Social Psychology (6TH)

Social Psychology (6TH)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 687 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495093367
  • DDC分類 302

Full Description


What decides who someone will fall in love with? Where do aggressive, violent, and criminal behaviors come from? Why are some people more charitable than others? Why do some people obey authority and conform while others always have to buck the trend? Why are some people lazier when they work in groups? What is the source of people's stereotypes and prejudices? What causes conflict between groups? What makes us who we are? SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY covers topics ranging from interpersonal attraction to social structure, allowing you to explore essential questions in the field.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xii
Introduction to Social Psychology 1 (25)
Introduction 2 (1)
What Is Social Psychology? 3 (2)
A Formal Definition 3 (1)
Core Concerns of Social Psychology 3 (2)
Relation to Other Fields 5 (1)
Theoretical Perspectives in Social 5 (17)
Psychology
Role Theory 8 (3)
Reinforcement Theory 11 (3)
Cognitive Theory 14 (2)
Symbolic Interaction Theory 16 (2)
Evolutionary Theory 18 (2)
A Comparison of Perspectives 20 (2)
Is Social Psychology a Science? 22 (2)
Characteristics of Science 22 (1)
Social Psychology as a Science 23 (1)
Summary 24 (1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 25 (1)
Research Methods in Social Psychology 26 (26)
Introduction 27 (1)
Questions About Research Methods 27 (1)
Characteristics of Empirical Research 27 (2)
Objectives of Research 27 (1)
Research Hypotheses 28 (1)
Validity of Findings 29 (1)
Research Methods 29 (18)
Surveys 30 (7)
Field Studies and Naturalistic 37 (2)
Observation
Archival Research and Content Analysis 39 (2)
Experiments 41 (4)
Comparison of Research Methods 45 (1)
Meta-Analysis 46 (1)
Research in Diverse Populations 47 (1)
Ethical Issues in Social Psychological 48 (3)
Research
Potential Sources of Harm 48 (1)
Institutional Safeguards 49 (1)
Potential Benefits 50 (1)
Summary 51 (1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 51 (1)
Socialization 52 (30)
Introduction 53 (1)
Perspectives on Socialization 54 (3)
The Developmental Perspective 54 (1)
The Social Learning Perspective 55 (1)
The Interpretive Perspective 56 (1)
The Impact of Social Structure 57 (1)
Agents of Childhood Socialization 57 (8)
Family 57 (6)
Peers 63 (1)
School 64 (1)
Processes of Socialization 65 (4)
Instrumental Conditioning 65 (3)
Observational Learning 68 (1)
Internalization 69 (1)
Outcomes of Socialization 69 (9)
Gender Role 69 (2)
Linguistic and Cognitive Competence 71 (3)
Moral Development 74 (3)
Work Orientations 77 (1)
Adult Socialization 78 (2)
Role Acquisition 78 (1)
Anticipatory Socialization 79 (1)
Role Discontinuity 79 (1)
Summary 80 (1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 81 (1)
Self and Identity 82 (26)
Introduction 83 (2)
The Nature and Genesis of Self 85 (4)
The Self as Source and Object of Action 85 (1)
Self-Differentiation 85 (2)
Role Taking 87 (1)
The Social Origins of Self 87 (2)
Identities: The Self We Know 89 (4)
Role Identities 89 (1)
Social Identities 90 (1)
Research on Self-Concept Formation 91 (2)
The Situated Self 93 (1)
Identities: The Self We Enact 93 (5)
Identities and Behavior 93 (2)
Choosing an Identity to Enact 95 (2)
Identities as Sources of Consistency 97 (1)
The Self in Thought and Feeling 98 (3)
Self-Schema 99 (1)
Effects of Self-Awareness 99 (1)
Effects of Self-Discrepancies 100(1)
Self-Esteem 101(5)
Assessment of Self-Esteem 101(1)
Sources of Self-Esteem 101(2)
Self-Esteem and Behavior 103(2)
Protecting Self-Esteem 105(1)
Summary 106(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 107(1)
Social Perception and Cognition 108(33)
Introduction 109(1)
Schemas 110(4)
Types of Schemas 111(1)
Schematic Processing 112(2)
Schemas as Cultural Elements 114(1)
Person Schemas and Group Stereotypes 114(8)
Person Schemas 114(2)
Group Stereotypes 116(6)
Impression Formation 122(12)
Trait Centrality 122(1)
Integrating Information About Others 123(2)
Impressions as Self-Fulfilling 125(1)
Prophecies
Heuristics 126(1)
Anchoring and Adjustment 127(1)
Dispositional Versus Situational 127(1)
Attributions
Inferring Dispositions From Acts 128(3)
Covariation Model of Attribution 131(1)
Attributions for Success and Failure 132(2)
Bias and Error in Attribution 134(4)
Overattribution to Dispositions 134(1)
Focus of Attention Bias 135(1)
Actor-Observer Difference 136(1)
Motivational Biases 137(1)
Cultural Basis of Attributions 138(1)
Summary 139(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 140(1)
Attitudes 141(24)
Introduction 142(1)
The Nature of Attitudes 142(2)
The Components of an Attitude 142(1)
Attitude Formation 143(1)
The Functions of Attitudes 144(1)
Attitude Organization 144(2)
Attitude Structure 144(2)
Cognitive Consistency 146(8)
Balance Theory 147(2)
Theory of Cognitive Dissonance 149(2)
Is Consistency Inevitable? 151(3)
The Relationship Between Attitudes and 154(7)
Behavior
Do Attitudes Predict Behavior? 154(1)
Activation of the Attitude 154(1)
Characteristics of the Attitude 155(2)
Attitude-Behavior Correspondence 157(2)
Situational Constraints 159(2)
The Reasoned Action Model 161(3)
Formal Model 161(2)
Assessment of the Model 163(1)
Summary 164(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 164(1)
Symbolic Communication and Language 165(31)
Introduction 166(1)
Language and Verbal Communication 166(9)
Linguistic Communication 167(1)
The Encoder-Decoder Model 168(2)
The Intentionalist Model 170(2)
The Perspective-Taking Model 172(3)
Nonverbal Communication 175(5)
Types of Nonverbal Communication 175(2)
What's in a Face? 177(1)
Combining Nonverbal and Verbal 178(2)
Communication
Social Structure and Communication 180(8)
Gender and Communication 180(1)
Social Stratification and Speech Style 181(4)
Communicating Status and Intimacy 185(3)
Normative Distances for Interaction 188(2)
Normative Distances 188(2)
Conversational Analysis 190(4)
Initiating Conversations 190(2)
Regulating Turn Taking 192(1)
Feedback and Coordination 192(2)
Summary 194(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 195(1)
Social Influence and Persuasion 196(29)
Introduction 197(1)
Forms of Social Influence 197(1)
Attitude Change via Persuasion 198(12)
Processing Persuasive Messages 198(1)
Communication-Persuasion Paradigm 199(1)
The Source 200(3)
The Message 203(5)
The Target 208(2)
Compliance with Threats and Promises 210(7)
Effectiveness of Threats and Promises 211(4)
Problems in Using Threats and Promises 215(1)
Bilateral Threat and Negotiation 216(1)
Obedience to Authority 217(4)
Experimental Study of Obedience 218(2)
Factors Affecting Obedience to Authority 220(1)
Resisting Influence and Persuasion 221(1)
Inoculation 221(1)
Forewarning 222(1)
Reactance 222(1)
Summary 222(2)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 224(1)
Self-Presentation and Impression Management 225(25)
Introduction 226(1)
Self-Presentation in Everyday Life 227(3)
Definition of the Situation 227(2)
Self-Disclosure 229(1)
Tactical Impression Management 230(7)
Managing Appearances 231(1)
Ingratiation 232(3)
Aligning Actions 235(2)
Altercasting 237(1)
The Downside of Self-Presentation 237(2)
Self-Presentation May Be Hazardous to 238(1)
Your Health
Deception May Be Hazardous to Your 239(1)
Relationships
Detecting Deceptive Impression Management 239(3)
Ulterior Motives 239(1)
Nonverbal Cues of Deception 240(2)
Ineffective Self-Presentation and Spoiled 242(6)
Identities
Embarrassment and Saving Face 242(2)
Cooling-Out and Identity Degradation 244(1)
Stigma 245(3)
Summary 248(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 249(1)
Emotions 250(23)
Introduction 251(1)
Defining Emotions 251(1)
Classical Ideas About the Origins of 252(1)
Emotion
Universal Emotions and Facial Expressions 253(7)
Facial Expressions of Emotion 253(4)
Cultural Differences in Basic Emotions 257(3)
and Emotional Display
Social Emotions 260(12)
Cognitive Labeling Theory 261(3)
Five Social Emotions 264(6)
Emotion Work 270(2)
Summary 272(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 272(1)
Helping and Altruism 273(26)
Introduction 274(1)
Motivation to Help Others 275(4)
Egoism and Cost-Reward Motivation 275(1)
Altruism and Empathic Concern 276(1)
Evolution and Helping 277(2)
Characteristics of the Needy That Foster 279(3)
Helping
Acquaintanceship and Liking 279(1)
Similarity 280(1)
Deservingness 280(2)
Normative Factors in Helping 282(3)
Norms of Responsibility and Reciprocity 282(1)
Personal Norms and Helping 283(2)
Personal and Situational Factors in 285(3)
Helping
Modeling Effects 285(1)
Gender Differences in Helping 286(1)
Good and Bad Moods 286(2)
Guilt and Helping 288(1)
Bystander Intervention in Emergency 288(7)
Situations
The Decision to Intervene 289(1)
The Bystander Effect 290(2)
Costs and Emergency Intervention 292(3)
Seeking and Receiving Help 295(2)
Help and Obligation 295(1)
Threats to Self-Esteem 296(1)
Summary 297(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 298(1)
Aggression 299(26)
Introduction 300(1)
What Is Aggression? 300(1)
Aggression and the Motivation to Harm 300(4)
Aggression as Instinct 301(1)
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis 301(2)
Aversive Emotional Arousal 303(1)
Social Learning and Aggression 304(1)
Characteristics of Targets That Affect 304(5)
Aggression
Gender and Race 305(3)
Attribution for Attack 308(1)
Retaliatory Capacity 308(1)
Situational Impacts on Aggression 309(3)
Reinforcements 309(1)
Modeling 309(1)
Norms 310(1)
Stress 310(1)
Aggressive Cues 311(1)
Reducing Aggressive Behavior 312(3)
Reducing Frustration 312(1)
Punishment to Suppress Aggression 313(1)
Nonaggressive Models 313(1)
Catharsis 313(2)
Aggression in Society 315(9)
Sexual Assault 315(4)
Pornography and Violence 319(1)
Media Violence and Aggression 320(4)
Summary 324(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 324(1)
Interpersonal Attraction and Relationships 325(29)
Introduction 326(1)
Who Is Available? 327(2)
Routine Activities 327(1)
Proximity 327(1)
Familiarity 328(1)
Who Is Desirable? 329(6)
Social Norms 329(1)
Physical Attractiveness 330(3)
Exchange Processes 333(2)
The Determinants of Liking 335(3)
Similarity 336(1)
Shared Activities 337(1)
Reciprocal Liking 338(1)
The Growth of Relationships 338(5)
Self-Disclosure 339(1)
Trust 340(1)
Interdependence 341(2)
Love and Loving 343(4)
Liking Versus Loving 343(1)
Passionate Love 343(2)
The Romantic Love Ideal 345(1)
Love as a Story 345(2)
Breaking Up 347(5)
Progress? Chaos? 347(1)
Unequal Outcomes and Instability 347(2)
Differential Commitment and Dissolution 349(1)
Responses to Dissatisfaction 350(2)
Summary 352(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 353(1)
Group Cohesion and Conformity 354(24)
Introduction 355(1)
What Is a Group? 355(5)
Group Cohesion 355(3)
Group Structure and Goals 358(1)
Roles in Groups 358(2)
Status of Group Members 360(5)
Status Characteristics 360(1)
Status Generalization 361(2)
Expectation States Theory 363(1)
Overcoming Status Generalization 364(1)
Conformity to Group Norms 365(9)
Group Norms 365(3)
Conformity 368(1)
Why Conform? 369(2)
Increasing Conformity 371(3)
Minority Influence in Groups 374(2)
Effectiveness of Minority Influence 374(1)
Differences Between Minority and 375(1)
Majority Influence
Summary 376(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 377(1)
Group Structure and Performance 378(30)
Introduction 379(1)
Group Leadership 380(7)
Endorsement of Formal Leaders 381(1)
Revolutionary and Conservative 382(1)
Coalitions
Activities of Leaders 383(1)
Contingency Model of Leadership 383(4)
Effectiveness
Productivity and Performance 387(6)
The Presence of Others 387(1)
Group Size 388(4)
Group Goals 392(1)
Reward Distribution and Equity 393(5)
Principles Used in Reward Distribution 393(1)
Equity Theory 394(1)
Task Interdependence 395(2)
Responses to Inequity 397(1)
Brainstorming 398(2)
Production Blocking 399(1)
Group Decision Making 400(6)
Groupthink 400(4)
Risky Shift, Cautious Shift, and Group 404(2)
Polarization
Summary 406(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 407(1)
Intergroup Conflict 408(24)
Introduction 409(2)
Intergroup Conflict 410(1)
Development of Intergroup Conflict 411(5)
Realistic Group Conflict 411(1)
Social Identity 412(3)
Aversive Events and Escalation 415(1)
Persistence of Intergroup Conflict 416(5)
Biased Perception of the Out-Group 417(3)
Changes in Relations Between 420(1)
Conflicting Groups
Impact of Conflict on Within-Group 421(3)
Processes
Group Cohesion 421(1)
Leadership Militancy 422(1)
Norms and Conformity 422(2)
Resolution of Intergroup Conflict 424(6)
Superordinate Goals 424(1)
Intergroup Contact 425(1)
Mediation and Third-Party Intervention 426(3)
Unilateral Conciliatory Initiatives 429(1)
Summary 430(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 431(1)
Life Course and Gender Roles 432(29)
Introduction 433(1)
Components of the Life Course 434(1)
Careers 434(1)
Identities and Self-Esteem 434(1)
Stress and Satisfaction 435(1)
Influences on Life Course Progression 435(4)
Biological Aging 435(1)
Social Age Grading 436(1)
Historical Trends and Events 437(2)
Stages in the Life Course: Age and Gender 439(16)
Roles
Stage I: Achieving Independence 440(2)
Stage II: Balancing Family and Work 442(7)
Commitments
Stage III: Performing Adult Roles 449(2)
Stage IV: Coping with Loss 451(4)
Historical Variations 455(4)
Women's Work: Gender Role Attitudes and 455(2)
Behavior
Impact of Events 457(2)
Summary 459(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 460(1)
Social Structure and Personality 461(32)
Introduction 462(1)
Status Attainment 463(8)
Occupational Status 463(2)
Intergenerational Mobility 465(6)
Social Networks 471(1)
Individual Values 471(3)
Occupational Role 473(1)
Education 474(1)
Social Influences on Health 474(14)
Physical Health 475(4)
Mental Health 479(9)
Alienation 488(3)
Self-Estrangement 488(2)
Powerlessness 490(1)
Summary 491(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 492(1)
Deviant Behavior and Social Reaction 493(31)
Introduction 494(1)
The Violation of Norms 494(9)
Norms 494(1)
Anomie Theory 495(3)
Control Theory 498(3)
Differential Association Theory 501(2)
Routine Activities Perspective 503(1)
Reactions to Norm Violations 503(7)
Reactions to Rule Breaking 506(1)
Determinants of the Reaction 506(3)
Consequences of Labeling 509(1)
Labeling and Secondary Deviance 510(4)
Societal Reaction 510(3)
Secondary Deviance 513(1)
Formal Social Controls 514(8)
Formal Labeling and the Creation of 515(6)
Deviance
Long-Term Effects of Formal Labeling 521(1)
Summary 522(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 523(1)
Collective Behavior and Social Movements 524(29)
Introduction 525(1)
Collective Behavior 525(15)
Crowds 526(4)
Gatherings 530(2)
Underlying Causes of Collective Behavior 532(3)
Precipitating Incidents 535(1)
Empirical Studies of Riots 536(4)
Social Movements 540(12)
The Development of a Movement 541(4)
Social Movement Organizations 545(6)
The Consequences of Social Movements 551(1)
Summary 552(1)
List of Key Terms and Concepts 552(1)
Glossary 553(14)
References 567(84)
Credits 651(2)
Name Index 653(22)
Subject Index 675