Educational Administration : Concepts and Practices (5TH)

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Educational Administration : Concepts and Practices (5TH)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 554 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495115854
  • DDC分類 371.200973

Full Description


"Educational Administrationthe best-selling, most comprehensive and most respected text of its kind. The authors discuss all topics necessary for a complete understanding of educational administration, balancing theory and research with practical coverage of culture, change, curriculum, human resources administration, diversity, effective teaching strategies, and supervision of instruction. Lunenburg and Ornstein include many exciting features to help you learn, comprehend, and apply the material.

Table of Contents

Administrative Advice                              xiii
Pro/Con Debates xv
Administrator Profiles xvii
Foreword xix
Preface xxi
The Authors xxv
Part I Fundamental Principles and Concepts 1 (92)
Development of Administrative Theory 1 (37)
Focusing Questions 1 (1)
Theory 1 (3)
Functions of Theories 3 (1)
Classical Organizational Theory 4 (3)
Scientific Management 5 (1)
Administrative Management 5 (2)
Human Relations Approach 7 (2)
The Hawthorne Studies 7 (1)
Other Contributors to the Human 8 (1)
Relations Approach
Behavioral Science Approach 9 (2)
The Individual and the Organization 9 (2)
Post-Behavioral Science Era 11 (14)
School Improvement 12 (4)
Democratic Community 16 (5)
Social Justice 21 (4)
Leadership in Schools 25 (1)
Development of Administrative Thought 26 (2)
Systems Theory 28 (5)
Basic Systems Model 29 (2)
A Systems View of School Administration 31 (2)
The Malcolm Baldrige Framework 33 (1)
Organizational Profile 33 (1)
System Operations 33 (1)
System Foundation 33 (1)
Emergent Perspectives 33 (3)
Summary 36 (1)
Key Terms 36 (1)
Discussion Questions 36 (1)
Suggested Readings 36 (2)
Organizational Structure 38 (30)
Focusing Questions 38 (1)
Basic Concepts of Organizational Structure 38 (3)
Job Specialization 38 (1)
Departmentalization 39 (1)
Chain of Command 39 (1)
Authority and Responsibility 39 (1)
Centralization/Decentralization 40 (1)
Line and Staff Authority 40 (1)
Span of Management 40 (1)
The Bureaucratic Model 41 (2)
Bureaucratic Characteristics 42 (1)
Bureaucratic Dysfunctions 42 (1)
The Participatory Management Model 43 (11)
Theory X and Theory Y 44 (1)
Individual versus Organization 44 (1)
System 4 Organization 45 (2)
Shaping School Culture 47 (1)
Moral Leadership 47 (1)
School-Based Management 48 (1)
Total Quality Management 49 (3)
Frames of Organization 52 (2)
Alternative Models of Organizational 54 (8)
Structure
Compliance Theory 54 (1)
Mechanistic-Organic Organizations 55 (3)
Strategy-Structure Typology 58 (4)
The School as a Social System 62 (4)
Dimensions of a Social System 62 (1)
Expanded Model: Cultural Dimensions 63 (2)
Getzels's Latest Model: Communities 65 (1)
Dimension
Summary 66 (1)
Key Terms 66 (1)
Discussion Questions 67 (1)
Suggested Readings 67 (1)
Organizational Culture 68 (25)
Focusing Questions 68 (1)
The Nature of Organizational Culture 68 (3)
Definition and Characteristics 69 (1)
Uniformity of Culture 69 (2)
Developing, Maintaining, and Changing 71 (4)
Organizational Culture
Creating Organizational Culture 71 (1)
Maintaining Organizational Culture 72 (2)
Changing Organizational Culture 74 (1)
Effects of Organizational Culture 75 (6)
Views of Excellence 75 (2)
Theory Z 77 (2)
A Typology of Organizational Culture 79 (2)
Organizational Climate 81 (10)
Open and Closed Climates 82 (1)
Healthy and Sick Schools 83 (1)
Comprehensive Assessment of School 84 (2)
Environments (CASE)
Pupil Control Ideology 86 (5)
Summary 91 (1)
Key Terms 91 (1)
Discussion Questions 91 (1)
Suggested Readings 91 (2)
Part II Administrative Processes 93 (133)
Motivation 93 (21)
Focusing Questions 93 (1)
Defining Motivation 93 (1)
Content Theories 94 (10)
Need Hierarchy Theory 95 (2)
Motivation-Hygiene Theory 97 (5)
Existence Relatedness Growth Theory 102 (2)
Process Theories 104 (8)
Expectancy Theory 104 (4)
Equity Theory 108 (2)
Goal-Setting Theory 110 (2)
Summary 112 (1)
Key Terms 112 (1)
Discussion Questions 113 (1)
Suggested Readings 113 (1)
Leadership 114 (40)
Focusing Questions 114 (1)
The Nature of Leadership 114 (2)
What Makes a Good Leader? 116 (2)
Can You Learn to Lead? 118 (1)
Leader Traits 118 (6)
Traits of Leaders Compared with 118 (1)
Nonleaders
Traits of Effective Leaders 119 (2)
Assessment Centers: Using Traits and 121 (3)
Skills to Identify and Develop Leaders
Leadership Behavior 124 (6)
The Iowa Studies: Authoritarian, 125 (1)
Democratic, and Laissez-Faire Leadership
The Ohio State Studies: Initiating 126 (2)
Structure and Consideration
The Michigan Studies: Production 128 (1)
Centered and Employee Centered
Leadership Behavior Theories: 129 (1)
Similarities and Conclusions
Contingency Leadership 130 (7)
Fiedler's Contingency Theory 130 (5)
Path-Goal Theory 135 (2)
Leadership Styles 137 (10)
Leadership Style Continuum 138 (2)
Leadership Grid® Styles 140 (1)
Three-Dimensional Leadership Styles 141 (2)
Situational Leadership Styles 143 (2)
Synergistic Leadership Theory 145 (2)
Other Contemporary Perspectives 147 (4)
Vertical Dyad Linkage Model 147 (1)
Reciprocal Influence Theory 148 (1)
Substitutes for Leadership 149 (1)
Transformational Leadership 150 (1)
Summary 151 (1)
Key Terms 151 (1)
Discussion Questions 152 (1)
Suggested Readings 152 (2)
Decision Making 154 (23)
Focusing Questions 154 (1)
The Nature of Decision Making 154 (1)
Models of Decision Making 155 (9)
The Classical Decision-Making Model 156 (2)
The Behavioral Decision-Making Model 158 (3)
The Vroom-Yetton Normative Model 161 (3)
Benefits of Site-Based Decision Making 164 (2)
Problems in Site-Based Decision Making 166 (3)
Groupthink 167 (1)
Risky Shift 168 (1)
Escalation of Commitment 169 (1)
Site-Based Decision-Making Techniques 169 (5)
Brainstorming 169 (2)
Nominal Group Technique 171 (1)
Delphi Technique 171 (1)
Devil's Advocacy 172 (2)
Dialectical Inquiry 174 (1)
Summary 174 (1)
Key Terms 174 (1)
Discussion Questions 175 (1)
Suggested Readings 175 (2)
Communication 177 (23)
Focusing Questions 177 (1)
The Importance of Communication 177 (1)
The Communication Process 178 (1)
Ideating 178 (1)
Encoding 179 (1)
Transmitting 179 (1)
Receiving 179 (1)
Decoding 179 (1)
Acting 179 (1)
Nonverbal Communication 179 (2)
Direction of Communication 181 (5)
Downward Communication 181 (1)
Upward Communication 182 (2)
Horizontal Communication 184 (1)
Diagonal Communication 184 (1)
The Grapevine 184 (2)
Communication Networks 186 (4)
Network Patterns 186 (2)
Network Analysis 188 (2)
Barriers to Communication 190 (4)
Frames of Reference 190 (1)
Filtering 190 (2)
Structure 192 (1)
Information Overload 192 (1)
Semantics 193 (1)
Status Differences 193 (1)
Overcoming Barriers to Communication 194 (4)
Repetition 194 (1)
Empathy 194 (1)
Understanding 194 (1)
Feedback 195 (1)
Listening 195 (3)
Summary 198 (1)
Key Terms 198 (1)
Discussion Questions 198 (1)
Suggested Readings 198 (2)
Organizational Change 200 (26)
Focusing Questions 200 (1)
Schools as Open Systems 201 (1)
Pressures for Organizational Change 202 (2)
Accountability 202 (1)
Changing Demographics 203 (1)
Staffing Shortages 203 (1)
Technological Change and Knowledge 204 (1)
Explosion
Processes and People 204 (1)
Resistance to Change 204 (6)
Causes of Resistance to Change 205 (1)
Reducing Resistance to Change 206 (4)
Individual Approaches to Change 210 (7)
Job Enrichment 210 (2)
Laboratory Training 212 (1)
Behavior Modification 213 (2)
Transactional Analysis 215 (2)
Group Approaches to Change 217 (7)
Role Analysis Technique 217 (1)
Intergroup Problem Solving 218 (1)
Process Consultation 219 (2)
Survey Feedback 221 (1)
Strategic Planning 222 (2)
Summary 224 (1)
Key Terms 224 (1)
Discussion Questions 224 (1)
Suggested Readings 224 (2)
Part III The Structural Framework for 226 (178)
Education
The Federal and State Government and 226 (43)
Education
Focusing Questions 226 (1)
The Federal Role in Education 226 (1)
Changing Roles in the Federal Government 227 (4)
and Education
Current Period: 1980s to 2000+ 227 (2)
Clarifying the Federal Role in Education 229 (1)
The Department of Education 230 (1)
Congressional Influence on Education 231 (1)
Federal Programs and Activities in 232 (8)
Education
Grants for Schools 232 (1)
Grants for Colleges 233 (1)
Vocational Education Acts 233 (1)
Relief Acts 233 (1)
War Acts 234 (1)
National Defense Education Act 234 (1)
Compensatory Education Acts 234 (1)
Title IX 235 (1)
Bilingual Education 236 (1)
Education for the Handicapped 237 (2)
Education Consolidation and Improvement 239 (1)
Act (ECIA)
National Reform of Education 240 (10)
The Call for Excellence 242 (1)
Racial and Class Implications 243 (1)
General Implications 244 (5)
Need for Caution 249 (1)
State Government and Education 250 (6)
State Hierarchy of Education 250 (1)
The Governor 250 (3)
State Legislatures 253 (2)
State Courts 255 (1)
State Education Agencies 256 (4)
The State Board of Education 257 (1)
Chief State School Officer 258 (1)
State Departments of Education 259 (1)
State Reform Movements 260 (4)
Lessons to Be Learned 262 (1)
State-School District Relationship 262 (2)
Guidelines for Reform 264 (3)
Summary 267 (1)
Key Terms 267 (1)
Discussion Questions 267 (1)
Suggested Readings 268 (1)
Local School Districts 269 (56)
Focusing Questions 269 (1)
Local School Policy 269 (1)
Organization of School Districts 270 (7)
Size of School Districts 271 (1)
Number of School Districts 272 (1)
Students and Schools 273 (1)
Consolidation of School Districts 274 (1)
Decentralization of School Districts 275 (2)
Local School Boards 277 (14)
School Board-Public Problems 279 (2)
School Board Meetings 281 (1)
School Board Responsibilities 282 (3)
School Board Views on School Reform 285 (2)
State Standards: A National Movement 287 (1)
Effective School Reform 287 (4)
The School Superintendent 291 (12)
The Superintendent's Job 292 (1)
Superintendents' Salary and Performance 293 (1)
Up the Professional Ladder 294 (3)
The Superintendent and the School Board 297 (2)
Superintendent' Problems and Performance 299 (2)
Superintendents' Skill Areas 301 (2)
The Central Staff 303 (5)
Large Districts: Increased Central 303 (2)
Offices
Small Districts: Understaffed Central 305 (1)
Offices
Organizational Hierarchy 305 (1)
Efficiency Ratios 306 (2)
The Principal and the School 308 (15)
Conditions, Employment, and Trends 308 (3)
Leadership Role of the Principal 311 (2)
Managerial Role of the Principal 313 (2)
Curriculum-Instructional Role of the 315 (1)
Principal
Effective Principals 316 (4)
Preparation and Planning for Principals 320 (3)
Summary 323 (1)
Key Terms 323 (1)
Discussion Questions 324 (1)
Suggested Readings 324 (1)
School Finance and Productivity 325 (41)
Focusing Questions 325 (1)
Education and Economics 325 (2)
Tax Sources of School Revenues 327 (1)
Local Financing of Public Schools 328 (6)
Property Tax 328 (1)
User Fees 329 (1)
Tobacco Settlement 330 (1)
Urban/Suburban Disparities 330 (1)
Municipal and Educational Overburden 331 (1)
Spending versus Outcomes 332 (1)
Learning and Earning 333 (1)
State Financing of Public Schools 334 (5)
Sales Tax 335 (1)
Personal Income Tax 336 (1)
Lotteries and Other State Taxes 336 (1)
The States' Ability to Finance Education 337 (2)
State Financial Responsibility 339 (3)
State Funding Methods 339 (1)
School Budgeting 340 (2)
School Effectiveness and Productivity 342 (5)
Size of Schools 343 (2)
Effective Schools 345 (1)
Effective School Indicators 346 (1)
School Finance Trends 347 (3)
Streamlining Budgets 348 (2)
Environmental Hazards 350 (5)
Asbestos 350 (1)
Radon Gas 351 (1)
Electromagnetic Fields 351 (2)
School Lead 353 (1)
Indoor Air Quality 354 (1)
School Infrastructure Costs 355 (3)
Financing School Construction 358 (3)
International Comparisons of Education 361 (1)
Spending
Summary 362 (2)
Key Terms 364 (1)
Discussion Questions 364 (1)
Suggested Readings 364 (2)
Legal Considerations and Education 366 (38)
Focusing Questions 366 (1)
Legal Framework for Public Education 366 (4)
Federal Role in Education 366 (2)
State Role in Education 368 (1)
The Courts 368 (2)
The Law and Professional Personnel 370 (11)
Certification 370 (1)
Contracts 371 (1)
Termination of Employment 372 (1)
Discrimination in Employment 373 (5)
Tort Liability 378 (3)
The Law and Students 381 (13)
School Improvement 381 (1)
School Attendance 381 (3)
Student Discipline 384 (3)
Freedom of Expression 387 (2)
Classification Practices 389 (1)
Students with Disabilities 390 (4)
The Law and State Issues 394 (8)
School Desegregation 394 (1)
Church-State Relations 395 (3)
Financing Education 398 (4)
Summary 402 (1)
Key Terms 402 (1)
Discussion Questions 402 (1)
Suggested Readings 403 (1)
Part IV Administration of Programs and 404 (119)
Services
Curriculum Development and Implementation 404 (42)
Focusing Questions 404 (1)
Curriculum Definitions and Approaches 404 (7)
Behavioral Approach 405 (1)
Managerial Approach 406 (2)
Systems Approach 408 (2)
Humanistic Approach 410 (1)
Curriculum Development 411 (11)
Tyler: Behavioral Model 412 (1)
Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis: 413 (1)
Managerial Model
Macdonald: Systems Model 414 (1)
Weinstein and Fantini: Humanistic Model 415 (1)
Scientific-Aesthetic Model 416 (1)
Curriculum Overview 417 (2)
Nontechnical Model 419 (3)
Components of Curriculum Development 422 (5)
Criteria for Selecting Content 422 (1)
Criteria for Selecting Learning 423 (1)
Experiences
Balance in Determining the Curriculum 424 (1)
Leadership Considerations 425 (2)
What Knowledge Is of Most Worth? 427 (7)
Knowledge as Facts 427 (1)
Explosion of Knowledge 428 (1)
Essential Knowledge 429 (1)
Returning to the Liberal Arts 429 (1)
Modern Languages 430 (1)
Computer Knowledge and Technology 431 (1)
Moral Knowledge 432 (1)
Moral Character 433 (1)
The Roles of the Curriculum Worker 434 (4)
Responsibilities of the Curriculum 435 (1)
Worker
The Teacher and the Curriculum 436 (1)
The Central (District) Office 437 (1)
The Team Collaborative Approach 437 (1)
Implementation as a Change Process 438 (5)
Incrementalism for Change 438 (1)
Resistance to Change 439 (2)
Improving Receptivity to Change 441 (1)
Guidelines for Change 442 (1)
Summary 443 (1)
Key Terms 444 (1)
Discussion Questions 445 (1)
Suggested Readings 445 (1)
Analyzing and Improving Teaching 446 (39)
Focusing Questions 446 (1)
Review of the Research on Teaching 447 (1)
Teacher Styles 447 (3)
Research on Teacher Styles 448 (2)
Teacher Interaction 450 (3)
Verbal Communication 450 (1)
Nonverbal Communication 451 (1)
Teacher Expectations 452 (1)
Teacher Characteristics 453 (1)
Research on Teacher Characteristics 454 (1)
Teacher Effects 454 (5)
The Gage Model 455 (1)
The Good and Brophy Model 456 (1)
The Evertson-Emmer Model 456 (1)
The Master Teacher 457 (1)
Cautions and Criticisms 458 (1)
Teacher Contexts: New Research, New 459 (5)
Paradigms
Metaphors 459 (1)
Stories 460 (1)
Biographies and Autobiographies 461 (1)
The Expert Teacher 462 (2)
Voice 464 (1)
Reconceptualizing Teaching 464 (8)
The Need for Humanistic Teaching 466 (1)
Examples of Humanistic Teaching 467 (2)
Moral and Civic Virtues 469 (2)
Teaching, Testing, and the Achievement 471 (1)
Gap
International Educational Achievement 472 (11)
(IEA) Studies
Recent International Comparisons in 474 (1)
Science and Math
Excuses and More Excuses 474 (2)
Learning and Earning: 1990s and 2000+ 476 (1)
NAEP/State Standards and Test Scores 477 (3)
Race and Class 480 (1)
Another Option 480 (3)
Summary 483 (1)
Key Terms 483 (1)
Discussion Questions 483 (1)
Suggested Readings 484 (1)
Human Resources Administration 485 (38)
Focusing Questions 485 (1)
The Human Resource Management Process 485 (1)
Human Resource Planning 486 (6)
Job Analysis 486 (2)
Forecasting Demand and Supply 488 (1)
Legal Constraints 489 (2)
Affirmative Action Programs 491 (1)
Recruitment 492 (5)
Internal Sources 492 (1)
External Sources 493 (2)
Internal versus External Recruitment 495 (2)
Selection 497 (6)
Biographical Information 497 (1)
Reference Checks 497 (1)
Interviews 498 (3)
Tests 501 (1)
Assessment Centers 502 (1)
Hiring Decision 503 (1)
Professional Development 503 (2)
Assessment of Professional Development 504 (1)
Needs
Professional Development Techniques 504 (1)
Evaluating the Professional Development 505 (1)
Program
Performance Appraisal 505 (5)
Performance Appraisal Methods 505 (4)
Rating Errors 509 (1)
Compensation 510 (2)
Wages and Salaries 510 (1)
Benefits 511 (1)
Union-Management Relations 512 (6)
Union Membership 512 (1)
Collective Bargaining 512 (6)
Summary 518 (2)
Key Terms 520 (1)
Discussion Questions 521 (1)
Suggested Readings 521 (2)
Name Index 523 (10)
Subject Index 533 (20)
Case Index 553