Essentials of Meteorology : An Invitation to the Atmosphere (5TH)

Essentials of Meteorology : An Invitation to the Atmosphere (5TH)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 485 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495114772
  • DDC分類 551

Full Description


This updated and enhanced Fifth Edition of ESSENTIALS OF METEOROLOGY is written by the widely read and authoritative author in introductory meteorology-Donald Ahrens. Ahrens's ability to explain relatively complicated ideas in a student-friendly, manageable fashion will allow you to easily visualize the principles of meteorology. ESSENTIALS OF METEOROLOGY is completely updated with over 250 new images and figures and the latest research and coverage. This new edition is accompanied by a self-paced tutorial system--CengageNOW for ESSENTIALS OF METEOROLOGY. CengageNOW is Web-based, assessment-driven, completely flexible, and contains a wealth of book-specific interactivities. It offers a personalized study plan based on your assessment results, helping you focus on the concepts you don't yet understand.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xv
The Earth's Atmosphere 1 (24)
Overview of the Earth's Atmosphere 2 (6)
Composition of the Atmosphere 3 (4)
The Early Atmosphere 7 (1)
Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere 8 (5)
A Brief Look at Air Pressure and Air 8 (1)
Density
Layers of the Atmosphere 9 (2)
Focus on an Observation: The Radiosonde 11 (1)
The Ionosphere 12 (1)
Weather and Climate 13 (9)
A Satellite's View of the Weather 14 (1)
Storms of All Sizes 14 (1)
Focus on a Special Topic: 15 (1)
Meteorology---A Brief History
A Look at a Weather Map 16 (2)
Weather and Climate in Our Lives 18 (3)
Focus on a Special Topic: What Is a 21 (1)
Meteorologist?
Summary 22 (1)
Key Terms 22 (1)
Questions for Review 22 (1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 23 (2)
Warming the Earth and the Atmosphere 25 (30)
Temperature and Heat Transfer 26 (9)
Temperature Scales 27 (1)
Latent Heat---The Hidden Warmth 27 (1)
Conduction 28 (1)
Convection 29 (2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Rising Air 31 (1)
Cools and Sinking Air Warms
Radiation 31 (2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Sun Burning 33 (2)
and UV Rays
Balancing Act---Absorption, Emission, and 35 (5)
Equilibrium
Selective Absorbers and the Atmospheric 35 (2)
Greenhouse Effect
Enhancement of the Greenhouse Effect 37 (2)
Warming the Air from Below 39 (1)
Incoming Solar Energy 40 (11)
Scattered and Reflected Light 40 (1)
The Earth's Annual Energy Balance 41 (2)
Why the Earth Has Seasons 43 (1)
Focus on an Observation: The Aurora---A 44 (1)
Dazzling Light Show
Seasons in the Northern Hemisphere 45 (3)
Seasons in the Southern Hemisphere 48 (1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Is December 49 (1)
21 Really the First Day of Winter?
Local Seasonal Variations 50 (1)
Summary 51 (1)
Key Terms 51 (1)
Questions for Review 52 (1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 52 (3)
Air Temperature 55 (24)
Daily Temperature Variations 56 (7)
Daytime Warming 56 (1)
Nighttime Cooling 57 (1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Record High 58 (1)
Temperatures
Cold Air Near the Surface 59 (1)
Protecting Crops from the Cold Night Air 59 (2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Record Low 61 (2)
Temperatures
The Controls of Temperature 63 (1)
Air Temperature Data 63 (6)
Daily, Monthly, and Yearly Temperatures 63 (3)
The Use of Temperature Data 66 (3)
Focus on a Special Topic: When It Comes 69 (1)
to Temperature, What's Normal?
Air Temperature and Human Comfort 69 (3)
Focus on a Special Topic: A Thousand 70 (2)
Degrees and Freezing to Death
Measuring Air Temperature 72 (3)
Focus on an Observation: Should 74 (1)
Thermometers Be Read in the Shade?
Summary 75 (1)
Key Terms 75 (1)
Questions for Review 75 (1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 76 (3)
Humidity, Condensation, and Clouds 79 (32)
Circulation of Water in the Atmosphere 80 (1)
Evaporation, Condensation, and Saturation 81 (1)
Humidity 82 (9)
Vapor Pressure 82 (1)
Relative Humidity 83 (2)
Relative Humidity and Dew Point 85 (2)
Relative Humidity and Human Discomfort 87 (2)
Measuring Humidity 89 (1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Humid Air and 90 (1)
Dry Air Do Not Weigh the Same
Dew and Frost 91 (2)
Fog 93 (2)
Foggy Weather 95 (2)
Focus on an Environmental Issue: Fog 97 (1)
Dispersal
Clouds 97 (10)
Classification of Clouds 97 (1)
Cloud Identification 98 (1)
High Clouds 98 (1)
Middle Clouds 99 (1)
Low Clouds 100(1)
Clouds with Vertical Development 101(3)
Some Unusual Clouds 104(3)
Summary 107(1)
Key Terms 108(1)
Questions for Review 108(1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 109(2)
Cloud Development and Precipitation 111(30)
Atmospheric Stability 112(1)
Determining Stability 113(4)
A Stable Atmosphere 113(1)
An Unstable Atmosphere 114(2)
Conditionally Unstable Air 116(1)
Cloud Development and Stability 117(4)
Convection and Clouds 117(1)
Topography and Clouds 118(3)
Precipitation Processes 121(5)
Collision and Coalescence Process 121(1)
Ice-Crystal Process 122(2)
Cloud Seeding and Precipitation 124(1)
Precipitation in Clouds 125(1)
Precipitation Types 126(8)
Rain 126(1)
Focus on an Environmental Issue: Does 127(1)
Cloud Seeding Enhance Precipitation?
Snow 128(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Are Raindrops 129(1)
Tear-Shaped?
Sleet and Freezing Rain 130(1)
Snow Grains and Snow Pellets 131(1)
Hail 132(1)
Focus on an Observation: Aircraft Icing 133(1)
Measuring Precipitation 134(3)
Instruments 134(1)
Doppler Radar and Precipitation 135(2)
Summary 137(1)
Key Terms 137(1)
Questions for Review 138(1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 138(3)
Air Pressure and Winds 141(28)
Atmospheric Pressure 142(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: The 144(1)
Atmosphere Obeys the Gas Law
Measuring Air Pressure 144(4)
Barometers 146(1)
Pressure Readings 147(1)
Surface and Upper-Air Charts 148(1)
Why the Wind Blows 149(9)
Newton's Laws of Motion 149(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Isobaric Maps 150(1)
Forces That Influence the Wind 151(1)
Pressure Gradient Force 151(1)
Coriolis Force 152(2)
Straight-Line Flow Aloft 154(1)
Curved Winds Around Lows and Highs Aloft 155(1)
Winds on Upper-Level Charts 156(1)
Focus on an Observation: Winds Aloft in 157(1)
the Southern Hemisphere
Surface Winds 158(1)
Focus on an Observation: Estimating 159(1)
Wind Direction and Pressure Patterns
Aloft by Watching Clouds
Winds and Vertical Air Motions 159(2)
Measuring and Determining Winds 161(3)
The Influence of Prevailing Winds 161(1)
Wind Instruments 162(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Wind Power 164(1)
Summary 164(1)
Key Terms 165(1)
Questions for Review 165(1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 166(3)
Atmospheric Circulations 169(34)
Scales of Atmospheric Motion 170(1)
Eddies---Big and Small 171(1)
Local Wind Systems 172(12)
Thermal Circulations 172(1)
Focus on an Observation: Eddies and 173(1)
``Air Pockets''
Sea and Land Breezes 174(2)
Seasonally Changing Winds---The Monsoon 176(2)
Mountain and Valley Breezes 178(1)
Katabatic Winds 178(1)
Chinook (Foehn) Winds 179(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Snow Eaters 180(1)
and Rapid Temperature Changes
Santa Ana Winds 181(1)
Desert Winds 182(2)
Global Winds 184(8)
General Circulation of the Atmosphere 184(1)
Single-Cell Model 184(1)
Three-Cell Model 185(2)
Average Surface Winds and Pressure: The 187(1)
Real World
The General Circulation and 187(2)
Precipitation Patterns
Westerly Winds and the Jet Stream 189(3)
Global Wind Patterns and the Oceans 192(7)
Winds and Upwelling 194(1)
El Nino and the Southern Oscillation 195(3)
Other Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions 198(1)
Summary 199(1)
Key Terms 200(1)
Questions for Review 200(1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 201(2)
Air Masses, Fronts, and Middle-Latitude 203(32)
Cyclones
Air Masses 204(10)
Source Regions 204(1)
Classification 205(1)
Air Masses of North America 205(1)
cP (Continental Polar) and cA 205(2)
(Continental Arctic) Air Masses
Focus on a Special Topic: Lake-Effect 207(2)
(Enhanced) Snows
mP (Maritime Polar) Air Masses 209(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: The Return of 210(1)
the Siberian Express
mT (Maritime Tropical) Air Masses 211(2)
cT (Continental Tropical) Air Masses 213(1)
Fronts 214(8)
Stationary Fronts 214(1)
Cold Fronts 215(3)
Warm Fronts 218(2)
Occluded Fronts 220(2)
Middle-Latitude Cyclones 222(8)
Polar Front Theory 223(2)
Where Do Mid-Latitude Cyclones Tend to 225(1)
Form?
Focus on a Special Topic: Northeasters 226(1)
Developing Mid-Latitude Cyclones and 227(1)
Anticyclones
Focus on a Special Topic: A Closer Look 228(1)
at Convergence and Divergence
Jet Streams and Developing Mid-Latitude 228(1)
Cyclones
Focus on a Special Topic: Waves in the 229(1)
Westerlies
Summary 230(1)
Key Terms 231(1)
Questions for Review 231(1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 232(3)
Weather Forecasting 235(28)
Acquisition of Weather Information 236(2)
Focus on a Special Topic: Watches, 237(1)
Warnings, and Advisories
Weather Forecasting Tools 238(5)
Satellites and Weather Forecasting 240(3)
Weather Forecasting Methods 243(11)
The Computer and Weather Forecasting: 244(1)
Numerical Weather Prediction
Why NWS Forecasts Go Awry and Steps to 245(3)
Improve Them
Focus on an Observation: TV 248(1)
Weathercasters---How Do They Do It?
Other Forecasting Methods 248(3)
Types of Forecast 251(1)
Accuracy and Skill in Forecasting 252(1)
Predicting the Weather from Local Signs 253(1)
Weather Forecasting Using Surface Charts 254(6)
Determining the Movement of Weather 254(1)
Systems
A Forecast for Six Cities 255(2)
Weather Forecast for Augusta, Georgia 257(1)
Rain or Snow for Washington, D.C.? 257(1)
Big Snowstorm for Chicago 257(1)
Mixed Bag of Weather for Memphis 258(1)
Cold Wave for Dallas 258(1)
Clear but Cold for Denver 259(1)
Summary 260(1)
Key Terms 260(1)
Questions for Review 260(1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 261(2)
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes 263(36)
Thunderstorms 264(19)
Ordinary Cell Thunderstorms 264(2)
Severe Thunderstorms and the Supercell 266(3)
Squall Lines and Mesoscale Convective 269(1)
Complexes
Dryline Thunderstorms 270(1)
Gust Fronts, Microbursts, and Derechoes 270(4)
Floods and Flash Floods 274(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: The 275(1)
Terrifying Flash Flood in the Big
Thompson Canyon
Distribution of Thunderstorms 276(1)
Lightning and Thunder 277(1)
Electrification of Clouds 278(1)
The Lightning Stroke 279(1)
Types of Lightning 280(2)
Focus on an Observation: Don't Sit 282(1)
Under the Apple Tree
Lightning Detection and Suppression 282(1)
Tornadoes 283(5)
Tornado Life Cycle 283(1)
Tornado Outbreaks 284(1)
Tornado Occurrence 284(2)
Tornado Winds 286(1)
Seeking Shelter 286(2)
The Fujita Scale 288(1)
Tornadic Thunderstorms 288(5)
Supercell Tornadoes 289(3)
Nonsupercell Tornadoes 292(1)
Severe Weather and Doppler Radar 293(2)
Focus on an Observation: Waterspouts 295(1)
Summary 295(1)
Key Terms 296(1)
Questions for Review 296(1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 297(2)
Hurricanes 299(28)
Tropical Weather 300(1)
Anatomy of a Hurricane 300(2)
Hurricane Formation and Dissipation 302(8)
The Right Environment 302(3)
The Developing Storm 305(1)
The Storm Dies Out 306(1)
Hurricane Stages of Development 306(1)
Hurricane Movement 307(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: How Do 308(2)
Hurricanes Compare with Middle-Latitude
Storms?
Naming Hurricanes and Tropical Storms 310(1)
Devastating Winds and the Storm Surge 310(5)
Focus on a Special Topic: A Tropical 314(1)
Storm Named Allison
Some Notable Hurricanes 315(6)
Camille, 1969 315(1)
Hugo, 1989 315(1)
Andrew, 1992 316(1)
Ivan, 2004 317(1)
Katrina, 2005 318(1)
Focus on an Observation: The 319(1)
Record-Setting Atlantic Hurricane
Season of 2004 and 2005
Other Devastating Hurricanes 320(1)
Hurricane Watches, Warnings, and Forecasts 321(2)
Focus on an Environmental Issue: 322(1)
Hurricanes in a Warmer World
Modifying Hurricanes 323(1)
Summary 324(1)
Key Terms 324(1)
Questions for Review 324(1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 325(2)
Air Pollution 327(26)
A Brief History of Air Pollution 328(1)
Types and Sources of Air Pollutants 329(11)
Principal Air Pollutants 329(4)
Ozone in the Troposphere 333(1)
Ozone in the Stratosphere 334(2)
Air Pollution: Trends and Patterns 336(1)
Focus on an Environmental Issue: The 337(3)
Ozone Hole
Factors that Affect Air Pollution 340(4)
The Role of the Wind 340(1)
The Role of Stability and Inversions 340(2)
The Role of Topography 342(1)
Focus on an Observation: Smokestack 343(1)
Plumes
Severe Air Pollution Potential 344(1)
Air Pollution and the Urban Environment 344(3)
Focus on an Observation: Five Days in 346(1)
Donora---An Air Pollution Episode
Acid Deposition 347(3)
Summary 350(1)
Key Terms 350(1)
Questions for Review 350(1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 351(2)
Global Climate 353(30)
A World with Many Climates 354(6)
Global Temperatures 354(1)
Global Precipitation 355(3)
Focus on a Special Topic: Precipitation 358(2)
Extremes
Climatic Classification---The Koppen 360(1)
System
The Global Pattern of Climate 361(18)
Tropical Moist Climates (Group A) 362(4)
Dry Climates (Group B) 366(3)
Moist Subtropical Mid-Latitude Climates 369(1)
(Group C)
Focus on an Observation: A Desert with 370(3)
Clouds and Drizzle
Moist Continental Climates (Group D) 373(3)
Polar Climates (Group E) 376(2)
Highland Climates (Group H) 378(1)
Summary 379(1)
Key Terms 380(1)
Questions for Review 380(1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 380(3)
Climate Change 383(32)
The Earth's Changing Climate 384(7)
Determining Past Climates 385(1)
Climate Through the Ages 386(2)
Climate During the Past 1000 Years 388(1)
Temperature Trend During the Past 388(1)
100-Plus Years
Focus on a Special Topic: The Ocean 389(2)
Conveyor Belt and Climate Change
Possible Causes of Climatic Change 391(11)
Climate Change and Feedback Mechanisms 391(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: The 392(1)
Greenhouse Effect on Venus
Climate Change, Plate Tectonics, and 393(1)
Mountain Building
Climate Change and Variations in the 394(3)
Earth's Orbit
Climate Change and Atmospheric Particles 397(1)
Aerosols in the Troposphere 397(1)
Volcanic Eruptions and Aerosols in the 398(1)
Stratosphere
Focus on a Special Topic: Nuclear 399(2)
Winter, Colder Summers, and Dead
Dinosaurs
Climate Change and Variations in Solar 401(1)
Output
Global Warming 402(9)
The Recent Warming 402(1)
Radiative Forcing Agents 402(1)
Focus on a Special Topic: Climate Models 403(1)
Climate Models and Recent Temperature 403(1)
Trends
Future Warming---Projections, 404(1)
Questions, and Uncertainties
Questions and Uncertainties About 404(1)
Greenhouse Gases
Clouds Get in the Way 405(2)
Possible Consequences of Global Warming 407(2)
Global Warming and Human Impact on the 409(1)
Earth's Surface
Focus on a Special Topic: The 410(1)
Sahel---An Example of Climatic
Variability and Human Existence
Curbing Global Warming 411(1)
In Perspective 411(1)
Summary 411(1)
Key Terms 412(1)
Questions for Review 412(1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 412(3)
Light, Color, and Atmospheric Optics 415(38)
White and Colors 416(1)
White Clouds and Scattered Light 416(1)
Blue Skies and Hazy Days 417(2)
Red Suns and Blue Moons 419(2)
Twinkling, Twilight, and the Green Flash 421(3)
The Mirage: Seeing Is Not Believing 424(1)
Halos, Sundogs, and Sun Pillars 425(4)
Focus on an Observation: The Fata 426(3)
Morgana
Rainbows 429(2)
Coronas and Cloud Iridescence 431(2)
Focus on an Observation: Glories and 432(1)
the Heiligenschein
Summary 433(1)
Key Terms 433(1)
Questions for Review 434(1)
Questions for Thought and Exploration 434(1)
APPENDICES
A. Units, Conversions, Abbreviations, and 435(3)
Equations
B. Equations and Constants 438(3)
C. Weather Symbols and the Station Model 441(2)
D. Humidity and Dew-Point Tables 443(4)
(Psychromatic Tables)
E. Standard Atmosphere 447(1)
F. Beaufort Wind Scale (Overland) 448(1)
G. Koppen's Climatic Classification System 449(1)
H. Average Annual Global Precipitation 450(3)
Additional Reading Material 453(2)
Glossary 455(18)
Index 473