Biology with Infotrac (8 HAR/PSC)

Biology with Infotrac (8 HAR/PSC)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 1234 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495107057
  • DDC分類 570

Full Description


Studying biology in today's fast-paced environment where new research is cropping up daily is exciting--and also a bit daunting, unless you have the right textbook to help you make sense of it all. Popular with students at colleges nationwide, Solomon, Berg, and Martin's BIOLOGY is often described as the best text available for learning biology. Filled with resources to guide your study, the Eighth Edition brings clarity to key concepts as it draws you into the excitement of new research in genetics, cell communication, evolution, and many other topics. The book's in-chapter Learning System is like a built-in study guide, focusing your attention on key learning objectives. Many of the text's colorful illustrations are correlated with animated figures online so you can interactively study and reinforce your understanding of complex processes.

Table of Contents

  Part 1 THE ORGANIZATION OF LIFE                  1   (151)
A View of Life 1 (24)
Three Basic Themes 2 (1)
Characteristics of Life 2 (4)
Organisms are composed of cells 2 (1)
Organisms grow and develop 3 (1)
Organisms regulate their metabolic 3 (1)
processes
Organisms respond to stimuli 4 (1)
Organisms reproduce 5 (1)
Populations evolve and become adapted 5 (1)
to the environment
Levels of Biological Organization 6 (1)
Organisms have several levels of 6 (1)
organization
Several levels of ecological 6 (1)
organization can be identified
Information Transfer 6 (3)
DNA transmits information from one 6 (2)
generation to the next
Information is transmitted by chemical 8 (1)
and electrical signals
Evolution: The Basic Unifying Concept of 9 (5)
Biology
Biologists use a binomial system for 9 (1)
naming organisms
Taxonomic classification is hierarchical 9 (2)
The tree of life includes three domains 11 (1)
and six kingdoms
Species adapt in response to changes in 11 (1)
their environment
Natural selection is an important 11 (2)
mechanism by which evolution proceeds
Populations evolve as a result of 13 (1)
selective pressures from changes in
their environment
The Energy for Life 14 (1)
The Process of Science 15 (10)
Science requires systematic thought 16 (1)
processes
Scientists make careful observations 16 (1)
and ask critical questions
Chance often plays a role in scientific 16 (1)
discovery
A hypothesis is a testable statement 17 (1)
Many predictions can be tested by 17 (1)
experiment
Researchers must avoid bias 18 (1)
Scientists interpret the results of 18 (2)
experiments and make conclusions
A theory is supported by tested 20 (1)
hypotheses
Many hypotheses cannot be tested by 20 (1)
direct experiment
Paradigm shifts allow new discoveries 21 (1)
Systems biology integrates different 21 (1)
levels of information
Science has ethical dimensions 21 (4)
Atoms and Molecules: The Chemical Basis of 25 (20)
Life
Elements and Atoms 26 (3)
An atom is uniquely identified by its 27 (1)
number of protons
Protons plus neutrons determine atomic 28 (1)
mass
Isotopes of an element differ in number 28 (1)
of neutrons
Electrons move in orbitals 29 (1)
corresponding to energy levels
Chemical Reactions 29 (2)
Atoms form compounds and molecules 29 (1)
Simplest, molecular, and structural 30 (1)
chemical formulas give different
information
One mole of any substance contains the 31 (1)
same number of units
Chemical equations describe chemical 31 (1)
reactions
Chemical Bonds 31 (5)
In covalent bonds electrons are shared 31 (2)
Ionic bonds form between cations and 33 (2)
anions
Hydrogen bonds are weak attractions 35 (1)
van der Waals interactions are weak 36 (1)
forces
Redox Reactions 36 (1)
Water 36 (3)
Hydrogen bonds form between water 37 (1)
molecules
Water molecules interact with 37 (1)
hydrophilic substances by hydrogen
bonding
Water helps maintain a stable 38 (1)
temperature
Acids, Bases, and Salts 39 (6)
pH is a convenient measure of acidity 40 (1)
Buffers minimize pH change 40 (1)
An acid and a base react to form a salt 41 (4)
The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds 45 (28)
Carbon Atoms and Molecules 46 (4)
Isomers have the same molecular formula 47 (1)
but different structures
Functional groups change the properties 48 (2)
of organic molecules
Many biological molecules are polymers 50 (1)
Carbohydrates 50 (6)
Monosaccharides are simple sugars 51 (1)
Disaccharides consist of two 52 (1)
monosaccharide units
Polysaccharides can store energy or 52 (2)
provide structure
Some modified and complex carbohydrates 54 (2)
have special roles
Lipids 56 (3)
Triacylglycerol is formed from glycerol 56 (1)
and three fatty acids
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids 56 (1)
differ in physical properties
Phospholipids are components of cell 57 (1)
membranes
Carotenoids and many other pigments are 57 (1)
derived from isoprene units
Steroids contain four rings of carbon 57 (1)
atoms
Some chemical mediators are lipids 58 (1)
Proteins 59 (8)
Amino acids are the subunits of proteins 62 (1)
Proteins have four levels of 63 (3)
organization
The amino acid sequence of a protein 66 (1)
determines its conformation
Nucleic Acids 67 (3)
Some nucleotides are important in 68 (2)
energy transfers and other cell
functions
Identifying Biological Molecules 70 (3)
Organization of the Cell 73 (33)
The Cell Theory 74 (1)
Cell Organization and Size 74 (2)
The organization of all cells is 74 (1)
basically similar
Cell size is limited 74 (2)
Cell size and shape are related to 76 (1)
function
Methods for Studying Cells 76 (4)
Light microscopes are used to study 76 (2)
stained or living cells
Electron microscopes provide a 78 (1)
high-resolution image that can be
greatly magnified
Biologists use biochemical techniques 78 (2)
to study cell components
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 80 (1)
Cell Membranes 81 (3)
The Cell Nucleus 84 (2)
Focus On: Acetabularia and the Control of 86 (2)
Cell Activities
Organelles in the Cytoplasm 88 (9)
Ribosomes manufacture proteins 89 (1)
The endoplasmic reticulum is a network 90 (1)
of internal membranes
The Golgi complex processes, sorts, and 91 (1)
modifies proteins
Lysosomes are compartments for digestion 92 (1)
Vacuoles are large, fluid-filled sacs 93 (1)
with a variety of functions
Peroxisomes metabolize small organic 94 (1)
compounds
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are 94 (1)
energy-converting organelles
Mitochondria make ATP through cellular 94 (2)
respiration
Chloroplasts convert light energy to 96 (1)
chemical energy through photosynthesis
The Cytoskeleton 97 (5)
Microtubules are hollow cylinders 97 (2)
Microfilaments consist of intertwined 99 (2)
strings of actin
Intermediate filaments help stabilize 101 (1)
cell shape
Cell Coverings 102 (4)
Biological Membranes 106 (28)
The Structure of Biological Membranes 107 (7)
Phospholipids form bilayers in water 107 (1)
Current data support a fluid mosaic 108 (1)
model of membrane structure
Biological membranes are 109 (1)
two-dimensional fluids
Biological membranes fuse and form 110 (1)
closed vesicles
Membrane proteins include integral and 110 (1)
peripheral proteins
Proteins are oriented asymmetrically 111 (2)
across the bilayer
Membrane proteins function in 113 (1)
transport, in information transfer, and
as enzymes
Passage of Materials through Cell 114 (1)
Membranes
Biological membranes present a barrier 115 (1)
to polar molecules
Transport proteins transfer molecules 115 (1)
across membranes
Passive Transport 115 (5)
Diffusion occurs down a concentration 116 (1)
gradient
Osmosis is diffusion of water across a 116 (2)
selectively permeable membrane
Facilitated diffusion occurs down a 118 (2)
concentration gradient
Active Transport 120 (3)
Active transport systems ``pump'' 120 (2)
substances against their concentration
gradients
Carrier proteins can transport one or 122 (1)
two solutes
Cotransport systems indirectly provide 122 (1)
energy for active transport
Exocytosis and Endocytosis 123 (4)
In exocytosis, vesicles export large 123 (1)
molecules
In endocytosis, the cell imports 123 (4)
materials
Cell Junctions 127 (7)
Anchoring junctions connect cells of an 127 (1)
epithelial sheet
Tight junctions seal off intercellular 127 (1)
spaces between some animal cells
Gap junctions allow the transfer of 128 (1)
small molecules and ions
Plasmodesmata allow certain molecules 129 (5)
and ions to move between plant cells
Cell Communication 134 (18)
Cell Signaling: An Overview 135 (1)
Sending Signals 136 (1)
Reception 137 (3)
Cells regulate reception 138 (1)
Three types of receptors occur on the 138 (2)
cell surface
Some receptors are intracellular 140 (1)
Signal Transduction 140 (5)
Ion channel-linked receptors open or 140 (1)
close channels
G protein-linked receptors initiate 141 (1)
signal transduction
Second messengers are intracellular 141 (3)
signaling agents
Enzyme-linked receptors function 144 (1)
directly
Many activated intracellular receptors 144 (1)
are transcription factors
Scaffolding proteins increase efficiency 145 (1)
Signals can be transmitted in more than 145 (1)
one direction
Responses to Signals 145 (2)
The response to a signal is amplified 146 (1)
Signals must be terminated 147 (1)
Evolution of Cell Communication 147 (5)
Part 2 ENERGY TRANSFER THROUGH LIVING SYSTEMS 152 (59)
Energy and Metabolism 152 (19)
Biological Work 153 (1)
Organisms carry out conversions between 153 (1)
potential energy and kinetic energy
The Laws of Thermodynamics 154 (1)
The total energy in the universe does 154 (1)
not change
The entropy of the universe is 154 (1)
increasing
Energy and Metabolism 155 (2)
Enthalpy is the total potential energy 155 (1)
of a system
Free energy is available to do cell work 155 (1)
Chemical reactions involve changes in 155 (1)
free energy
Free energy decreases during an 155 (1)
exergonic reaction
Free energy increases during an 156 (1)
endergonic reaction
Diffusion is an exergonic process 156 (1)
Free-energy changes depend on the 156 (1)
concentrations of reactants and products
Cells drive endergonic reactions by 157 (1)
coupling them to exergonic reactions
ATP, the Energy Currency of the Cell 157 (2)
ATP donates energy through the transfer 158 (1)
of a phosphate group
ATP links exergonic and endergonic 158 (1)
reactions
The cell maintains a very high ratio of 159 (1)
ATP to ADP
Energy Transfer in Redox Reactions 159 (1)
Most electron carriers transfer 159 (1)
hydrogen atoms
Enzymes 160 (11)
All reactions have a required energy of 161 (1)
activation
An enzyme lowers a reaction's 162 (1)
activation energy
An enzyme works by forming an 162 (1)
enzyme--substrate complex
Enzymes are specific 163 (1)
Many enzymes require cofactors 163 (1)
Enzymes are most effective at optimal 163 (1)
conditions
Enzymes are organized into teams in 164 (1)
metabolic pathways
The cell regulates enzymatic activity 165 (1)
Enzymes are inhibited by certain 166 (1)
chemical agents
Some drugs are enzyme inhibitors 167 (4)
How Cells Make ATP: Energy-Releasing 171 (20)
Pathways
Redox Reactions 172 (1)
The Four Stages of Aerobic Respiration 173 (12)
In glycolysis, glucose yields two 174 (1)
pyruvates
Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA 175 (3)
The citric acid cycle oxidizes acetyl 178 (1)
CoA
The electron transport chain is coupled 179 (4)
to ATP synthesis
Aerobic respiration of one glucose 183 (2)
yields a maximum of 36 to 38 ATPs
Cells regulate aerobic respiration 185 (1)
Energy Yield of Nutrients Other Than 185 (1)
Glucose
Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation 186 (5)
Alcohol fermentation and lactate 187 (4)
fermentation are inefficient
Photosynthesis: Capturing Energy 191 (20)
Light 192 (1)
Chloroplasts 193 (3)
Chlorophyll is found in the thylakoid 193 (1)
membrane
Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic 194 (2)
pigment
Overview of Photosynthesis 196 (2)
ATP and NADPH are the products of the 197 (1)
light-dependent reactions: An overview
Carbohydrates are produced during the 197 (1)
carbon fixation reactions: An overview
The Light-Dependent Reactions 198 (4)
Photosystems I and II each consist of a 198 (1)
reaction center and multiple antenna
complexes
Noncyclic electron transport produces 198 (2)
ATP and NADPH
Cyclic electron transport produces ATP 200 (1)
but no NADPH
ATP synthesis occurs by chemiosmosis 200 (2)
The Carbon Fixation Reactions 202 (4)
Most plants use the Calvin cycle to fix 202 (2)
carbon
Photorespiration reduces photosynthetic 204 (1)
efficiency
The initial carbon fixation step 204 (2)
differs in C4 plants and in CAM plants
Metabolic Diversity 206 (1)
Photosynthesis in Plants and in the 207 (4)
Environment
Part 3 THE CONTINUITY OF LIFE: GENETICS 211 (179)
Chromosomes, Mitosis, and Meiosis 211 (23)
Eukaryotic Chromosomes 212 (3)
DNA is organized into informational 212 (1)
units called genes
DNA is packaged in a highly organized 212 (2)
way in chromosomes
Chromosome number and informational 214 (1)
content differ among species
The Cell Cycle and Mitosis 215 (6)
Chromosomes duplicate during interphase 215 (1)
During prophase, duplicated chromosomes 216 (2)
become visible with the microscope
Prometaphase begins when the nuclear 218 (1)
envelope breaks down
Duplicated chromosomes line up on the 218 (1)
midplane during metaphase
During anaphase, chromosomes move 219 (1)
toward the poles
During telophase, two separate nuclei 220 (1)
form
Cytokinesis forms two separate daughter 220 (1)
cells
Mitosis produces two cells genetically 221 (1)
identical to the parent cell
Lacking nuclei, prokaryotes divide by 221 (1)
binary fission
Regulation of the Cell Cycle 221 (2)
Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis 223 (11)
Meiosis produces haploid cells with 224 (1)
unique gene combinations
Prophase l includes synapsis and 224 (1)
crossing-over
During meiosis l, homologous 225 (1)
chromosomes separate
Chromatids separate in meiosis II 225 (1)
Mitosis and meiosis lead to contrasting 225 (3)
outcomes
The timing of meiosis in the life cycle 228 (6)
varies among species
The Basic Principles of Heredity 234 (26)
Mendel's Principles of Inheritance 235 (8)
Alleles separate before gametes are 236 (2)
formed: the principle of segregation
Alleles occupy corresponding loci on 238 (1)
homologous chromosomes
A monohybrid cross involves individuals 238 (2)
with different alleles of a given locus
A dihybrid cross involves individuals 240 (1)
that have different alleles at two loci
Alleles on nonhomologous chromosomes 241 (1)
are randomly distributed into gametes:
the principle of independent assortment
Recognition of Mendel's work came 242 (1)
during the early 20th century
Using Probability to Predict Mendelian 243 (2)
Inheritance
The rules of probability can be applied 244 (1)
to a variety of calculations
Focus On: Solving Genetics Problems 245 (1)
Inheritance and Chromosomes 246 (6)
Linked genes do not assort independently 246 (1)
Calculating the frequency of 247 (1)
crossing-over reveals the linear order
of linked genes on a chromosome
Sex is generally determined by sex 248 (4)
chromosomes
Extensions of Mendelian Genetics 252 (8)
Dominance is not always complete 252 (1)
Multiple alleles for a locus may exist 253 (1)
in a population
A single gene may affect multiple 253 (1)
aspects of the phenotype
Alleles of different loci may interact 254 (1)
to produce a phenotype
Polygenes act additively to produce a 255 (1)
phenotype
Genes interact with the environment to 256 (4)
shape phenotype
DNA: The Carrier of Genetic Information 260 (19)
Evidence of DNA as the Hereditary Material 261 (2)
DNA is the transforming principle in 261 (2)
bacteria
DNA is the genetic material in certain 263 (1)
viruses
The Structure of DNA 263 (3)
Nucleotides can be covalently linked in 263 (1)
any order to form long polymers
DNA is made of two polynucleotide 264 (1)
chains intertwined to form a double
helix
In double-stranded DNA, hydrogen bonds 265 (1)
form between A and T and between G and C
DNA Replication 266 (13)
Meselson and Stahl verified the 266 (2)
mechanism of semiconservative
replication
Semiconservative replication explains 268 (2)
the perpetuation of mutations
DNA replication requires protein 270 (4)
``machinery''
Enzymes proofread and repair errors in 274 (1)
DNA
Telomeres cap eukaryotic chromosome ends 275 (4)
Gene Expression 279 (25)
Discovery of the Gene--Protein 280 (2)
Relationship
Beadle and Tatum proposed the one-gene, 280 (2)
one-enzyme hypothesis
Information Flow from DNA to Protein: An 282 (3)
Overview
DNA is transcribed to form RNA 282 (1)
RNA is translated to form a polypeptide 282 (1)
Biologists cracked the genetic code in 283 (2)
the 1960s
Transcription 285 (3)
The synthesis of mRNA includes 286 (2)
initiation, elongation, and termination
Messenger RNA contains base sequences 288 (1)
that do not directly code for protein
Translation 288 (4)
An amino acid is attached to tRNA 288 (1)
before incorporation into a polypeptide
The components of the translational 289 (3)
machinery come together at the ribosomes
Variations in Gene Expression in 292 (6)
Different Organisms
Transcription and translation are 293 (1)
coupled in prokaryotes
Eukaryotic mRNA is modified after 293 (1)
transcription and before translation
Both noncoding and coding sequences are 294 (2)
transcribed from eukaryotic genes
Several kinds of eukaryotic RNA have a 296 (1)
role in gene expression
The definition of a gene has evolved as 297 (1)
biologists have learned more about genes
The usual direction of information flow 297 (1)
has exceptions
Mutations 298 (6)
Base-substitution mutations result from 298 (1)
the replacement of one base pair by
another
Frameshift mutations result from the 298 (1)
insertion or deletion of base pairs
Some mutations involve larger DNA 298 (2)
segments
Mutations have various causes 300 (4)
Gene Regulation 304 (18)
Gene Regulation in Bacteria and 305 (1)
Eukaryotes: An Overview
Gene Regulation in Bacteria 306 (6)
Operons in bacteria facilitate the 306 (3)
coordinated control of functionally
related genes
Some posttranscriptional regulation 309 (3)
occurs in bacteria
Gene Regulation in Eukaryotic Cells 312 (10)
Eukaryotic transcription is controlled 313 (4)
at many sites and by many different
regulatory molecules
The mRNAs of eukaryotes have many types 317 (1)
of posttranscriptional control
Posttranslational chemical 318 (4)
modifications may alter the activity of
eukaryotic proteins
DNA Technology and Genomics 322 (24)
DNA Cloning 323 (7)
Restriction enzymes are ``molecular 323 (1)
scissors''
Recombinant DNA forms when DNA is 324 (1)
spliced into a vector
DNA can be cloned inside cells 324 (4)
The polymerase chain reaction is a 328 (2)
technique for amplifying DNA in vitro
DNA Analysis 330 (3)
Gel electrophoresis is used for 330 (1)
separating macromolecules
DNA, RNA, and protein blots detect 331 (1)
specific fragments
Restriction fragment length 331 (1)
polymorphisms are a measure of genetic
relationships
One way to characterize DNA is to 331 (2)
determine its sequence of nucleotides
Genomics 333 (5)
Identifying protein-coding genes is 334 (1)
useful for research and for medical
applications
One way to study gene function is to 335 (1)
silence genes one at a time
DNA microarrays are a powerful tool for 335 (2)
studying how genes interact
The Human Genome Project stimulated 337 (1)
studies on the genome sequences of
other species
Applications of DNA Technologies 338 (4)
DNA technology has revolutionized 338 (1)
medicine and pharmacology
DNA fingerprinting has numerous 339 (1)
applications
Transgenic organisms have incorporated 340 (2)
foreign DNA into their cells
DNA Technology Has Raised Safety Concerns 342 (4)
The Human Genome 346 (22)
Studying Human Genetics 347 (4)
Human chromosomes are studied by 347 (1)
karyotyping
Family pedigrees help identify certain 348 (1)
inherited conditions
The Human Genome Project sequenced the 349 (1)
DNA on all human chromosomes
Comparative genomics has revealed 350 (1)
several hundred DNA segments that are
identical in both mouse and human
genomes
Researchers use mouse models to study 350 (1)
human genetic diseases
Abnormalities in Chromosome Number and 351 (5)
Structure
Down syndrome is usually caused by 353 (1)
trisomy 21
Most sex chromosome aneuploidies are 354 (1)
less severe than autosomal aneuploidies
Abnormalities in chromosome structure 354 (2)
cause certain disorders
Genetic Diseases Caused by Single-Gene 356 (4)
Mutations
Many genetic diseases are inherited as 356 (2)
autosomal recessive traits
Some genetic diseases are inherited as 358 (1)
autosomal dominant traits
Some genetic diseases are inherited as 359 (1)
X-linked recessive traits
Gene Therapy 360 (1)
Gene therapy programs are carefully 360 (1)
scrutinized
Genetic Testing and Counseling 361 (2)
Prenatal diagnosis detects chromosome 361 (1)
abnormalities and gene defects
Genetic screening searches for 362 (1)
genotypes or karyotypes
Genetic counselors educate people about 363 (1)
genetic diseases
Human Genetics, Society, and Ethics 363 (5)
Genetic discrimination provokes heated 364 (1)
debate
Many ethical issues related to human 364 (4)
genetics must be addressed
Developmental Genetics 368 (22)
Cell Differentiation and Nuclear 369 (5)
Equivalence
Most cell differences are due to 369 (1)
differential gene expression
A totipotent nucleus contains all the 370 (1)
instructions for development
The first cloned mammal was a sheep 371 (1)
Stem cells divide and give rise to 372 (2)
differentiated cells
The Genetic Control of Development 374 (12)
A variety of model organisms provide 374 (1)
insights into basic biological processes
Many examples of genes that control 375 (5)
development have been identified in the
fruit fly Drosophila
Caenorhabditis elegans has a relatively 380 (3)
rigid developmental pattern
The mouse is a model for mammalian 383 (2)
development
Arabidopsis is a model for studying 385 (1)
plant development, including
transcription factors
Cancer and Cell Development 386 (4)
Part 4 THE CONTINUITY OF LIFE: EVOLUTION 390 (92)
Introduction to Darwinian Evolution 390 (22)
What is Evolution? 391 (1)
Pre-Darwinian Ideas about Evolution 391 (1)
Darwin and Evolution 392 (4)
Darwin proposed that evolution occurs 394 (1)
by natural selection
The modern synthesis combines Darwin's 394 (1)
theory with genetics
Biologists study the effect of chance 395 (1)
on evolution
Evidence for Evolution 396 (16)
The fossil record provides strong 396 (4)
evidence for evolution
Comparative anatomy of related species 400 (2)
demonstrates similarities in their
structures
The distribution of plants and animals 402 (2)
supports evolution
Developmental biology helps unravel 404 (1)
evolutionary patterns
Molecular comparisons among organisms 405 (3)
provide evidence for evolution
Evolutionary hypotheses are tested 408 (4)
experimentally
Evolutionary Change in Populations 412 (16)
Genotype, Phenotype, and Allele 413 (1)
Frequencies
The Hardy--Weinberg Principle 413 (3)
Genetic equilibrium occurs if certain 415 (1)
conditions are met
Human MN blood groups are a valuable 415 (1)
illustration of the Hardy--Weinberg
principle
Microevolution 416 (5)
Nonrandom mating changes genotype 416 (1)
frequencies
Mutation increases variation within a 417 (1)
population
In genetic drift, random events change 417 (1)
allele frequencies
Gene flow generally increases variation 418 (1)
within a population
Natural selection changes allele 418 (3)
frequencies in a way that increases
adaptation
Genetic Variation in Populations 421 (7)
Genetic polymorphism exists among 421 (1)
alleles and the proteins for which they
code
Balanced polymorphism exists for long 422 (2)
periods
Neutral variation may give no selective 424 (1)
advantage or disadvantage
Populations in different geographic 425 (3)
areas often exhibit genetic adaptations
to local environments
Speciation and Macroevolution 428 (19)
What Is a Species? 429 (1)
Reproductive Isolation 430 (2)
Prezygotic barriers interfere with 430 (1)
fertilization
Postzygotic barriers prevent gene flow 431 (1)
when fertilization occurs
Biologists are discovering the genetic 432 (1)
basis of isolating mechanisms
Speciation 432 (6)
Long physical isolation and different 433 (1)
selective pressures result in
allopatric speciation
Two populations diverge in the same 434 (3)
physical location by sympatric
speciation
Reproductive isolation breaks down in 437 (1)
hybrid zones
The Rate of Evolutionary Change 438 (1)
Macroevolution 439 (8)
Evolutionary novelties originate 439 (1)
through modifications of pre-existing
structures
Adaptive radiation is the 440 (2)
diversification of an ancestral species
into many species
Extinction is an important aspect of 442 (2)
evolution
Is microevolution related to speciation 444 (3)
and macroevolution?
The Origin and Evolutionary History Of Life 447 (19)
Chemical Evolution on Early Earth 448 (2)
Organic molecules formed on primitive 449 (1)
Earth
The First Cells 450 (5)
Molecular reproduction was a crucial 450 (2)
step in the origin of cells
Biological evolution began with the 452 (1)
first cells
The first cells were probably 452 (1)
heterotrophic
Aerobes appeared after oxygen increased 453 (1)
in the atmosphere
Eukaryotic cells descended from 453 (2)
prokaryotic cells
The History of Life 455 (7)
Rocks from the Ediacaran period contain 455 (1)
fossils of cells and simple animals
A diversity of organisms evolved during 455 (4)
the Paleozoic era
Dinosaurs and other reptiles dominated 459 (2)
the Mesozoic era
The Cenozoic era is the Age of Mammals 461 (1)
Focus On: The Origin of Flight in Birds 462 (4)
The Evolution of Primates 466 (16)
Primate Adaptations 467 (1)
Primate Classification 468 (3)
Suborder Anthropoidea includes monkeys, 469 (1)
apes, and humans
Apes are our closest living relatives 469 (2)
Hominid Evolution 471 (5)
The earliest hominids may have lived 6 473 (1)
mya to 7 mya
Australopithecines are the immediate 474 (1)
ancestors of genus Homo
Homo habilis is the oldest member of 474 (1)
genus Homo
Homo erectus apparently evolved from 475 (1)
Homo habilis
Archaic Homo sapiens appeared between 475 (1)
400,000 and 200,000 years ago
Neandertals appeared approximately 475 (1)
230,000 years ago
Focus On: The Smallest Humans 476 (2)
`Biologists' debate the origin of 477 (1)
modern Homo sapiens
Cultural Change 478 (4)
Development of agriculture resulted in 478 (1)
a more dependable food supply
Cultural evolution has had a profound 479 (3)
impact on the biosphere
Part 5 THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE 482 (216)
Understanding Diversity: Systematics 482 (18)
Classifying Organisms 483 (1)
Organisms are named using a binomial 483 (1)
system
Each taxonomic level is more general 484 (1)
than the one below it
Biologists are moving away from 484 (1)
Linnaean categories
Determining the Major Branches in the 484 (3)
Tree of Life
Reconstructing Phylogeny 487 (6)
Homologous structures are important in 489 (1)
determining evolutionary relationships
Shared derived characters provide clues 489 (1)
about phylogeny
Biologists carefully choose taxonomic 490 (1)
criteria
Molecular homologies help clarify 491 (1)
phylogeny
Taxa are grouped based on their 492 (1)
evolutionary relationships
Constructing Phylogenetic Trees 493 (7)
Outgroup analysis is used in 493 (1)
constructing and interpreting cladograms
A cladogram is constructed by 494 (2)
considering shared derived characters
In a cladogram each branch point 496 (1)
represents a major evolutionary step
Systematists use the principle of 497 (3)
parsimony to make decisions
Viruses and Prokaryotes 500 (30)
Viruses 501 (5)
A virus consists of nucleic acid 501 (1)
surrounded by a protein coat
Viruses may have evolved from cells 502 (1)
The International Committee on Taxonomy 502 (1)
of Viruses classifies viruses
Bacteriophages are viruses that attack 503 (1)
bacteria
Viruses reproduce only inside host cells 503 (1)
Lytic reproductive cycles destroy host 503 (1)
cells
Temperate viruses integrate their DNA 503 (2)
into the host DNA
Many viruses infect vertebrates 505 (1)
Focus On: Influenza and Other Emerging 506 (4)
and Re-emerging Diseases
Some viruses infect plant cells 510 (1)
Viroids and Prions 510 (2)
Viroids are the smallest known pathogens 510 (1)
Prions are protein particles 511 (1)
Prokaryotes 512 (6)
Prokaryotes have several common shapes 512 (1)
Prokaryotic cells lack 512 (1)
membrane-enclosed organelles
A cell wall typically covers the cell 512 (1)
surface
Many types of prokaryotes are motile 513 (1)
Prokaryotes have a circular DNA molecule 514 (1)
Most prokaryotes reproduce by binary 514 (1)
fission
Bacteria transfer genetic information 514 (2)
Evolution proceeds rapidly in bacterial 516 (1)
populations
Some bacteria form endospores 516 (1)
Many bacteria form biofilms 516 (1)
Metabolic diversity has evolved among 517 (1)
prokaryotes
Most prokaryotes require oxygen 517 (1)
The Two Prokaryote Domains 518 (2)
Some archaea survive in harsh 519 (1)
environments
Bacteria are the most familiar 520 (1)
prokaryotes
Impact of Prokaryotes 520 (10)
Some prokaryotes cause disease 523 (3)
Prokaryotes are used in many commercial 526 (4)
processes
Protists 530 (25)
Introduction to the Protists 531 (1)
Evolution of the Eukaryotes 531 (3)
Mitochondria and chloroplasts probably 532 (1)
originated from endosymbionts
A consensus is emerging in eukaryote 532 (2)
classification
Representative Protists 534 (21)
Excavates are anaerobic zooflagellates 534 (2)
Discicristiates include euglenoids and 536 (1)
trypanosomes
Alveolates have flattened vesicles 537 (3)
under the plasma membrane
Motile cells of heterokonts are 540 (5)
biflagellate
Red algae, green algae, and land plants 545 (1)
are collectively classified as plants
Cercozoa are amoeboid cells enclosed in 546 (1)
shells
Amoebozoa have lobose pseudopodia 547 (4)
Opisthokonts include choanoflagellates, 551 (4)
fungi, and animals
Kingdom Fungi 555 (26)
Characteristics of Fungi 556 (2)
Fungi absorb food from the environment 556 (1)
Fungi have cell walls that contain 556 (1)
chitin
Most fungi have a filamentous body plan 556 (1)
Fungi reproduce by spores 556 (2)
Fungal Diversity 558 (12)
Fungi are assigned to the opisthokont 558 (2)
clade
Diverse groups of fungi have evolved 560 (1)
Chytrids have flagellate spores 560 (1)
Zygomycetes reproduce sexually by 561 (4)
forming zygospores
Glomeromycetes are symbionts with plant 565 (1)
roots
Ascomycetes reproduce sexually by 566 (2)
forming ascospores
Basidiomycetes reproduce sexually by 568 (2)
forming basidiospores
Ecological Importance of Fungi 570 (4)
Fungi form symbiotic relationships with 570 (1)
some animals
Mycorrhizae are symbiotic relationships 570 (2)
between fungi and plant roots
Lichens are symbiotic relationships 572 (2)
between a fungus and a photoautotroph
Economic, Biological, and Medical Impact 574 (7)
of Fungi
Fungi provide beverages and food 574 (1)
Fungi are important to modern biology 574 (2)
and medicine
Some fungi cause animal diseases 576 (1)
Fungi cause many important plant 576 (5)
diseases
The Plant Kingdom: Seedless Plants 581 (19)
Adaptations of Plants 582 (2)
The plant life cycle alternates haploid 582 (1)
and diploid generations
Four major groups of plants evolved 583 (1)
Bryophytes 584 (5)
Moss gametophytes are differentiated 585 (2)
into ``leaves'' and ``stems''
Liverwort gametophytes are either 587 (1)
thalloid or leafy
Hornwort gametophytes are inconspicuous 587 (1)
thalloid plants
Bryophytes are used for experimental 588 (1)
studies
Details of bryophyte evolution are 589 (1)
based on fossils and on structural and
molecular evidence
Seedless Vascular Plants 589 (1)
Focus On: Ancient Plants and Coal 590 (10)
Formation
Club mosses are small plants with 591 (1)
rhizomes and short, erect branches
Ferns are a diverse group of 591 (4)
spore-forming vascular plants
Some ferns and club mosses are 595 (1)
heterosporous
Seedless vascular plants are used for 595 (1)
experimental studies
Seedless vascular plants arose more 595 (5)
than 420 mya
The Plant Kingdom: Seed Plants 600 (19)
An Introduction to Seed Plants 601 (1)
Gymnosperms 601 (6)
Conifers are woody plants that produce 602 (3)
seeds in cones
Cycads have seed cones and compound 605 (1)
leaves
Ginkgo biloba is the only living 606 (1)
species in its phylum
Gnetophytes include three unusual genera 606 (1)
Flowering Plants 607 (7)
Monocots and eudicots are the two 608 (1)
largest classes of flowering plants
Flowers are involved in sexual 608 (2)
reproduction
The life cycle of flowering plants 610 (1)
includes double fertilization
Seeds and fruits develop after 611 (1)
fertilization
Flowering plants have many adaptations 611 (2)
that account for their success
Studying how flowers evolved provides 613 (1)
insights into the evolutionary process
The Evolution of Seed Plants 614 (5)
Our understanding of the evolution of 614 (5)
flowering plants has made great
progress in recent years
The Animal Kingdom: An Introduction to 619 (21)
Animal Diversity
Animal Characters 620 (1)
Adaptations to Habitats 620 (1)
Marine habitats offer many advantages 620 (1)
Some animals are adapted to freshwater 621 (1)
habitats
Terrestrial living requires major 621 (1)
adaptations
Animal Origins 621 (1)
Molecular systematics helps biologists 622 (1)
interpret the fossil record
Biologists develop hypotheses about the 622 (1)
evolution of development
Reconstructing Animal Phylogeny 622 (8)
Animals exhibit two main types of body 622 (2)
symmetry
Animal body plans are linked to the 624 (1)
level of tissue development
Biologists group animals according to 624 (1)
type of body cavity
Bilateral animals form two main groups 625 (1)
based on differences in development
Biologists have identified major animal 625 (1)
groups based on structure
Molecular data contribute to our 626 (4)
understanding of animal relationships
The Parazoa: Sponges 630 (1)
Collar cells characterize sponges 630 (1)
The Radiata: Animals with Radial Symmetry 631 (9)
and Two Cell Layers
Cnidarians have unique stinging cells 631 (5)
Comb jellies have adhesive glue cells 636 (4)
that trap prey
The Animal Kingdom: The Protostomes 640 (27)
Importance of the Coelom 641 (1)
The Lophotrochozoa 641 (13)
Flatworms are bilateral acoelomates 641 (2)
Phylum Nemertea is characterized by the 643 (1)
proboscis
Mollusks have a muscular foot, visceral 644 (5)
mass, and mantle
Annelids are segmented worms 649 (3)
The lophophorate phyla are 652 (1)
distinguished by a ciliated ring of
tentacles
Rotifers have a crown of cilia 653 (1)
The Ecdysozoa 654 (13)
Roundworms are of great ecological 654 (1)
importance
Arthropods are characterized by jointed 655 (12)
appendages and an exoskeleton of chitin
The Animal Kingdom: The Deuterostomes 667 (31)
What Are Deuterostomes? 668 (1)
Echinoderms 668 (3)
Members of class Crinoidea are 668 (1)
suspension feeders
Many members of class Asteroidea 669 (1)
capture prey
Class Ophiuroidea is the largest class 670 (1)
of echinoderms
Members of class Echinoidea have 670 (1)
movable spines
Members of class Holothuroidea are 671 (1)
elongated, sluggish animals
Chordate Characters 671 (1)
Invertebrate Chordates 672 (2)
Tunicates are common marine animals 672 (1)
Lancelets may be closely related to 673 (1)
vertebrates
Systematists are making progress in 674 (1)
understanding chordate phylogeny
Introducing the Vertebrates 674 (3)
The vertebral column is a key 674 (2)
vertebrate character
Vertebrate taxonomy is a work in 676 (1)
progress
Jawless Fishes 677 (1)
Evolution of Jaws and Limbs: Jawed Fishes 678 (5)
and Amphibians
Members of class Chondrichthyes are 678 (2)
cartilaginous fishes
The ray-finned fishes gave rise to 680 (1)
modern bony fishes
Descendants of the lungfishes moved 680 (2)
onto the land
Amphibians were the first successful 682 (1)
land vertebrates
Amniotes 683 (15)
Our understanding of amniote phylogeny 684 (2)
is changing
Reptiles have many terrestrial 686 (1)
adaptations
We can assign extant reptiles to four 686 (1)
groups
Are birds really dinosaurs? 687 (1)
Some dinosaurs had feathers 688 (1)
Modern birds are adapted for flight 689 (1)
Mammals are characterized by hair and 690 (8)
mammary glands
Part 6 STRUCTURE AND LIFE PROCESSES IN PLANTS 698 (109)
Plant Structure, Growth, and Differentiation 698 (17)
Plant Structure and Life Span 699 (1)
Plants have different life history 700 (1)
strategies
The Plant Body 700 (10)
The plant body consists of cells and 700 (2)
tissues
The ground tissue system is composed of 702 (4)
three simple tissues
The vascular tissue system consists of 706 (2)
two complex tissues
The dermal tissue system consists of 708 (2)
two complex tissues
Plant Meristems 710 (5)
Primary growth takes place at apical 711 (1)
meristems
Secondary growth takes place at lateral 712 (3)
meristems
Leaf Structure and Function 715 (16)
Leaf Form and Structure 716 (5)
Leaf structure consists of an 716 (4)
epidermis, photosynthetic ground
tissue, and vascular tissue
Leaf structure is related to function 720 (1)
Focus On: Air Pollution and Leaves 721 (1)
Stomatal Opening and Closing 722 (2)
Blue light triggers stomatal opening 722 (2)
Additional factors affect stomatal 724 (1)
opening and closing
Transpiration and Guttation 724 (1)
Some plants exude liquid water 725 (1)
Leaf Abscission 725 (1)
In many leaves; abscission occurs at an 726 (1)
abscission zone near the base of the
petiole
Modified Leaves 726 (5)
Modified leaves of carnivorous plants 728 (3)
capture insects
Stems and Transport in Vascular Plants 731 (17)
External Stem Structure in Woody Twigs 732 (1)
Stem Growth and Structure 732 (6)
Herbaceous eudicot and monocot stems 733 (1)
differ in internal structure
Woody plants have stems with secondary 734 (4)
growth
Focus On: Tree-Ring Analysis 738 (1)
Transport in the Plant Body 739 (9)
Water and minerals are transported in 740 (2)
xylem
Sugar in solution is translocated in 742 (6)
phloem
Roots and Mineral Nutrition 748 (19)
Root Structure and Function 749 (7)
Roots have root caps and root hairs 749 (1)
The arrangement of vascular tissues 749 (4)
distinguishes the roots of herbaceous
eudicots and monocots
Woody plants have roots with secondary 753 (1)
growth
Some roots are specialized for unusual 754 (2)
functions
Root Associations with Fungi and Bacteria 756 (1)
Mycorrhizae facilitate the uptake of 756 (1)
essential minerals by roots
Rhizobial bacteria fix nitrogen in the 756 (1)
roots of leguminous plants
The Soil Environment 757 (10)
Soil is composed of inorganic minerals, 758 (2)
organic matter, air, and water
The organisms living in the soil form a 760 (1)
complex ecosystem
Soil pH affects soil characteristics 760 (1)
and plant growth
Soil provides most of the minerals 761 (1)
found in plants
Soil can be damaged by human 762 (5)
mismanagement
Reproduction in Flowering Plants 767 (22)
The Flowering Plant Life Cycle 768 (3)
Flowers develop at apical meristems 769 (1)
Each part of a flower has a specific 769 (1)
function
Female gametophytes are produced in the 769 (2)
ovary, male gametophytes in the anther
Pollination 771 (4)
Many plants have mechanisms to prevent 771 (1)
self-pollination
Flowering plants and their animal 771 (3)
pollinators have coevolved
Some flowering plants depend on wind to 774 (1)
disperse pollen
Fertilization and Seed/Fruit Development 775 (7)
A unique double fertilization process 776 (1)
occurs in flowering plants
Embryonic development in seeds is 776 (1)
orderly and predictable
The mature seed contains an embryonic 777 (1)
plant and storage materials
Fruits are mature, ripened ovaries 777 (3)
Seed dispersal is highly varied 780 (2)
Germination and Early Growth 782 (1)
Some seeds do not germinate immediately 782 (1)
Eudicots and monocots exhibit 782 (1)
characteristic patterns of early growth
Asexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants 783 (2)
Apomixis is the production of seeds 784 (1)
without the sexual process
A Comparison of Sexual and Asexual 785 (4)
Reproduction
Sexual reproduction has some 785 (4)
disadvantages
Plant Growth and Development 789 (18)
Tropisms 790 (1)
Plant Hormones and Development 791 (5)
Plant hormones act by signal 791 (1)
transduction
Auxins promote cell elongation 792 (2)
Gibberellins promote stem elongation 794 (1)
Cytokinms promote cell division 795 (1)
Focus On: Cell and Tissue Culture 796 (4)
Ethylene promotes abscission and fruit 797 (1)
ripening
Abscisic acid promotes seed dormancy 797 (1)
Additional signaling molecules affect 798 (1)
growth and development, including plant
defenses
Progress is being made in identifying 799 (1)
the elusive flower-promoting signal
Light Signals and Plant Development 800 (7)
Phytochrome detects day length 801 (1)
Competition for sunlight among 802 (1)
shade-avoiding plants involves
phytochrome
Phytochrome is involved in other 802 (1)
responses to light, including
germination
Phytochrome acts by signal transduction 802 (1)
Light influences circadian rhythms 803 (4)
Part 7 STRUCTURE AND LIFE PROCESSES IN ANIMALS 807 (319)
Animal Structure and Function: An 807 (20)
Introduction
Tissues 808 (8)
Epithelial tissues cover the body and 808 (1)
line its cavities
Connective tissues support other body 809 (6)
structures
Muscle tissue is specialized to contract 815 (1)
Focus On: Unwelcome Tissues: Cancers 816 (1)
Nervous tissue controls muscles and 817 (1)
glands
Organs and Organ Systems 817 (5)
The body maintains homeostasis 817 (5)
Regulating Body Temperature 822 (5)
Ectotherms absorb heat from their 823 (1)
surroundings
Endotherms derive heat from metabolic 823 (1)
processes
Many animals adjust to challenging 824 (3)
temperature changes
Protection, Support, and Movement 827 (18)
Epithelial Coverings 828 (1)
Invertebrate epithelium may function in 828 (1)
secretion or gas exchange
Vertebrate skin functions in protection 828 (1)
and temperature regulation
Skeletal Systems 829 (4)
In hydrostatic skeletons, body fluids 829 (1)
transmit force
Mollusks and arthropods have nonliving 830 (1)
exoskeletons
Internal skeletons are capable of growth 830 (1)
The vertebrate skeleton has two main 831 (2)
divisions
Muscle Contraction 833 (12)
Invertebrate muscle varies among groups 834 (1)
Insect flight muscles are adapted for 834 (1)
rapid contraction
Vertebrate skeletal muscles act 834 (1)
antagonistically to one another
A vertebrate muscle may consist of 835 (2)
thousands of muscle fibers
Contraction occurs when actin and 837 (3)
myosin filaments slide past one another
ATP powers muscle contraction 840 (1)
The strength of muscle contraction 840 (1)
varies
Muscle fibers may be specialized for 841 (1)
slow or quick responses
Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle are 842 (3)
involuntary
Neural Signaling 845 (20)
Information Flow through the Nervous 846 (1)
System
Neurons and Glial Cells 847 (2)
A typical neuron consists of a cell 847 (1)
body, dendrites, and an axon
Glial cells provide metabolic and 848 (1)
structural support
Transmitting Information along the Neuron 849 (6)
The neuron membrane has a resting 849 (2)
potential
Graded local signals vary in magnitude 851 (1)
An action potential is generated by an 851 (4)
influx of Na+ and an efflux of K+
Neural Signaling across Synapses 855 (2)
Signals across synapses can be 855 (1)
electrical or chemical
Neurons use neurotransmitters to signal 855 (2)
other cells
Focus On: Alzheimer's Disease 857 (3)
Neurotransmitters bind with receptors 859 (1)
on postsynaptic cells
Activated receptors can send excitatory 859 (1)
or inhibitory signals
Neural Integration 860 (1)
Neural Circuits 861 (4)
Neural Regulation 865 (28)
Invertebrate Nervous Systems 866 (1)
Organization of the Vertebrate Nervous 867 (1)
System
Evolution of the Vertebrate Brain 868 (3)
The hindbrain develops into the 868 (1)
medulla, pons, and cerebellum
The midbrain is prominent in fishes and 869 (1)
amphibians
The forebrain gives rise to the 869 (2)
thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebrum
The Human Central Nervous System 871 (8)
The spinal cord transmits impulses to 871 (1)
and from the brain
The most prominent part of the human 872 (1)
brain is the cerebrum
Brain activity cycles in a sleep-wake 873 (3)
pattern
The limbic system affects emotional 876 (3)
aspects of behavior
Focus On: The Neurobiology of Traumatic 879 (1)
Experience
Information Processing 880 (3)
Learning involves the storage of 881 (2)
information and its retrieval
Language involves comprehension and 883 (1)
expression
The Peripheral Nervous System 883 (3)
The somatic division helps the body 884 (1)
adjust to the external environment
The autonomic division regulates the 884 (2)
internal environment
Effects of Drugs on the Nervous System 886 (1)
Focus On: Alcohol: The Most Abused Drug 887 (6)
Sensory Systems 893 (26)
How Sensory Systems Work 894 (2)
Sensory receptors receive information 894 (1)
Sensory receptors transduce energy 894 (1)
Sensory input is integrated at many 894 (2)
levels
Types of Sensory Receptors 896 (1)
Thermoreceptors 897 (1)
Electroreceptors and Electromagnetic 898 (1)
Receptors
Nociceptors 898 (1)
Mechanoreceptors 898 (8)
Touch receptors are located in the skin 899 (1)
Proprioceptors help coordinate muscle 899 (1)
movement
Many invertebrates have gravity 900 (1)
receptors called statocysts
Hair cells are characterized by 901 (1)
stereocilia
Lateral lirte organs supplement vision 901 (1)
in fishes
The vestibular apparatus maintains 901 (2)
equilibrium
Auditory receptors are located in the 903 (3)
cochlea
Chemoreceptors 906 (3)
Taste receptors detect dissolved food 906 (2)
molecules
The olfactory epithelium is responsible 908 (1)
for the sense of smell
Many animals communicate with pheromones 909 (1)
Photoreceptors 909 (10)
Invertebrate photoreceptors include 909 (1)
eyespots, simple eyes, and compound eyes
Vertebrate eyes form sharp images 910 (2)
The retina contains light-sensitive 912 (7)
rods and cones
Internal Transport 919 (25)
Types of Circulatory Systems 920 (2)
Many invertebrates have an open 920 (1)
circulatory system
Some invertebrates have a closed 921 (1)
circulatory system
Vertebrates have a closed circulatory 922 (1)
system
Vertebrate Blood 922 (3)
Plasma is the fluid component of blood 922 (1)
Red blood cells transport oxygen 923 (1)
White blood cells defend the body 924 (1)
against disease organisms
Platelets function in blood clotting 925 (1)
Vertebrate Blood Vessels 925 (2)
Evolution of the Vertebrate 927 (1)
Cardiovascular System
The Human Heart 928 (5)
Each heartbeat is initiated by a 930 (2)
pacemaker
The nervous system regulates heart rate 932 (1)
Stroke volume depends on venous return 932 (1)
Cardiac output varies with the body's 932 (1)
need
Blood Pressure 933 (1)
Focus On: Cardiovascular Disease 934 (3)
Blood pressure varies in different 934 (1)
blood vessels
Blood pressure is carefully regulated 935 (2)
The Pattern of Circulation 937 (1)
The pulmonary circulation oxygenates 937 (1)
the blood
The systemic circulation delivers blood 937 (1)
to the tissues
The Lymphatic System 938 (6)
The lymphatic system consists of 939 (1)
lymphatic vessels and lymph tissue
The lymphatic system plays an important 940 (4)
role in fluid homeostasis
The Immune System: Internal Defense 944 (26)
Nonspecific and Specific Immunity: An 945 (1)
Overview
The immune system responds to danger 945 (1)
signals
Invertebrates launch nonspecific immune 946 (1)
responses
Vertebrates launch nonspecific and 946 (1)
specific immune responses
Nonspecific Immune Responses 946 (4)
Phagocytes and natural killer cells 947 (1)
destroy pathogens
Cytokines and complement mediate immune 948 (1)
responses
Inflammation is a protective response 949 (1)
Specific Immune Responses 950 (2)
Many types of cells are involved in 950 (2)
specific immune responses
The major histocompatibility complex is 952 (1)
responsible for recognition of self
Cell-Mediated Immunity 952 (1)
Antibody-Mediated Immunity 952 (6)
A typical antibody consists of four 953 (1)
polypeptide chains
Antibodies are grouped in five classes 954 (1)
Antigen-antibody binding activates 955 (1)
other defenses
The immune system responds to millions 956 (2)
of different antigens
Monoclonal antibodies are highly 958 (1)
specific
Immunological Memory 958 (2)
A secondary immune response is more 958 (1)
effective than a primary response
Immunization induces active immunity 959 (1)
Passive immunity is borrowed immunity 960 (1)
The Immune System and Disease 960 (4)
Cancer cells evade the immune system 960 (1)
Immunodeficiency disease can be 961 (1)
inherited or acquired
HIV is the major cause of acquired 961 (3)
immunodeficiency in adults
Harmful Immune Responses 964 (6)
Graft rejection is an immune response 964 (1)
against transplanted tissue
Rh incompatibility can result in 965 (1)
hypersensitivity
Allergic reactions are directed against 965 (1)
ordinary environmental antigens
In an autoimmune disease, the body 966 (4)
attacks its own tissues
Gas Exchange 970 (19)
Adaptations for Gas Exchange in Air or 971 (1)
Water
Types of Respiratory Surfaces 971 (4)
The body surface may be adapted for gas 971 (1)
exchange
Tracheal tube systems deliver air 971 (1)
directly to the cells
Gills are the respiratory surfaces in 972 (1)
many aquatic animals
Terrestrial vertebrates exchange gases 973 (2)
through lungs
The Mammalian Respiratory System 975 (8)
The airway conducts air into the lungs 975 (1)
Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli of 976 (1)
the lungs
Ventilation is accomplished by breathing 976 (2)
The quantity of respired air can be 978 (1)
measured
Gas exchange takes place in the alveoli 978 (1)
Gas exchange takes place in the tissues 979 (1)
Respiratory pigments increase capacity 979 (1)
for oxygen transport
Carbon dioxide is transported mainly as 980 (1)
bicarbonate ions
Breathing is regulated by respiratory 981 (1)
centers in the brain
Hyperventilation reduces carbon dioxide 982 (1)
concentration
High flying or deep diving can disrupt 982 (1)
homeostasis
Some mammals are adapted for diving 982 (1)
Breathing Polluted Air 983 (1)
Focus On: The Effects of Smoking 984 (5)
Processing Food and Nutrition 989 (22)
Nutritional Styles and Adaptations 990 (2)
Animals are adapted to their mode of 990 (1)
nutrition
Some invertebrates have a digestive 991 (1)
cavity with a single opening
Most animal digestive systems have two 992 (1)
openings
The Vertebrate Digestive System 992 (8)
Food processing begins in the mouth 993 (1)
The pharynx and esophagus conduct food 994 (1)
to the stomach
Food is mechanically and enzymatically 994 (1)
digested in the stomach
Most enzymatic digestion takes place in 995 (1)
the small intestine
The liver secretes bile 996 (1)
The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes 996 (1)
Nutrients are digested as they move 997 (1)
through the digestive tract
Nerves and hormones regulate digestion 998 (1)
Absorption takes place mainly through 999 (1)
the villi of the small intestine
The large intestine eliminates waste 1000(1)
Required Nutrients 1000(5)
Carbohydrates provide energy 1001(1)
Lipids provide energy and are used to 1001(1)
make biological molecules
Proteins serve as enzymes and as 1002(1)
structural components of cells
Vitamins are organic compounds 1002(1)
essential for normal metabolism
Minerals are inorganic nutrients 1003(1)
Antioxidants protect against oxidants 1003(1)
Phytochemicals play important roles in 1003(2)
maintaining health
Energy Metabolism 1005(6)
Undernutrition can cause serious health 1006(1)
problems
Obesity is a serious nutritional problem 1006(5)
Osmoregulation and Disposal of Metabolic 1011(17)
Wastes
Maintaining Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 1012(1)
Metabolic Waste Products 1012(1)
Osmoregulation and Excretion in 1013(2)
Invertebrates
Nephridial organs are specialized for 1013(1)
osmoregulation and/or excretion
Malpighian tubules conserve water 1014(1)
Osmoregulation and Excretion in 1015(2)
Vertebrates
Freshwater vertebrates must rid 1015(1)
themselves of excess water
Marine vertebrates must replace lost 1016(1)
fluid
Terrestrial vertebrates must conserve 1016(1)
water
The Urinary System 1017(11)
The nephron is the functional unit of 1018(1)
the kidney
Urine is produced by filtration, 1019(2)
reabsorption, and secretion
Urine becomes concentrated as it passes 1021(1)
through the renal tubule
Urine consists of water, nitrogenous 1022(1)
wastes, and salts
Hormones regulate kidney function 1023(5)
Endocrine Regulation 1028(23)
An Overview of Endocrine Regulation 1029(2)
The endocrine system and nervous system 1029(1)
interact to regulate the body
Negative feedback systems regulate 1029(1)
endocrine activity
Hormones are assigned to four chemical 1030(1)
groups
Types of Endocrine Signaling 1031(1)
Neurohormones are transported in the 1031(1)
blood
Some local regulators are considered 1031(1)
hormones
Focus On: Anabolic Steroids and Other 1032(1)
Abused Hormones
Mechanisms of Hormone Action 1033(2)
Some hormones enter target cells and 1033(1)
activate genes
Many hormones bind to cell-surface 1033(2)
receptors
Invertebrate Neuroendocrine Systems 1035(1)
The Vertebrate Endocrine System 1036(15)
Homeostasis depends on normal 1036(1)
concentrations of hormones
The hypothalamus regulates the 1037(1)
pituitary gland
The posterior lobe of the pituitary 1038(1)
gland releases hormones produced by the
hypothalamus
The anterior lobe of the pituitary 1038(3)
gland regulates growth and other
endocrine glands
Thyroid hormones increase metabolic rate 1041(1)
The parathyroid glands regulate calcium 1042(1)
concentration
The islets of the pancreas regulate 1043(2)
glucose concentration
The adrenal glands help the body 1045(2)
respond to stress
Many other hormones are known 1047(4)
Reproduction 1051(29)
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction 1052(2)
Asexual reproduction is an efficient 1052(1)
strategy
Most animals reproduce sexually 1052(1)
Sexual reproduction increases genetic 1053(1)
variability
Human Reproduction: The Male 1054(4)
The testes produce gametes and hormones 1054(2)
A series of ducts store and transport 1056(1)
sperm
The accessory glands produce the fluid 1056(1)
portion of semen
The penis transfers sperm to the female 1057(1)
Testosterone has multiple effects 1057(1)
The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and 1058(1)
testes regulate male reproduction
Human Reproduction: The Female 1058(5)
The ovaries produce gametes and sex 1059(1)
hormones
The oviducts transport the secondary 1060(1)
oocyte
The uterus incubates the embryo 1061(1)
The vagina receives sperm 1061(1)
The vulva are external genital 1061(1)
structures
The breasts function in lactation 1062(1)
Focus On: Breast Cancer 1063(4)
The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and 1063(4)
ovaries regulate female reproduction
Menstrual cycles stop at menopause 1067(1)
Most mammals have estrous cycles 1067(1)
Sexual Response 1067(1)
Fertilization and Early Development 1068(1)
Focus On: Novel Origins 1069(1)
The Birth Process 1070(1)
Birth Control Methods 1071(4)
Most hormone contraceptives prevent 1073(1)
ovulation
Intrauterine devices are widely used 1073(1)
Other common contraceptive methods 1074(1)
include the diaphragm and condom
Emergency contraception is available 1074(1)
Sterilization renders an individual 1074(1)
incapable of producing offspring
Abortions can be spontaneous or induced 1075(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases 1075(5)
Animal Development 1080(21)
Development of Form 1081(1)
Fertilization 1081(2)
The first step in fertilization 1081(1)
involves contact and recognition
Sperm entry is regulated 1082(1)
Fertilization activates the egg 1083(1)
Sperm and egg pronuclei fuse, restoring 1083(1)
the diploid state
Cleavage 1083(4)
The pattern of cleavage is affected by 1083(2)
yolk
Cleavage may distribute developmental 1085(1)
determinants
Cleavage provides building blocks for 1086(1)
development
Gastrulation 1087(2)
The amount of yolk affects the pattern 1087(2)
of gastrulation
Organogenesis 1089(2)
Extraembryonic Membranes 1091(1)
Human Development 1091(10)
The placenta is an organ of exchange 1092(2)
Organ development begins during the 1094(1)
first trimester
Development continues during the second 1094(1)
and third trimesters
More than one mechanism can lead to a 1095(1)
multiple birth
Environmental factors affect the embryo 1095(1)
The neonate must adapt to its new 1095(2)
environment
Aging is not a uniform process 1097(1)
Homeostatic response to stress 1097(4)
decreases during aging
Animal Behavior 1101(25)
Behavior and Adaptation 1102(1)
Interaction of Genes and Environment 1102(2)
Behavior depends on physiological 1103(1)
readiness
Many behavior patterns depend on motor 1104(1)
programs
Learning from Experience 1104(4)
An animal habituates to irrelevant 1105(1)
stimuli
Imprinting occurs during an early 1105(1)
critical period
In classical conditioning, a reflex 1106(1)
becomes associated with a new stimulus
In operant conditioning, spontaneous 1106(1)
behavior is reinforced
Animal cognition is controversial 1107(1)
Play may be practice behavior 1108(1)
Biological Rhythms and Migration 1108(2)
Biological rhythms affect behavior 1108(1)
Migration involves interactions among 1109(1)
biological rhythms, physiology, and
environment
Foraging Behavior 1110(1)
Communication and Living in Groups 1111(4)
Communication is necessary for social 1111(2)
behavior
Animals benefit from social organization 1113(1)
Many animals defend a territory 1114(1)
Sexual Selection 1115(3)
Animals of the same sex compete for 1115(1)
mates
Animals choose quality mates 1115(1)
Sexual selection favors polygynous 1116(1)
mating systems
Some animals care for their young 1117(1)
Helping Behavior 1118(3)
Altruistic behavior can be explained by 1118(2)
inclusive fitness
Helping behavior may have alternative 1120(1)
explanations
Some animals help nonrelatives 1120(1)
Highly Organized Societies 1121(5)
Social insects form elaborate societies 1121(1)
Vertebrate societies tend to be 1122(1)
relatively flexible
Sociobiology explains human social 1123(3)
behavior in terms of adaptation
Part 8 THE INTERACTIONS OF LIFE: ECOLOGY 1126
Introduction to Ecology: Population Ecology 1126(20)
Features of Populations 1127(2)
Density and dispersion are important 1127(2)
features of populations
Changes in Population Size 1129(2)
Dispersal affects the growth rate in 1129(1)
some populations
Each population has a characteristic 1129(1)
intrinsic rate of increase
No population can increase 1130(1)
exponentially indefinitely
Factors Influencing Population Size 1131(3)
Density-dependent factors regulate 1131(2)
population size
Density-independent factors are 1133(1)
generally abiotic
Life History Traits 1134(3)
Life tables and survivorship curves 1136(1)
indicate mortality and survival
Metapopulations 1137(2)
Human Populations 1139(7)
Not all countries have the same growth 1140(1)
rate
The age structure of a country helps 1141(1)
predict future population growth
Environmental degradation is related to 1142(4)
population growth and resource
consumption
Community Ecology 1146(20)
Community Structure and Functioning 1147(8)
Community interactions are often 1147(1)
complex and not readily apparent
The niche is a species' ecological role 1148(1)
in the community
Competition is intraspecific or 1149(4)
interspecific
Natural selection shapes the body forms 1153(2)
and behaviors of both predator and prey
Focus On: Batesian Butterflies Disproved 1155(3)
Symbiosis involves a close association 1156(1)
between species
Keystone species and dominant species 1157(1)
affect the character of a community
Community Biodiversity 1158(3)
Ecologists seek to explain why some 1158(3)
communities have more species than
others
Species richness may promote community 1161(1)
stability
Community Development 1161(5)
Disturbance influences succession and 1162(1)
species richness
Ecologists continue to study community 1163(3)
structure
Ecosystems and the Biosphere 1166(23)
Energy Flow through Ecosystems 1167(5)
Ecological pyramids illustrate how 1168(1)
ecosystems work
Ecosystems vary in productivity 1169(2)
Food chains and poisons in the 1171(1)
environment
Cycles of Matter in Ecosystems 1172(6)
Carbon dioxide is the pivotal molecule 1173(1)
in the carbon cycle
Bacteria are essential to the nitrogen 1174(2)
cycle
The phosphorus cycle lacks a gaseous 1176(1)
component
Water moves among the ocean, land, and 1177(1)
atmosphere in the hydrologic cycle
Ecosystem Regulation from the Bottom Up 1178(1)
and the Top Down
Abiotic Factors in Ecosystems 1179(1)
The sun warms Earth 1179(1)
Focus On: Life without the Sun 1180(5)
The atmosphere contains several gases 1180(2)
essential to organisms
The global ocean covers most of Earth's 1182(1)
surface
Climate profoundly affects organisms 1183(1)
Fires are a common disturbance in some 1184(1)
ecosystems
Studying Ecosystem Processes 1185(4)
Ecology and the Geography of Life 1189(23)
Biomes 1190(5)
Tundra is the cold, boggy plains of the 1190(1)
far north
Boreal forest is the evergreen forest 1191(1)
of the north
Temperate rain forest has cool weather, 1192(2)
dense fog, and high precipitation
Temperate deciduous forest has a canopy 1194(1)
of broad-leaf trees
Temperate grasslands occur in areas of 1194(1)
moderate precipitation
Focus On: The Distribution of Vegetation 1195(4)
on Mountains
Chaparral is a thicket of evergreen 1196(1)
shrubs and small trees
Deserts are arid ecosystems 1196(1)
Savanna is a tropical grassland with 1197(1)
scattered trees
There are two basic types of tropical 1198(1)
forests
Aquatic Ecosystems 1199(8)
Freshwater ecosystems are closely 1200(3)
linked to land and marine ecosystems
Estuaries occur where fresh water and 1203(1)
salt water meet
Marine ecosystems dominate Earth's 1204(3)
surface
Ecotones 1207(1)
Biogeography 1208(4)
Land areas are divided into six 1208(4)
biogeographic realms
Global Environmental Issues 1212
The Biodiversity Crisis 1213(2)
Endangered species have certain 1214(1)
characteristics in common
Focus On: Declining Amphibian Populations 1215(4)
Human activities contribute to 1215(4)
declining biological diversity
Conservation Biology 1219(5)
In situ conservation is the best way to 1219(1)
preserve biological diversity
Landscape ecology considers ecosystem 1220(1)
types on a regional scale
Restoring damaged or destroyed habitats 1221(1)
is the goal of restoration ecology
Ex situ conservation attempts to save 1221(1)
species on the brink of extinction
The Endangered Species Act provides 1222(1)
some legal protection for species and
habitats
International agreements provide some 1223(1)
protection of species and habitats
Deforestation 1224(2)
Why are tropical rain forests 1224(1)
disappearing?
Why are boreal forests disappearing? 1225(1)
Global Warming 1226(3)
Greenhouse gases cause global warming 1226(1)
What are the probable effects of global 1227(2)
warming?
Declining Stratospheric Ozone 1229(2)
Certain chemicals destroy stratospheric 1229(1)
ozone
Ozone depletion harms organisms 1230(1)
International cooperation is helping 1230(1)
repair the ozone layer
Connections among Environmental Problems 1231
Appendix A Periodic Table of the Elements 1 (1)
Appendix B Classification of Organisms 2 (4)
Appendix C Understanding Biological Terms 6 (3)
Appendix D Abbreviations 9 (2)
Appendix E Answers to Test Your Understanding 11
Questions
Glossary 1 (1)
Index 1