
Social Cognition 145 (36)
What Is Social Cognition? 147 (8)
Thinking About People: A Special Case? 147 (1)
Why People Think, and Why They Don't 148 (1)
Goals of Thinking 149 (1)
Automatic and Controlled Thinking 149 (5)
Thought Suppression and Ironic Processes 154 (1)
Food for Thought: It's the Thought That 155 (1)
Counts (or Doesn't Count!) the Calories
Attributions: Why Did That Happen? 156 (5)
It's Not My Fault: Explaining Success 156 (1)
and Failure
You Looking at Me? The Actor/Observer 157 (2)
Bias
The Attribution Cube and Making Excuses 159 (2)
Heuristics: Mental Shortcuts 161 (3)
Representativeness Heuristic 161 (1)
Availability Heuristic 161 (1)
Simulation Heuristic 162 (1)
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic 163 (1)
Errors and Biases 164 (2)
Confirmation Bias 165 (1)
The Social Side of Sex: Counting Sex 166 (5)
Partners
Conjunction Fallacy 167 (1)
Illusory Correlation 167 (1)
Base Rate Fallacy 168 (1)
Gambler's Fallacy 169 (1)
False Consensus Effect 169 (1)
False Uniqueness Effect 169 (1)
Statistical Regression 170 (1)
Illusion of Control 170 (1)
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: Good News and 171 (3)
Bad News
Magical Thinking 171 (1)
Counterfactual Thinking 172 (2)
Are People Really Idiots? 174 (2)
How Serious Are the Errors? 175 (1)
Reducing Cognitive Errors 175 (1)
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 176 (1)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 177 (4)
Emotion and Affect 181 (42)
What Is Emotion? 183 (1)
Conscious Emotion Versus Automatic 183 (1)
Affect
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: Names for 184 (1)
Emotions
Emotional Arousal 185 (3)
James--Lange Theory of Emotion 185 (1)
Cannon--Bard Theory of Emotion 186 (1)
Schachter--Singer Theory of Emotion 186 (1)
Misattribution of Arousal 187 (1)
The Social Side of Sex: Can People Be 188 (2)
Wrong About Whether They Are Sexually
Aroused?
Some Important Emotions 190 (5)
Happiness 190 (4)
Anger 194 (1)
Tradeoffs: Affect Intensity, or the Joys 195 (5)
of Feeling Nothing
Guilt and Shame 197 (3)
Why Do We Have Emotions? 200 (2)
Emotions Promote Belongingness 200 (1)
Emotions Cause Behavior---Sort Of 201 (1)
Food for Thought: Mood and Food 202 (5)
Emotions Guide Thinking and Learning 203 (1)
(Anticipated) Emotion Guides Decisions 204 (1)
and Choices
Emotions Help and Hurt Decision Making 205 (1)
Positive Emotions Counteract Negative 206 (1)
Emotions
Other Benefits of Positive Emotions 206 (1)
Individual Differences in Emotion 207 (4)
Are Emotions Different Across Cultures? 207 (2)
Are Women More Emotional Than Men? 209 (2)
Arousal, Attention, and Performance 211 (1)
Emotional Intelligence (EQ) 212 (2)
Affect Regulation 214 (3)
How to Cheer Up 214 (1)
Affect Regulation Goals 215 (1)
Gender Differences in Emotion Control 215 (1)
Strategies
Is It Safe? 216 (1)
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 217 (1)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 218 (5)
Attitudes, Beliefs, and Consistency 223 (28)
What Are Attitudes and Why Do People Have 225 (3)
Them?
Attitudes Versus Beliefs 226 (1)
Dual Attitudes 226 (1)
Why People Have Attitudes 227 (1)
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: Optimism, 228 (1)
Pessimism---and Life and Death
How Attitudes Are Formed 229 (3)
Formation of Attitudes 229 (1)
Polarization 230 (2)
Consistency 232 (4)
Heider's P-O-X Theory 232 (1)
Cognitive Dissonance and Attitude Change 233 (3)
Food for Thought: Would You Eat a Bug or 236 (2)
a Worm?
Do Attitudes Really Predict Behaviors? 238 (2)
Attacking Attitudes 238 (1)
Defending Attitudes 239 (1)
The Social Side of Sex: A--B 240 (1)
Inconsistency and Erotic Plasticity
Conclusion: Attitudes in Action 240 (1)
Beliefs and Believing 241 (5)
Believing Versus Doubting 241 (1)
Belief Perseverance 242 (1)
Belief and Coping 242 (3)
Religious Belief 245 (1)
Irrational Belief 245 (1)
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 246 (1)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 247 (4)
Prosocial Behavior: Doing What's Best for 251 (38)
Others
What Is Prosocial Behavior? 254 (4)
Born to Reciprocate 255 (1)
Born to Be Fair 256 (2)
Your Fair Share 258 (2)
Tragedy of the Commons 258 (1)
Hoarding 259 (1)
Cooperation, Forgiveness, Obedience, and 260 (1)
Conformity
Cooperation 260 (1)
Tradoffs: The Prisoner's Dilemma 261 (2)
Forgiveness 262 (1)
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: Moral and 263 (5)
Immoral
Obedience 264 (2)
Conformity 266 (2)
Food for Thought: Restaurants, Rules, and 268 (1)
the Bad Taste of Nonconformity
Why Do People Help Others? 268 (5)
Evolutionary Benefits 269 (1)
Two Motives for Helping: Altruism and 270 (2)
Egoism
Is Altruism Possible? 272 (1)
Who Helps Whom? 273 (2)
Helpful Personality 274 (1)
Similarity 274 (1)
Gender 274 (1)
The Social Side of Sex: Helping, Sex, and 275 (2)
Friends
Beautiful Victims 275 (1)
Belief in a Just World 276 (1)
Emotion and Mood 277 (1)
Bystander Helping in Emergencies 277 (5)
Five Steps to Helping 278 (3)
Too Busy to Help? 281 (1)
How Can We Increase Helping? 282 (2)
Getting Help in a Public Setting 282 (1)
Educate Others 282 (1)
Provide Helpful Models 282 (1)
Teach Moral Inclusion 283 (1)
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 284 (1)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 285 (4)
Aggression and Antisocial Behavior 289 (36)
Tradeoffs: Is Military Action an 291 (1)
Effective Way to Fight Terrorism?
Defining Aggression and Antisocial 292 (4)
Behavior
Is Aggression Innate or Learned? 296 (3)
Instinct Theories 296 (1)
Learning Theories 297 (1)
Nature and Nurture 298 (1)
Inner Causes of Aggression 299 (3)
Frustration 299 (1)
Being in a Bad Mood 300 (1)
Hostile Cognitive Biases 301 (1)
Age and Aggression 301 (1)
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: The Magnitude 302 (1)
Gap
Gender and Aggression 302 (1)
Interpersonal Causes of Aggression 303 (2)
Selfishness and Influence 303 (1)
Domestic and Relationship Violence: 304 (1)
Hurting Those We Love
The Social Side of Sex: Sexual Aggression 305 (2)
Displacement 306 (1)
External Causes of Aggression 307 (4)
Weapons Effect 307 (1)
Mass Media 308 (1)
Unpleasant Environments 308 (1)
Chemical Influences 309 (2)
Food for Thought: Is There a Link Between 311 (1)
Diet and Violence?
Self and Culture 312 (4)
Norms and Values 312 (1)
Self-Control 312 (1)
Wounded Pride 313 (1)
Culture of Honor 314 (2)
Other Antisocial Behavior 316 (3)
Cheating 317 (1)
Stealing 317 (1)
Littering 318 (1)
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 319 (1)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 320 (5)
Attraction and Exclusion 325 (32)
The Need to Belong 327 (1)
Belongingness as a Basic Need 327 (1)
Tradeoffs: Testosterone---A Blessing and 328 (4)
a Curse
Two Ingredients to Belongingness 331 (1)
Not Belonging Is Bad for You 331 (1)
Best Friends, Lovers, and . . . 332 (1)
Attraction: Who Likes Whom? 332 (6)
Similarity, Complementarity, 333 (2)
Oppositeness
Social Rewards: You Make Me Feel Good 335 (1)
Tit for Tat: Reciprocity and Liking 335 (2)
You Again: Mere Exposure 337 (1)
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: Neighbors 338 (2)
Make Friends---and Enemies
Looking Good 338 (2)
The Social Side of Sex: What Is Beauty? 340 (1)
Rejection 341 (3)
Effects of Rejection: Inner Reactions 342 (2)
Food for Thought: Social Rejection and 344 (7)
the Jar of Cookies
Behavioral Effects of Rejection 345 (1)
Loneliness 346 (1)
What Leads to Social Rejection? 347 (2)
Romantic Rejection and Unrequited Love 349 (2)
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 351 (1)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 352 (5)
Close Relationships: Passion, Intimacy, and 357 (44)
Sexuality
What Is Love? 360 (3)
Passionate and Companionate Love 360 (1)
Love and Culture 361 (1)
Love Across Time 362 (1)
Tradeoffs: Sex In and Out of Marriage 363 (2)
Sternberg's Triangle 364 (1)
Different Types of Relationships 365 (7)
Exchange Versus Communal 365 (2)
Attachment 367 (3)
Loving People Who Love Themselves 370 (2)
Maintaining Relationships 372 (1)
I Love You More Each Day (?) 372 (1)
Investment Model 372 (1)
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: Good and Bad 373 (5)
Relationship Partners
Thinking Styles of Couples 374 (2)
Being Yourself: Is Honesty the Best 376 (2)
Policy?
Sexuality 378 (6)
Theories of Sexuality 379 (2)
Sex and Gender 381 (3)
Food for Thought: Eating in Front of a 384 (11)
Cute Guy
Homosexuality 384 (1)
Extradyadic Sex 385 (4)
Jealousy and Possessiveness 389 (4)
Culture, Female Sexuality, and the 393 (2)
Double Standard
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 395 (2)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 397 (4)
Prejudice and Intergroup Relations 401 (40)
Common Prejudices and Targets 405 (3)
Arabs 406 (1)
People Who Are Overweight 407 (1)
Food for Thought: Prejudice Against the 408 (2)
Obese
Homosexuals 408 (2)
The Social Side of Sex: Roots of Anti-Gay 410 (1)
Prejudice
Why Prejudice Exists 411 (4)
Us Versus Them: Groups in Competition 412 (3)
Tradeoffs: Competition Versus Cooperation 415 (4)
Ignorance? The Contact Hypothesis 416 (1)
Rationalizations for Oppression 417 (1)
Stereotypes as Heuristics 417 (1)
Prejudice and Self-Esteem 418 (1)
Content of Prejudice and Stereotypes 419 (2)
Accuracy of Stereotypes: Kernels of 420 (1)
Truth?
Are Stereotypes Always Negative? 420 (1)
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: Why Aren't 421 (1)
There More Good Stereotypes?
Inner Processes 421 (3)
Overcoming Stereotypes, Reducing Prejudice 424 (5)
Conscious Override 425 (3)
Contact 428 (1)
Superordinate Goals 428 (1)
Impact of Prejudice on Targets 429 (7)
Self-Fulfilling and Self-Defeating 430 (2)
Prophecies
Stigma and Self-Protection 432 (2)
Stereotype Threat 434 (2)
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 436 (1)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 436 (5)
Social Influence and Persuasion 441 (36)
Two Types of Social Influence 444 (2)
Being Liked: Normative Influence 444 (1)
Being Correct: Informational Influence 445 (1)
Techniques of Social Influence 446 (7)
Techniques Based on Commitment and 446 (3)
Consistency
Techniques Based on Reciprocation 449 (2)
Techniques Based on Scarcity 451 (1)
Techniques Based on Capturing and 452 (1)
Disrupting Attention
Persuasion 453 (3)
Who: The Source 454 (2)
Food for Thought: Convert Communicators 456 (2)
and Health Messages
Says What: The Message 456 (2)
The Social Side of Sex: Scared into Safe 458 (2)
Sex?
To Whom: The Audience 459 (1)
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: Negative 460 (8)
Political Campaigning
Two Routes to Persuasion 462 (3)
Alpha and Omega Strategies 465 (3)
Resisting Persuasion 468 (4)
Attitude Inoculation 468 (1)
Forewarned Is Forearmed 469 (1)
Stockpile Resources 470 (1)
Defenses Against Influence Techniques 470 (2)
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 472 (1)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 473 (4)
Groups 477
What Groups Are and Do 480 (2)
Tradeoffs: Diversity in Groups 482 (1)
Groups, Roles, and Selves 483 (2)
Group Action 485 (3)
Social Facilitation 485 (2)
Social Loafing 487 (1)
Food for Thought: Eating Together Versus 488 (4)
Alone
Punishing Cheaters and Free Riders 489 (1)
Deindividuation and Mob Violence 490 (1)
Shared Resources and the Commons Dilemma 491 (1)
Is Bad Stronger Than Good?: Acceptance 492 (1)
Versus Rejection by Groups
How Groups Think 492 (6)
Brainstorming, and the Wisdom of Groups 493 (1)
Why Do People Love Teams? 494 (1)
Transactive Memory: Here, You Remember 495 (1)
This
Groupthink 495 (2)
Foolish Committees 497 (1)
Group Polarization and the ``Risky 497 (1)
Shift''
Power and Leadership 498 (6)
Leadership 499 (1)
What Is Power? 500 (1)
Effects of Power on Leader 500 (3)
Effects of Power on Followers 503 (1)
Legitimate Leadership 503 (1)
What Makes Us Human? Putting the Cultural 504 (1)
Animal in Perspective
Chapter Summary 505
Glossary 1 (1)
References 1 (1)
Name Index 1 (1)
Subject Index 1