Oceanography : An Introduction to Marine Science (6 PCK PAP/)

Oceanography : An Introduction to Marine Science (6 PCK PAP/)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 588 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495113447
  • DDC分類 551.46

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xv
Knowing the Ocean World 1 (39)
Science and the Story of the Ocean 1 (1)
Earth Is an Ocean World 2 (1)
Marine Scientists Use the Logic of 3 (3)
Science to Study the Ocean
Understanding the Ocean Began with 6 (13)
Voyaging for Trade and Exploration
Early Peoples Traveled the Ocean for 6 (1)
Economic Reasons
Systematic Study of the Ocean Began at 7 (1)
the Library of Alexandria
Eratosthenes Accurately Calculated the 8 (2)
Size and Shape of Earth
Box 1.1: Latitude and Longitude 10 (1)
Oceanian Seafarers Colonized Distant 11 (2)
Islands
Viking Raiders Discovered North America 13 (2)
The Chinese Undertook Organized Voyages 15 (1)
of Discovery
Prince Henry Launched the European Age 16 (3)
of Discovery
Voyaging Combined with Science to Advance 19 (4)
Ocean Studies
Capt. James Cook Was the First Marine 19 (1)
Scientist
Accurate Determination of Longitude Was 20 (2)
the Key to Oceanic Exploration and
Mapping
Collecting Sediment and Water Samples 22 (1)
Provided Data for Scientific Analysis
The First Scientific Expeditions Were 23 (4)
Undertaken by Governments
The United States Exploring Expedition 23 (1)
Helped Establish Natural Science in
America
Matthew Maury Discovered Worldwide 23 (2)
Patterns of Winds and Ocean Currents
The Challenger Expedition Was Organized 25 (2)
from the First as a Scientific
Expedition
Ocean Studies Have Military Applications 27 (1)
Contemporary Oceanography Makes Use of 27 (8)
Modern Technology
Polar Exploration Advanced Ocean Studies 27 (1)
Other Twentieth-Century Voyages 28 (2)
Contributed to Oceanographic Knowledge
Oceanographic Institutions Arose to 30 (1)
Oversee Complex Research Projects
Satellites Have Become Important Tools 31 (2)
in Ocean Exploration
Governments and Institutions Cooperate 33 (2)
to Fund Major Research Programs
Questions from Students 35 (2)
Chapter in Perspective 37 (1)
Key Concepts Review 37 (2)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 39 (1)
Study Questions 39 (1)
Origins 40 (19)
Stars and Seas 40 (1)
Earth Was Formed of Material Made in Stars 41 (4)
Stars and Planets Are Contained within 41 (1)
Galaxies
Stars Make Heavy Elements from Lighter 42 (2)
Ones
Solar Systems Form by Accretion 44 (1)
Earth, Ocean, and Atmosphere Accumulated 45 (4)
in Layers Sorted by Density
Life Probably Originated in the Ocean 49 (1)
What Will Be the Future of Earth? 50 (6)
Box 2.1: Comparative Oceanography 52 (4)
Questions from Students 56 (1)
Chapter in Perspective 56 (1)
Key Concepts Review 57 (1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 57 (1)
Study Questions 57 (2)
Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics 59 (38)
Fire and Ice 59 (1)
Earth's Interior Is Layered Inside 60 (1)
The Study of Earthquakes Provides 60 (4)
Evidence for Layering
Seismic Waves Travel through Earth and 61 (1)
along Its Surface
Earthquake Wave Shadow Zones Confirmed 61 (2)
the Presence of Earth's Core
Data from an Earthquake Confirmed the 63 (1)
Model of Earth Layering
Earth's Inner Structure Was Gradually 64 (3)
Revealed
Earth's Layers May Be Classified by 64 (1)
Composition
Earth's Layers May Also Be Classified 64 (1)
by Physical Properties
Isostatic Equilibrium Supports 64 (3)
Continents above Sea Level
The New Understanding of Earth Evolved 67 (6)
Slowly
Earth's Interior Is Heated by the Decay 67 (1)
of Radioactive Elements
The Age of Earth Was Controversial and 67 (1)
Not Easily Determined
The Fit between the Edges of Continents 68 (2)
Suggested That They Might Have Drifted
The Idea of Continental Drift Evolved 70 (1)
As Evidence Accumulated
A Synthesis of Continental Drift and 70 (1)
Seafloor Spreading Produced the Theory
of Plate Tectonics
Box 3.1: Absolute and Relative Dating 71 (2)
Most Tectonic Activity Occurs at Plate 73 (7)
Boundaries
Ocean Basins Are Formed at Divergent 76 (1)
Plate Boundaries
Island Arcs Form, Continents Collide, 77 (2)
and Crust Recycles at Convergent Plate
Boundaries
Crust Fractures and Slides at Transform 79 (1)
Plate Boundaries
A Summary of Plate Interactions 79 (1)
Facts Combine to Confirm the Theory of 80 (8)
Plate Tectonics
A History of Plate Movement Has Been 81 (4)
Captured in Residual Magnetic Fields
Plate Movement above Mantle Plumes and 85 (1)
Hot Spots Provides Evidence of Plate
Tectonics
Sediment Age and Distribution, Oceanic 86 (2)
Ridges, and Terranes Are Explained by
Plate Tectonics
Scientists Still Have Much to Learn about 88 (3)
the Tectonic Process
Questions from Students 91 (2)
Chapter in Perspective 93 (1)
Key Concepts Review 94 (1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 95 (1)
Study Questions 95 (2)
Continental Margins and Ocean Basins 97 (31)
Going Deep 97 (1)
The Ocean Floor Is Mapped by Bathymetry 98 (2)
Echo Sounders Bounce Sound off the 98 (1)
Seabed
Multibeam Systems Combine Many Echo 99 (1)
Sounders
Satellites Can Be Used to Map Seabed 99 (1)
Contours
Ocean-Floor Topography Varies with 100(6)
Location
Box 4.1: ABE 102(4)
Continental Margins May Be Active or 106(7)
Passive
Continental Shelves Are Seaward 107(3)
Extensions of the Continents
Continental Slopes Connect Continental 110(1)
Shelves to the Deep-Ocean Floor
Submarine Canyons Form at the Junction 110(2)
between Continental Shelf and
Continental Slope
Continental Rises Form As Sediments 112(1)
Accumulate at the Base of the
Continental Slope
The Topology of Deep-Ocean Basins Differs 113(9)
from That of the Continental Margin
Oceanic Ridges Circle the World 113(2)
Hydrothermal Vents Are Hot Springs on 115(2)
Active Oceanic Ridges
Abyssal Plains and Abyssal Hills Cover 117(1)
Most of Earth's Surface
Volcanic Seamounts and Guyots Project 118(1)
above the Seabed
Trenches and Island Arcs Form in 119(3)
Subduction Zones
The Grand Tour 122(1)
Questions from Students 122(4)
Chapter in Perspective 126(1)
Key Concepts Review 126(1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 127(1)
Study Questions 127(1)
Sediments 128(26)
The Memory of the Ocean 128(1)
Sediments Vary Greatly in Appearance 129(3)
Sediments May Be Classified by Particle 132(1)
Size
Sediments May Be Classified by Source 132(5)
Terrigenous Sediments Come from Land 133(1)
Biogenous Sediments Form from the 134(1)
Remains of Marine Organisms
Hydrogenous Sediments Form Directly 135(1)
from Seawater
Cosmogenous Sediments Come from Space 135(1)
Marine Sediments Are Usually 135(2)
Combinations of Terrigenous and
Biogenous Deposits
Neritic Sediments Overlie Continental 137(1)
Margins
Pelagic Sediments Vary in Composition and 138(7)
Thickness
Turbidites Are Deposited on the Seabed 138(2)
by Turbidity Currents
Clays Are the Finest and Most Easily 140(1)
Transported Terrigenous Sediments
Oozes Form from the Rigid Remains of 140(2)
Living Creatures
Hydrogenous Materials Precipitate out 142(2)
of Seawater Itself
Evaporites Precipitate As Seawater 144(1)
Evaporates
Oolite Sands Form When Calcium 144(1)
Carbonate Precipitates from Seawater
Researchers Have Mapped the 145(1)
Distribution of Deep-Ocean Sediments
Scientists Use Sensitive Tools to Study 145(3)
Ocean Sediments
Sediments Are Historical Records of Ocean 148(2)
Processes
Marine Sediments Are Economically 150(1)
Important
Questions from Students 151(1)
Chapter in Perspective 151(1)
Key Concepts Review 151(2)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 153(1)
Study Questions 153(1)
Water and Ocean Structure 154(30)
Familiar, Abundant, and Odd 154(1)
The Water Molecule Is Held Together by 155(1)
Chemical Bonds
Water Has Unusual Thermal Characteristics 156(7)
Heat and Temperature Are Not the Same 156(1)
Thing
Not All Substances Have the Same Heat 157(1)
Capacity
Water's Temperature Affects Its Density 157(2)
Water Becomes Less Dense When It Freezes 159(1)
Water Removes Heat from Surfaces As It 160(2)
Evaporates
Box 6.1: Does Hot Water Freeze Faster 162(1)
Than Cold?
Seawater and Pure Water Have Slightly 162(1)
Different Thermal Properties
Surface Water Moderates Global Temperature 163(2)
Annual Freezing and Thawing of Ice 165(2)
Moderate Earth's Temperature
Movement of Water Vapor from Tropics to 165(1)
Poles Also Moderates Earth's Temperature
Global Warming May Be Influencing 165(1)
Ocean-Surface Temperature and Salinity
Ocean-Surface Conditions Depend on 166(1)
Latitude, Temperature, and Salinity
The Ocean Is Stratified by Density 167(4)
The Ocean Is Stratified into Three 167(3)
Density Zones by Temperature and
Salinity
Water Masses Have Characteristic 170(1)
Temperature, Salinity, and Density
Density Stratification Usually Prevents 170(1)
Vertical Water Movement
Refraction Can Bend the Paths of Light 171(1)
and Sound through Water
Light Does Not Travel Far through the 172(2)
Ocean
The Photic Zone Is the Sunlit Surface 172(1)
of the Ocean
Water Transmits Blue Light More 173(1)
Efficiently Than Red
Sound Travels Much Farther Than Light in 174(6)
the Ocean
Refraction Causes Sofar Layers and 174(1)
Shadow Zones
Sonar Systems Use Sound to Detect 175(1)
Underwater Objects
Box 6.2: Is Climate Change Sofar Away? 176(4)
Questions from Students 180(1)
Chapter in Perspective 181(1)
Key Concepts Review 181(1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 182(1)
Study Questions 183(1)
Ocean Chemistry 184(18)
Inventing Water 185(1)
Water Is a Powerful Solvent 185(2)
Seawater Consists of Water and Dissolved 187(6)
Solids
Salinity Is a Measure of Seawater's 187(1)
Total Dissolved Inorganic Solids
A Few Ions Account for Most of the 188(1)
Ocean's Salinity
The Components of Ocean Salinity Came 188(3)
from, and Have Been Modified by,
Earth's Crust
The Ratio of Dissolved Solids in the 191(1)
Ocean Is Constant
Salinity Is Calculated from Chlorinity 191(1)
The Ocean Is in Chemical Equilibrium 191(1)
Seawater's Constituents May Be 192(1)
Conservative or Nonconservative
Box 7.1: Recycling on a Grand Scale 193(1)
Gases Dissolve in Seawater 193(2)
Nitrogen Is the Most Abundant Gas 194(1)
Dissolved in Seawater
Dissolved Oxygen Is Critical to Marine 194(1)
Life
The Ocean Is a Vast Carbon Reservoir 195(1)
Gas Concentrations Vary with Depth 195(1)
The Ocean's Acid--Base Balance Varies 195(3)
with Dissolved Components and Depth
Questions from Students 198(1)
Chapter in Perspective 199(1)
Key Concepts Review 199(1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 200(1)
Study Questions 200(2)
Circulation of the Atmosphere 202(31)
Going with the Flow 202(1)
The Atmosphere and Ocean Interact with 203(1)
Each Other
The Atmosphere Is Composed Mainly of 203(1)
Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Water Vapor
The Atmosphere Moves in Response to 204(8)
Uneven Solar Heating and Earth's Rotation
The Solar Heating of Earth Varies with 205(2)
Latitude
The Solar Heating of Earth Also Varies 207(1)
with the Seasons
Earth's Uneven Solar Heating Results in 208(1)
Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation
The Coriolis Effect Deflects the Path 208(2)
of Moving Objects
The Coriolis Effect Influences the 210(2)
Movement of Air in Atmospheric
Circulation Cells
Atmospheric Circulation Generates 212(4)
Large-Scale Surface Wind Patterns
Cell Circulation Centers on the 212(1)
Meteorological (Not Geographical)
Equator
Monsoons Are Wind Patterns That Change 213(2)
with the Seasons
Sea Breezes and Land Breezes Arise from 215(1)
Uneven Surface Heating
Storms Are Variations in Large-Scale 216(8)
Atmospheric Circulation
Storms Form within or between Air Masses 216(1)
Extratropical Cyclones Form between Two 217(1)
Air Masses
Tropical Cyclones Form in One Air Mass 217(7)
Box 8.1: The Galveston Disaster, 1900 224(1)
The Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2005 Was 224(5)
the Most Destructive Ever Recorded
Hurricane Katrina Was the United 225(1)
States' Most Costly Natural Disaster
Hurricane Rita Struck Soon after Katrina 226(1)
Hurricane Wilma Was the Most Powerful 227(1)
Atlantic Hurricane Ever Measured
The Hurricanes Dramatically Altered 228(1)
Coastal Environments
Why Was the 2005 Season So Devastating? 228(1)
Questions from Students 229(1)
Chapter in Perspective 230(1)
Key Concepts Review 230(1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 231(1)
Study Questions 232(1)
Circulation of the Ocean 233(31)
Palm Trees in Britain? 234(1)
Mass Flow of Ocean Water Is Driven by 234(1)
Wind and Gravity
Surface Currents Are Driven by the Winds 234(10)
Surface Currents Flow around the 235(3)
Periphery of Ocean Basins
Seawater Flows in Six Great Surface 238(2)
Circuits
Boundary Currents Have Different 240(4)
Characteristics
Countercurrents and Undercurrents Are 244(1)
Submerged Exceptions to Peripheral Flow
A Final Word on Gyres 244(1)
Surface Currents Affect Weather and 244(1)
Climate
Wind Can Cause Vertical Movement of Ocean 245(1)
Water
Nutrient-Rich Water Rises near the 245(1)
Equator
Wind Can Induce Upwelling near Coasts 245(1)
Wind Can Also Induce Coastal Downwelling 245(1)
Langmuir Circulation Affects the Ocean 245(1)
Surface
El Nino and La Nina Are Exceptions to 246(4)
Normal Wind and Current Flow
Thermohaline Circulation Affects All the 250(7)
Ocean's Water
Water Masses Have Distinct, Often 250(1)
Unique Characteristics
Different Combinations of Water 251(1)
Temperature and Salinity Can Yield the
Same Density
Thermohaline Flow and Surface Flow: The 251(3)
Global Heat Connection
The Formation and Downwelling of Deep 254(1)
Water Occurs in Polar Regions
Water Masses May Converge, Fall, Travel 255(2)
across the Seabed, and Slowly Rise
Studying Currents 257(3)
Questions from Students 260(1)
Chapter in Perspective 261(1)
Key Concepts Review 261(2)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 263(1)
Study Questions 263(1)
Waves 264(33)
``. . . change without notice.'' 264(1)
Ocean Waves Move Energy across the Sea 265(2)
Surface
Waves Are Classified by Their Physical 267(1)
Characteristics
Ocean Waves Are Formed by a Disturbing 267(1)
Force
Free Waves and Forced Waves 267(1)
Waves Are Weakened by a Restoring Force 267(1)
Wavelength Is the Most Useful Measure 268(1)
of Wave Size
The Behavior of Waves Is Influenced by 268(2)
the Depth of Water through Which They Are
Moving
Wind Blowing over the Ocean Generates 270(5)
Waves
Larger Swell Move Faster 271(1)
Many Factors Influence Wind Wave 272(2)
Development
Wind Wave Height Is Related to 274(1)
Wavelength
Wind Waves Can Grow to Enormous Size 275(1)
Interference Produces Irregular Wave 275(1)
Motions
Deep-Water Waves Change to Shallow-Water 276(5)
Waves As They Approach Shore
Waves Refract When They Approach a 277(1)
Shore at an Angle
Box 10.1: Surfing 278(1)
Waves Can Diffract When Wave Trains Are 279(1)
Interrupted
Waves Can Reflect from Large Vertical 280(1)
Surfaces
Internal Waves Can Form between Ocean 281(1)
Layers of Differing Densities
``Tidal Waves'' Are Probably Not What You 281(1)
Think
Storm Surges Form beneath Strong Cyclonic 282(2)
Storms
Water Can Rock in a Confined Basin 284(1)
Tsunami and Seismic Sea Waves Are Caused 284(7)
by Water Displacement
Tsunami Are Always Shallow-Water Waves 285(1)
Tsunami Move at High Speed 285(1)
What Is It Like to Encounter a Tsunami? 286(2)
Tsunami Have a Long and Destructive 288(1)
History
Tsunami Warning Networks Can Save Lives 289(2)
Questions from Students 291(3)
Chapter in Perspective 294(1)
Key Concepts Review 294(1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 295(1)
Study Questions 295(2)
Tides 297(18)
Tidal Bores 297(1)
Tides Are the Longest of All Ocean Waves 298(1)
Tides Are Forced Waves Formed by Gravity 299(5)
And Inertia
The Movement of the Moon Generates 299(3)
Strong Tractive Forces
The Sun Also Generates Tractive Forces 302(1)
Sun and Moon Influence the Tides 303(1)
Together
The Dynamic Theory of Tides Adds Fluid 304(6)
Motion Dynamics to the Equilibrium Theory
Tidal Patterns Center on Amphidromic 305(2)
Points
The Tidal Reference Level Is Called the 307(1)
Tidal Datum
Tidal Patterns Vary with Ocean Basin 307(3)
Shape and Size
Tide Waves Generate Tidal Currents 310(1)
Tidal Friction Slows Earth's Rotation 310(1)
Most Tides Can Be Accurately Predicted 310(1)
Tidal Patterns Can Affect Marine Organisms 311(1)
Power Can Be Extracted from Tidal Motion 311(1)
Questions from Students 312(1)
Chapter in Perspective 313(1)
Key Concepts Review 313(1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 314(1)
Study Questions 314(1)
Coasts 315(32)
``. . . the finest harbour in the world.'' 315(1)
Coasts Are Shaped by Marine and 316(1)
Terrestrial Processes
Erosional Processes Dominate Some Coasts 317(4)
Erosional Coasts Often Have Complex 318(2)
Features
Shorelines Can Be Straightened by 320(1)
Selective Erosion
Coasts Are Also Shaped by Land Erosion 320(1)
and Sea-Level Change
Volcanism and Earth Movements Affect 320(1)
Coasts
Beaches Dominate Depositional Coasts 321(6)
Beaches Consist of Loose Particles 322(2)
Wave Action, Particle Size, and Beach 324(1)
Permeability Combine to Build Beaches
Beaches Often Have a Distinct Profile 324(1)
Waves Transport Sediment on Beaches 325(1)
Rip Currents Can Be Dangerous to 326(1)
Swimmers
Sand Input and Outflow Are Balanced in 327(1)
Coastal Cells
Larger-Scale Features Accumulate on 327(6)
Depositional Coasts
Sand Spits and Bay Mouth Bars Form When 327(1)
the Longshore Current Slows
Barrier Islands and Sea Islands Are 327(3)
Separated from Land
Deltas Can Form at River Mouths 330(1)
Box 12.1: Very Carefully! 331(2)
Coasts Are Formed and Modified by 333(3)
Biological Activity
Reefs Can Be Built by Coral Animals 333(1)
Coral Reefs Are Classified into Three 333(3)
Types
Mangrove Coasts Are Dominated by 336(1)
Sediment-Trapping Root Systems
Fresh Water Meets the Ocean in Estuaries 336(3)
Estuaries Are Classified by Their 336(1)
Origins
Estuary Characteristics Are Influenced 337(1)
by Water Density and Flow
Estuaries Support Complex Marine 337(2)
Communities
The Characteristics of U.S. Coasts 339(1)
The Pacific Coast 339(1)
The Atlantic Coast 339(1)
The Gulf Coast 340(1)
Humans Have Interfered in Coastal 340(3)
Processes
Questions from Students 343(1)
Chapter in Perspective 344(1)
Key Concepts Review 344(1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 345(1)
Study Questions 346(1)
Life in the Ocean 347(32)
The Ideal Place for Life 347(1)
Life Is Notable for Unity and Diversity 348(1)
The Flow of Energy through Living Things 348(2)
Allows Them to Maintain Complex
Organization
Energy Can Be Stored through 349(1)
Photosynthesis
Energy Can Also Be Stored through 349(1)
Chemosynthesis
Primary Productivity Is the Synthesis of 350(4)
Organic Materials
Primary Productivity Occurs in the 352(1)
Water Column, Seabed Sediments, and
Solid Rock
Food Webs Disperse Energy through 353(1)
Communities
Living Organisms Are Built from a Few 354(1)
Elements
Elements Cycle between Living Organisms 355(4)
and Their Surroundings
The Carbon Cycle Is Earth's Largest 356(1)
Cycle
Nitrogen Must Be ``Fixed'' to Be 356(1)
Available to Organisms
Phosphorus and Silicon Cycle in Three 357(2)
Distinct Loops
Lack of Iron and Other Trace Metals May 359(1)
Restrict the Growth of Marine Life
Physical and Biological Factors Affect 359(7)
the Functions of an Organism
Photosynthesis Depends on Light 359(1)
Temperature Influences Metabolic Rate 360(2)
Dissolved Nutrients Are Required for 362(1)
the Production of Organic Matter
Salinity Influences the Function of 362(1)
Cell Membranes
Dissolved Gas Concentrations Vary with 362(1)
Temperature
The Ocean's Acid-Base Balance Is 363(1)
Influenced by Dissolved Carbon Dioxide
Hydrostatic Pressure Is Rarely Limiting 363(1)
Substances Move through Cells by 364(1)
Diffusion, Osmosis, and Active Transport
Cells Have High Surface-to-Volume Ratios 365(1)
The Marine Environment Is Classified into 366(2)
Distinct Zones
The Concept of Evolution Helps Explain 368(3)
the Nature of Life in the Ocean
Evolution Appears to Operate by Natural 368(1)
Selection
Box 13.1: Mass Extinctions 369(2)
Evolution ``Fine-Tunes'' Organisms to 371(1)
Their Environment
Oceanic Life Is Classified by 371(4)
Evolutionary Heritage
Systems of Classification May Be 372(1)
Artificial or Natural
Scientific Names Describe Organisms 373(2)
Questions from Students 375(1)
Chapter in Perspective 376(1)
Key Concepts Review 376(2)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 378(1)
Study Questions 378(1)
Plankton, Algae, and Plants 379(27)
Glowing Steps 379(1)
Plankton Drift with the Ocean 380(1)
Plankton Collection Methods Depend on the 380(1)
Organism's Size
Phytoplankton Are Autotrophs 381(7)
Primary Productivity May Be Measured 388(3)
Using Radioactive ``Tags''
Box 14.1: HABs Can Be Trouble! 390(1)
Lack of Nutrients and Light Can Limit 391(2)
Primary Productivity
Nutrient Availability Can Be a Limiting 391(1)
Factor
Light May Also Be Limiting 392(1)
Production Equals Consumption at the 393(1)
Compensation Depth
Phytoplankton Productivity Differs with 394(1)
Latitude and Varies with the Seasons
Zooplankton Consume Primary Producers 395(3)
Seaweeds and Flowering Plants Are Also 398(4)
Primary Producers
Accessory Pigments Permit 398(1)
Photosynthesis at Great Depths
Seaweeds and Land Plants Differ in 398(1)
Structure
Seaweeds Are Classified by Their 399(1)
Photosynthetic Pigments
Marine Angiosperms Are Flowering Plants 400(2)
Seaweeds Are Commercially Important 402(1)
Questions from Students 402(1)
Chapter in Perspective 403(1)
Key Concepts Review 403(1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 404(1)
Study Questions 405(1)
Marine Animals 406(41)
Masters of the Storm 406(1)
Animals Arose near the End of the Oxygen 407(1)
Revolution
Invertebrates Are the Most Successful and 408(5)
Abundant Animals
Phylum Porifera Contains the Sponges 410(1)
Stinging Cells Define the Phylum 410(3)
Cnidaria
The Worm Phyla Are the Link to Advanced 413(2)
Animals
Box 15.1: If It Moves, Don't Eat It! 414(1)
Advanced Invertebrates Have Complex 415(6)
Bodies and Internal Systems
The Phylum Mollusca Is Exceptionally 415(2)
Diverse
The Phylum Arthropoda Is the Most 417(2)
Successful Animal Group
Sea Stars Are Typical of the Phylum 419(2)
Echinodermata
Construction of Complex Chordate Bodies 421(2)
Begins on a Stiffening Scaffold
Not All Chordates Have Backbones 421(1)
Vertebrate Chordates Have Backbones 422(1)
Vertebrate Evolution Traces a Long and 423(1)
Diverse History
Fishes Are Earth's Most Successful 424(3)
Vertebrates
The Most Primitive Fishes Are Those of 424(1)
Class Agnatha
Sharks Are Typical of the Class 425(1)
Chondrichthyes
Class Osteichthyes Comprises the 426(1)
Familiar Bony Fishes
Fishes Are Well Adapted to Their 427(5)
Environments
Efficient Movement through Water 427(1)
Requires Specialized Shape and
Propulsion
Fishes Avoid Sinking by Adjusting 428(1)
Density and by Swimming
Gas Exchange Is Accomplished through 429(1)
Gills
Successful Fishes Quickly Adapt to 430(1)
Their Osmotic Circumstances
Complex Mechanisms for Feeding and 431(1)
Defense Have Evolved in Fishes
Amphibians Have Not Succeeded in the 432(1)
Marine Environment
Marine Reptiles Include Sea Turtles and 432(1)
Marine Crocodiles
Sea Turtles Are the Most Widely 432(1)
Distributed Marine Reptiles
Marine Crocodiles Are Large and 433(1)
Aggressive
Like All Birds, Marine Birds Evolved from 433(3)
Dinosaur-Like Ancestors
The Tubenoses Are the World's Champion 434(1)
Flyers
The Pelicans and Their Relatives Have 434(1)
Throat Pouches and Webbed Feet
The Gulls Stay Close to Land 434(1)
Penguins ``Fly'' through Seawater 434(2)
Marine Mammals Share Common Features 436(6)
The Order Cetacea Includes the Whales 438(2)
The Order Carnivora Is Exceptionally 440(1)
Diverse and Includes Land Animals
Manatees and Sea Cows Are Sirenians 441(1)
Questions from Students 442(1)
Chapter in Perspective 443(1)
Key Concepts Review 443(2)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 445(1)
Study Questions 445(2)
Marine Communities 447(26)
The Resourceful Hermit 447(1)
Marine Organisms Live in Communities 448(1)
Communities Consist of Interacting 448(4)
Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers
Physical and Biological Environmental 449(1)
Factors Affect Communities
Organisms within a Community Compete 450(1)
for Resources
Growth Rate and Carrying Capacity Are 451(1)
Limited by Environmental Resistance
Population Density and Distribution 452(1)
Depend on Community Conditions
Marine Communities Change As Time Passes 452(1)
The Ocean Supports Many Distinct Marine 453(15)
Communities
Rocky Intertidal Communities Are 453(2)
Densely Populated despite Environmental
Rigors
Seaweed Communities Shelter Organisms 455(1)
Sand Beach and Cobble Beach Communities 455(1)
Are Sparsely Populated
Box 16.1: Steinbeck, Ricketts, and 456(1)
Communities
Salt Marshes and Estuaries Often Act as 457(4)
Marine Nurseries
Coral Reefs Are the Most Densely 461(1)
Populated and Diverse Communities
The Open-Ocean Community Is 462(1)
Concentrated at the Surface
The Deep-Sea Floor Is the Most Uniform 463(1)
Community
Extremophiles Dwell in Deep-Rock 464(2)
Communities
Hydrothermal Vents and Cold Seeps 466(2)
Support Diverse Communities
Whale Fall Communities Represent Unique 468(1)
Opportunities
Organisms in Communities Can Exist in 468(2)
Symbiosis
Questions from Students 470(1)
Chapter in Perspective 470(1)
Key Concepts Review 471(1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 471(1)
Study Questions 472(1)
Marine Resources 473(32)
An Endless Supply? 473(1)
Marine Resources Are Subject to the 474(1)
Economic Laws of Supply and Demand
Physical Resources Are Useful Substances 475(6)
from the Ocean or Seabed
Petroleum and Natural Gas Are the 475(3)
Ocean's Most Valuable Resources
Large Methane Hydrate Deposits Exist in 478(1)
Shallow Sediments
Marine Sand and Gravel Are Used in 478(1)
Construction
Magnesium and Magnesium Compounds Are 479(1)
Concentrated from Seawater
Salts Are Harvested from Evaporation 479(1)
Basins
Manganese Nodules Contain 480(1)
Concentrations of Valuable Minerals
Phosphorite Deposits Are Used in 480(1)
Fertilizers
Metallic Sulfides and Muds Form at 480(1)
Hydrothermal Vents
Fresh Water Is Obtained by Desalination 480(1)
Energy Can Be Extracted from the Heat or 481(3)
Motion of Seawater
Windmills Are Effective Energy Producers 481(1)
Waves and Currents Can Be Harnessed to 481(1)
Generate Power
Power Can Be Generated from the Ocean's 482(2)
Vertical Thermal Gradient
Marine Biological Resources Are Being 484(12)
Harvested for Human Use
Fish, Crustaceans, and Molluscs Are the 485(3)
Ocean's Most Valuable Biological
Resources
Today's Fisheries Are Not Sustainable 488(1)
Much of the Commercial Catch Is 489(1)
Discarded as ``Bykill''
Drift Net Fishing Has Been Particularly 490(1)
Disruptive
Whaling Continues 490(3)
Fur-Bearing Mammals Are Still Harvested 493(1)
Marine Botanical Resources Have Many 493(1)
Uses
Organisms Can Be Grown in Controlled 493(1)
Environments
New Drugs and Bioproducts of Oceanic 494(2)
Origin Are Being Discovered
Nonextractive Resources Use the Ocean in 496(1)
Place
The Law of the Sea Governs Marine 496(5)
Resource Allocation
Box 17.1: Containers, World Economics, 498(2)
and Your Shoes
The United Nations Formulated the 500(1)
International Law of the Sea
The U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone 500(1)
Extends 200 Nautical Miles from Shore
Questions from Students 501(2)
Chapter in Perspective 503(1)
Key Concepts Review 503(1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 504(1)
Study Questions 504(1)
Environmental Concerns 505(31)
A Cautionary Tale 505(2)
Marine Pollutants May Be Natural or Human 507(13)
Generated
Pollutants Interfere with an Organism's 507(1)
Biochemical Processes
Oil Enters the Ocean from Many Sources 508(2)
Cleaning a Spill Always Involves 510(1)
Trade-Offs
Toxic Synthetic Organic Chemicals May 511(2)
Be Biologically Amplified
Heavy Metals Can Be Toxic in Very Small 513(1)
Quantities
Box 18.1: Minamata's Tragedy 514(1)
Eutrophication Stimulates the Growth of 514(1)
Some Species to the Detriment of Others
Plastic and Other Forms of Solid Waste 515(3)
Can Be Especially Hazardous to Marine
Life
Even Treated Sewage Can Be Hazardous to 518(1)
Marine Life
Waste Heat Is a Pollutant 518(1)
Introduced Species Can Disrupt 519(1)
Established Ecosystems
Pollution Is Costly 519(1)
Organisms Cannot Prosper If Their Habitat 520(3)
Is Disturbed
Bays and Estuaries Are Especially 520(1)
Sensitive to the Effects of Pollution
Some Coral Reefs Are in Jeopardy 521(1)
Other Habitats Are at Risk 521(2)
Marine Conservation Areas Offer a Glimmer 523(1)
of Hope
Human Activity Is Causing Global Oceanic 523(7)
Change
The Protective Ozone Layer Can Be 523(1)
Depleted by Chlorine-Containing
Chemicals
Earth's Surface Temperature Is Rising 523(6)
Is Global Warming Really Happening? 529(1)
Can Global Warming Be Curtailed? 529(1)
What Can Be Done? 530(3)
Questions from Students 533(1)
Chapter in Perspective 534(1)
Key Concepts Review 534(1)
Terms and Concepts to Remember 535(1)
Study Questions 535(1)
Afterword 536(1)
Appendix I/Measurements and Conversions 537(3)
Appendix II/Geologic Time 540(1)
Appendix III/Latitude and Longitude, Time, and 541(3)
Navigation
Appendix IV/Maps and Charts 544(4)
Appendix V/The Coriolis Effect 548(1)
Appendix VI/Taxonomic Classification of Marine 549(2)
Organisms
Appendix VII/Calculating the Tide-Generating 551(1)
Force
Appendix VIII/Periodic Table of the Elements 552(1)
Appendix IX/Working in Marine Science 553(4)
Glossary 557(18)
Index 575