Western Civilization : Brief Discovery Edition: to 1715 〈1〉 (3TH)

Western Civilization : Brief Discovery Edition: to 1715 〈1〉 (3TH)

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Table of Contents

        Maps                                       xiii
Chronologies xv
Documents xvii
Photo Credits xxi
Preface xxiii
Introduction to Students of Western Civilization xxix
Studying from Primary Source Materials xxxi
Chapter 1 The Ancient Near East: The First 1 (21)
Civilizations
The First Humans 2 (3)
The Hunter-Gatherers of the Old Stone 2 (1)
Age
The Neolithic Revolution (c. 3 (2)
10,000-4000 B.c.)
The Emergence of Civilization 5 (1)
Civilization in Mesopotamia 6 (6)
The City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia 6 (2)
Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia 8 (2)
The Culture of Mesopotamia 10 (2)
Egyptian Civilization: "The Gift of the 12 (10)
Nile"
The Old and Middle Kingdoms 14 (1)
Society and Economy in Ancient Egypt 15 (1)
The Culture of Egypt 15 (3)
Chaos and a New Order: The New Kingdom 18 (1)
Daily Life in Ancient Egypt: Family and 18 (2)
Marriage
Conclusion 20 (1)
Notes 20 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 21
Discovery 1 (21)
Chapter 2 The Ancient Near East: Peoples 22 (16)
and Empires
On the Fringes of Civilization 23 (1)
The Impact of the Indo-Europeans 23 (1)
The Hebrews: "The Children of Israel" 24 (5)
The United Kingdom 24 (1)
The Divided Kingdom 25 (1)
The Spiritual Dimensions of Israel 26 (2)
The Neighbors of the Israelites 28 (1)
The Assyrian Empire 29 (3)
Assyrian Society and Culture 31 (1)
The Persian Empire 32 (6)
Governing the Empire 33 (1)
Persian Religion 34 (2)
Conclusion 36 (1)
Notes 37 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 37
Discovery 2 (36)
Chapter 3 The Civilization of the Greeks 38 (20)
Early Greece 39 (2)
Minoan Crete 39 (1)
The First Greek State: The Mycenaeans 40 (1)
The Greeks in a Dark Age (c. 1100-c. 750 41 (2)
B.c.)
Homer 41 (2)
The World of the Greek City-States (c. 43 (4)
750-c. 500 B.c.)
The Polis 43 (1)
Colonization and the Rise of Tyrants 43 (1)
Sparta 44 (2)
Athens 46 (1)
The High Point of Greek Civilization: 47 (11)
Classical Greece
The Challenge of Persia 47 (1)
The Growth of an Athenian Empire in the 47 (2)
Age of Pericles
The Great Peloponnesian War and the 49 (1)
Decline of the Greek States
The Culture of Classical Greece 49 (4)
Greek Religion 53 (1)
Daily Life in Classical Athens 53 (3)
Conclusion 56 (1)
Notes 56 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 56
Discovery 3 (55)
Chapter 4 The Hellenistic World 58 (15)
The Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests 59 (3)
of Alexander
Alexander the Great 59 (3)
The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms 62 (4)
Hellenistic Cities 63 (1)
Economic and Social Trends in the 64 (2)
Hellenistic World
Culture in the Hellenistic World 66 (7)
New Directions in Literature and Art 66 (1)
A Golden Age of Science 67 (1)
Philosophy: New Schools of Thought 68 (1)
Religion in the Hellenistic World 69 (2)
Conclusion 71 (1)
Notes 71 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 71
Discovery 4 (69)
Chapter 5 The Roman Republic 73 (20)
The Emergence of Rome 74 (1)
The Greeks and Etruscans 74 (1)
Early Rome 75 (1)
The Roman Republic (c. 509-264 B.c.) 75 (4)
The Roman State 76 (1)
The Roman Conquest of Italy 77 (2)
The Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean 79 (2)
(264-133 B.c.)
The Struggle with Carthage 79 (1)
The Eastern Mediterranean 80 (1)
The Nature of Roman Imperialism 81 (1)
Society and Culture in the Roman World 81 (5)
Roman Religion 81 (1)
The Growth of Slavery 82 (1)
The Roman Family 83 (1)
The Evolution of Roman Law 84 (1)
The Development of Literature and Art 85 (1)
Values and Attitudes 86 (1)
The Decline and Fall of the Roman 86 (7)
Republic (133-31 b.c.)
A New Role for the Roman Army: Marius 87 (1)
and Sulla
The Collapse of the Republic 88 (3)
Conclusion 91 (1)
Notes 91 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 91
Discovery 5 (88)
Chapter 6 The Roman Empire 93 (20)
The Age of Augustus (31 b.c.-a.d. 14) 94 (2)
The New Order 94 (2)
Augustan Society 96 (1)
The Early Empire (14-180) 96 (4)
The Five "Good Emperors" (96-180) 97 (1)
The Roman Empire at Its Height: 97 (1)
Frontiers and Provinces
Prosperity in the Early Empire 98 (2)
Roman Culture and Society in the Early 100 (4)
Empire
The Golden Age of Latin Literature 100 (2)
The Silver Age of Latin Literature 102 (1)
Roman Law 102 (1)
The Upper-Class Roman Family 102 (1)
Imperial Rome 102 (1)
The Gladiatorial Shows 103 (1)
Crisis and the Late Empire 104 (3)
The Terrible Third Century 104 (1)
The Reforms of Diocletian and 105 (2)
Constantine
Transformation of the Roman World: The 107 (6)
Development of Christianity
The Religious World of the Roman Empire 107 (1)
The Jewish Background 107 (1)
The Rise of Christianity 107 (2)
The Growth of Christianity 109 (2)
Conclusion 111 (1)
Notes 111 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 111
Discovery 6 (107)
Chapter 7 The Passing of the Roman World 113 (21)
and the Emergence of Medieval Civilization
Transformation of the Roman World: The 114 (5)
Role of the Germanic Peoples
End of the Western Empire 114 (1)
The New Kingdoms 114 (3)
The Society of the Germanic Peoples 117 (2)
The Role and Development of the Christian 119 (6)
Church
Organization and Religious Disputes 119 (1)
The Power of the Pope 119 (1)
The Monks and Their Missions 119 (5)
Christianity and Intellectual Life 124 (1)
The Byzantine Empire 125 (3)
The Reign of Justinian (527-565) 125 (2)
From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire 127 (1)
The Rise of Islam 128 (6)
Muhammad and Islam 128 (1)
The Expansion of Islam 129 (3)
Conclusion 132 (1)
Notes 132 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 132
Discovery 7 (127)
Chapter 8 European Civilization in the 134 (19)
Early Middle Ages, 750-1000
The World of the Carolingians 135 (5)
Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire 135 (2)
(768-814)
The Carolingian Intellectual Renewal 137 (1)
Life in the Carolingian World 138 (2)
Disintegration of the Carolingian Empire 140 (2)
Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth 141 (1)
Centuries
The Emerging World of Lords and Vassals 142 (3)
The Manorial System 144 (1)
The Zenith of Byzantine Civilization 145 (2)
The Slavic Peoples of Central and Eastern 147 (1)
Europe
The World of Islam 148 (5)
Islamic Civilization 150 (1)
Conclusion 151 (1)
Notes 151 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 151
Discovery 8 (145)
Chapter 9 The Recovery and Growth of 153 (17)
European Society in the High Middle Ages
Land and People in the High Middle Ages 154 (5)
The New Agriculture 154 (2)
Daily Life of the Peasantry 156 (1)
The Aristocracy of the High Middle Ages 157 (2)
The New World of Trade and Cities 159 (3)
The Revival of Trade 159 (1)
The Growth of Cities 160 (1)
Life in the Medieval City 161 (1)
Industry in Medieval Cities 162 (1)
The Intellectual and Artistic World of 162 (8)
the High Middle Ages
The Rise of Universities 163 (1)
A Revival of Classical Antiquity 164 (1)
The Development of Scholasticism 165 (1)
Literature in the High Middle Ages 166 (1)
Romanesque Architecture: "A White 166 (1)
Mantle of Churches"
The Gothic Cathedral 167 (1)
Conclusion 168 (1)
Notes 168 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 168
Discovery 9 (161)
Chapter 10 The Rise of Kingdoms and the 170 (21)
Growth of Church Power
The Emergence and Growth of European 171 (7)
Kingdoms, 1000-1300
England in the High Middle Ages 171 (1)
The Growth of the French Kingdom 172 (1)
Christian Reconquest: The Spanish 173 (1)
Kingdoms
The Lands of the Holy Roman Empire: 174 (2)
Germany and Italy
New Kingdoms in Eastern Europe 176 (1)
The Mongol Empire 177 (1)
The Development of Russia 177 (1)
The Recovery and Reform of the Catholic 178 (1)
Church
The Problems of Decline 178 (1)
The Cluniac Reform Movement 178 (1)
Reform of the Papacy 179 (1)
Christianity and Medieval Civilization 179 (5)
Growth of the Papal Monarchy 179 (1)
New Religious Orders and Spiritual 180 (1)
Ideals
Popular Religion in the High Middle Ages 181 (1)
Voices of Protest and Intolerance 182 (2)
The Crusades 184 (7)
Background to the Crusades 184 (1)
The Early Crusades 185 (2)
The Crusades of the Thirteenth Century 187 (1)
Effects of the Crusades 187 (2)
Conclusion 189 (1)
Notes 189 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 190
Discovery 10 (181)
Chapter 11 The Late Middle Ages: Crisis and 191 (18)
Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century
A Time of Troubles: Black Death and 192 (4)
Social Crisis
The Black Death 192 (3)
Economic Dislocation and Social Upheaval 195 (1)
War and Political Instability 196 (5)
The Hundred Years' War 196 (2)
Political Instability 198 (1)
Western Europe: England and France 199 (1)
The German Monarchy 200 (1)
The States of Italy 201 (1)
The Decline of the Church 201 (3)
Boniface VIII and the Conflict with the 201 (1)
State
The Papacy at Avignon (1305-1378) 202 (1)
The Great Schism 203 (1)
Culture and Society in an Age of Adversity 204 (5)
The Development of Vernacular Literature 204 (1)
Art and the Black Death 205 (1)
Changes in Urban Life 206 (1)
Inventions and New Patterns 206 (1)
Conclusion 207 (1)
Notes 207 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 207
Discovery 11 (198)
Chapter 12 Recovery and Rebirth: The 209 (22)
Renaissance
Meaning and Characteristics of the 210 (1)
Italian Renaissance
The Making of Renaissance Society 210 (5)
Economic Recovery 211 (1)
Social Changes in the Renaissance 212 (1)
Family and Marriage in Renaissance Italy 213 (2)
The Italian States in the Renaissance 215 (2)
Machiavelli and the New Statecraft 216 (1)
The Intellectual Renaissance in Italy 217 (3)
Italian Renaissance Humanism 217 (1)
Education in the Renaissance 218 (1)
The Impact of Printing 219 (1)
The Artistic Renaissance 220 (4)
The Northern Artistic Renaissance 223 (1)
The European State in the Renaissance 224 (3)
The Renaissance State in Western Europe 224 (2)
Central Europe: The Holy Roman Empire 226 (1)
The Struggle for Strong Monarchy in 226 (1)
Eastern Europe
The Ottoman Turks and the End of the 227 (1)
Byzantine Empire
The Church in the Renaissance 227 (4)
The Problems of Heresy and Reform 227 (1)
The Renaissance Papacy 227 (2)
Conclusion 229 (1)
Notes 229 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 229
Discovery 12 (219)
Chapter 13 Reformation and Religious 231 (19)
Warfare in the Sixteenth Century
Prelude to Reformation 232 (1)
Christian or Northern Renaissance 232 (1)
Humanism
Church and Religion on the Eve of the 233 (1)
Reformation
Martin Luther and the Reformation in 233 (4)
Germany
The Early Luther 233 (2)
The Development of Lutheranism 235 (1)
Germany and the Reformation: Religion 236 (1)
and Politics
The Spread of the Protestant Reformation 237 (4)
The Zwinglian Reformation 237 (1)
The Radical Reformation: The Anabaptists 238 (2)
The Reformation in England 240 (1)
John Calvin and the Development of 240 (1)
Calvinism
The Social Impact of the Protestant 241 (1)
Reformation
The Family 241 (1)
Religious Practices and Popular Culture 242 (1)
The Catholic Reformation 242 (3)
The Society of Jesus 243 (1)
A Revived Papacy 244 (1)
The Council of Trent 244 (1)
Politics and the Wars of Religion in the 245 (5)
Sixteenth Century
The French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) 245 (1)
Philip II and the Cause of Militant 245 (1)
Catholicism
The Revolt of the Netherlands 246 (1)
The England of Elizabeth 246 (2)
Conclusion 248 (1)
Notes 248 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 249
Discovery 13 (237)
Chapter 14 Europe and the World: New 250 (21)
Encounters, 1500-1800
On the Brink of a New World 251 (1)
Motives and Means 251 (1)
New Horizons: The Portuguese and Spanish 252 (5)
Empires
The Development of a Portuguese 252 (1)
Maritime Empire
Voyages to the New World 253 (1)
The Spanish Empire in the New World 254 (3)
New Rivals on the World Stage 257 (7)
Africa: The Slave Trade 257 (1)
The West in Southeast Asia 258 (1)
The French and British in India 259 (2)
China 261 (2)
Japan 263 (1)
The Americas 263 (1)
Toward a World Economy 264 (2)
Economic Conditions in the Sixteenth 264 (1)
Century
The Growth of Commercial Capitalism 265 (1)
Mercantilism 265 (1)
Overseas Trade and Colonies: Movement 265 (1)
Toward Globalization
The Impact of European Expansion 266 (5)
The Conquered 266 (1)
The Conquerors 267 (2)
Conclusion 269 (1)
Notes 269 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 270
Discovery 14 (257)
Chapter 15 State Building and the Search 271 (21)
for Order in the Seventeenth Century
Social Crises, War, and Rebellions 272 (3)
The Witchcraft Craze 272 (2)
The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) 274 (1)
Rebellions 274 (1)
The Practice of Absolutism: Western Europe 275 (3)
France and Absolute Monarchy 275 (3)
The Decline of Spain 278 (1)
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe 278 (4)
The German States 278 (1)
The Emergence of Austria 279 (1)
Russia: From Fledgling Principality to 279 (2)
Major Power
The Ottoman Empire 281 (1)
The Limits of Absolutism 282 (1)
Limited Monarchy: The Dutch Republic and 282 (4)
England
The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic 283 (1)
England and the Emergence of 283 (3)
Constitutional Monarchy
The Flourishing of European Culture 286 (6)
The Changing Faces of Art 286 (2)
A Wondrous Age of Theater 288 (2)
Conclusion 290 (1)
Notes 290 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 290
Discovery 15 (277)
Chapter 16 Toward a New Heaven and a New 292 (15)
Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the
Emergence of Modern Science
Background to the Scientific Revolution 293 (1)
Toward a New Heaven: A Revolution in 294 (4)
Astronomy
Copernicus 295 (1)
Kepler 295 (1)
Galileo 296 (1)
Newton 297 (1)
Advances in Medicine 298 (1)
Women in the Origins of Modern Science 299 (2)
Toward a New Earth: Descartes, 301 (1)
Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind
Science and Religion in the Seventeenth 302 (1)
Century
The Spread of Scientific Knowledge 303 (4)
The Scientific Method 303 (1)
The Scientific Societies 304 (1)
Science and Society 305 (1)
Conclusion 305 (1)
Notes 306 (1)
Suggestions for Further Reading 306 (1)
Discovery 16
Glossary 307 (8)
Pronunciation Guide 315 (7)
Index 322