Psychology Applied to Work : An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology (8TH)

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Psychology Applied to Work : An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology (8TH)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 554 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495093237
  • DDC分類 158

Table of Contents

Chapter  1 The Historical Background of I/O        1   (21)
Psychology
Industrial/Organizational Psychology 2 (3)
Fields of I/0 Psychology 4 (1)
Licensing of Psychologists 5 (1)
The History of I/O Psychology 6 (13)
The Early Years (1900-1916) 6 (3)
World War I (1917-1918) 9 (2)
Between the Wars (1919-1940) 11 (2)
World War II (1941-1945) 13 (1)
Toward Specialization (1946-1963) 14 (1)
Government Intervention (1964 993) 14 (2)
The Information Age (1994鳳resent) 16 (1)
Overview 17 (6)
The Changing Nature of Work: I/O 18 (1)
Psychology and 9/11/01
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology 19 (1)
The Mandate of I/O Psychology 20 (1)
Chapter Summary 21 (1)
Web Resources 21 (1)
Chapter 2 Research Methods in I/0 Psychology 22 (34)
The Empirical Research Process 23 (24)
Statement of the Problem 23 (2)
Design of the Research Study 25 (1)
Primary Research Methods 26 (4)
Cross-Cultural 1/0 Psychology: 29 (1)
Cross-Cultural Research
Secondary Research Methods 30 (2)
Qualitative Research 32 (2)
Measurement of Variables 34 (1)
Analysis of Data 35 (10)
Conclusions from Research 45 (16)
Field Note 1: Researcher As Detective 47 (1)
Ethical Issues in Research 47 (2)
Research in Industry 49 (6)
The Changing Nature of Work: Genetic 50 (1)
Research
Field Note 2: An Ethical Dilemma 51 (2)
Field Note 3: Win the Battle but Lose the 53 (1)
War
Case Study How Should I Study This? 54 (1)
Chapter Summary 55 (1)
Web Resources 55 (1)
Chapter 3 Criteria: Standards for Decision 56 (34)
Making
Conceptual Versus Actual Criteria 58 (1)
Criterion Deficiency, Relevance, and 59 (2)
Contamination
Job Analysis 61 (14)
Sources of Job Information 61 (1)
Job Analysis Procedures 62 (3)
How to Collect Job Analysis Information 65 (6)
Field Note 1: A Memorable Lesson 67 (1)
Field Note 2: Unintentional Obstruction 68 (3)
of Work
Managerial Job Analysis 71 (1)
Uses of Job Analysis Information 72 (1)
Evaluating Job Analysis Methods 73 (1)
Competency Modeling 73 (2)
Job Evaluation 75 (2)
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology: Wage Rates 75 (1)
Around the World
Methods of Job Evaluation 76 (1)
Job Performance Criteria 77 (9)
Eight Major Job Performance Criteria 78 (6)
Field Note 3: Theft of Waste 82 (1)
The Changing Nature of Work: The New 83 (1)
Recipe for Success
Relationships Among Job Performance Criteria 84 (1)
Dynamic Performance Criteria 85 (1)
Expanding Our View of Criteria 86 (2)
Case Study Theft of Company Property 87 (1)
Chapter Summary 88 (1)
Web Resources 89 (1)
Chapter 4 Predictors: Psychological Assessments 90 (48)
Assessing the Quality of Predictors 91 (7)
Reliability 91 (2)
Validity 93 (5)
Predictor Development 98 (1)
Psychological Tests and inventories 99 (2)
History of Psychological Testing 99 (1)
Types of Tests 100 (1)
Ethical Standards in Testing 101 (1)
Sources of Information About Testing 101 (2)
Test Content 103 (10)
Intelligence Tests 103 (1)
Mechanical Aptitude Tests 104 (1)
Field Note 1: What Is Intelligence? 105 (1)
Sensory/Motor Ability Tests 105 (2)
Personality Inventories 107 (2)
Integrity Tests 109 (1)
Physical Abilities Testing 110 (1)
Multiple-Aptitude Test Batteries 111 (1)
Computerized Adaptive Testing 111 (2)
Current Issues in Testing 113 (1)
The Value of Testing 114 (1)
Interviews 115 (3)
Degree of Structure 115 (1)
Situational Interviews 116 (5)
The Changing Nature of Work: 118 (1)
Video-Interpretive Assessment
Assessment Centers 118 (3)
Work Samples and Situational Exercises 121 (1)
Work Samples 121 (1)
Situational Exercises 121 (1)
Biographical Information 122 (2)
Letters of Recommendation 124 (2)
Field Note 2: Inappropriate Question? 125 (1)
Field Note 3: Intentional Deception in 126 (1)
Letters of Recommendation
Drug Testing 126 (2)
New or Controversial Methods of Assessment 128 (3)
Polygraph or Lie Detection 128 (1)
Graphology 129 (1)
Tests of Emotional Intelligence 129 (2)
Overview and Evaluation of Predictors 131 (5)
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology: 133 (1)
Cross-Cultural Preferences in Assessing
Job Applicants
Case Study How Do We Hire Police Officers? 134 (2)
Chapter Summary 136 (1)
Web Resources 137 (1)
Chapter 5 Personnel Decisions 138 (43)
The Social Context for Personnel Decisions 139 (2)
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology: 141 (1)
Cross-Cultural Preferences in Ideal Job
Candidates
The Legal Context for Personnel Decisions 141 (8)
Civil Rights Act of 1964 141 (1)
Americans With Disabilities Act 142 (1)
Adverse Impact 143 (2)
Major Court Cases 145 (1)
Societal Values and Employment Law 146 (1)
Affirmative Action 147 (2)
Recruitment 149 (3)
Field Note 1: The Left-Handed Dentist 152 (1)
A Model of Personnel Decisions 152 (2)
Regression Analysis 154 (4)
Multiple Predictors 155 (2)
Multiple Regression Analysis 157 (1)
Validity Generalization 158 (2)
A Model of Performance 160 (1)
Personnel Selection 161 (13)
Selection Decisions 165 (3)
Field Note 2: Raising the Bar 167 (1)
Determination of the Cutoff Score 168 (4)
Field Note 3: Dirty Politics 171 (1)
Overview of Personnel Selection 172 (4)
The Changing Nature of Work: Affirmative 174 (1)
Action and the Conduct of Work
Test Utility and Organizational Efficiency 174 (2)
Placement and Classification 176 (3)
Case Study Just Give Me a Chance 177 (2)
Chapter Summary 179 (1)
Web Resources 180 (1)
Chapter 6 Organizational Learning 181 (32)
Learning and Task Performance 182 (3)
The Pretraining Environment 185 (1)
The Changing Nature of Work: The 185 (1)
Pretraining Environment and Workplace
Safety
Assessing Training Needs 186 (4)
Organizational Analysis 187 (1)
Task Analysis 188 (1)
Person Analysis 189 (1)
Methods and Techniques of Training 190 (5)
Computer-Based Training 191 (1)
Field Note 1: Distance Learning 192 (2)
Non佑omputer-Based Training 194 (1)
Management Development Issues 195 (10)
Cultural Diversity Training 197 (3)
Sexual Harassment Training 200 (2)
Mentoring 202 (2)
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology: The 203 (1)
Acceptability of Mentoring Across Cultures
Executive Coaching 204 (1)
The Posttraining Environment 205 (2)
Field Note 2: The Willingness to Be 206 (1)
Trained
Evaluation Criteria of Training Programs 207 (5)
Case Study Yet Again 211 (1)
Chapter Summary 212 (1)
Web Resources 212 (1)
Chapter 7 Performance Management 213 (35)
Using the Results of Performance Appraisals 215 (3)
Performance Appraisal and the Law 218 (1)
Theory of Person Perception 219 (1)
Sources of Performance Appraisal Information 220 (13)
Objective Production Data 221 (1)
Field Note 1: What Is "High" Performance? 222 (1)
Personnel Data 222 (1)
Judgmental Data 223 (14)
Field Note 2: Good Research Isn't Cheap 232 (1)
Rater Training 233 (1)
Rater Motivation 234 (2)
Field Note 3: Are High Ratings a 235 (1)
"Problem"?
Contextual Performance 236 (1)
Self- and Peer Assessments 237 (2)
Self-Assessments 237 (1)
Peer Assessments 238 (1)
360-Degree Feedback 239 (4)
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology: Cultural 241 (2)
Differences in the Acceptability of
Multisource Feedback
The Changing Nature of Work: The Use of 243 (1)
Multisource Feedback in Evaluating
Students
Feedback of Appraisal Information to Employees 243 (2)
Concluding Comments 245 (1)
Case Study What Do You Do with Poor 245 (1)
Performers?
Chapter Summary 246 (1)
Web Resources 247 (1)
Chapter 8 Organizations and Organizational 248 (36)
Change
Three Theories of Organizations 250 (5)
Classical Theory 250 (2)
Neoclassical Theory 252 (1)
Systems Theory 253 (2)
Organizational Structure 255 (4)
Coordinating Mechanisms 255 (2)
The Five Basic Parts of an Organization 257 (2)
Components of Social Systems 259 (7)
Roles 260 (1)
The Changing Nature of Work: Jobs Versus 260 (1)
Roles
Norms 261 (2)
Organizational Culture 263 (3)
Field Note 1: A Clear Message 265 (1)
Summary of Social System Components 266 (1)
Global Organizations 266 (4)
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology: Four 269 (1)
Dimensions on Which Cultures Can Differ
Organizational Change 270 (7)
Organization Development 270 (1)
Reorganizing and Downsizing 271 (3)
Field Note 2: Over-Downsizing 271 (3)
Empowerment 274 (1)
Six Sigma 275 (18)
Field Note 3: Students as Customers? 276 (1)
Overcoming Organizational Resistance to Change 277 (2)
An Example of the Need for Organizational 279 (3)
Change
Case Study The Relative Value of Frogs 281 (1)
Versus Grass
Chapter Summary 282 (1)
Web Resources 283 (1)
Chapter 9 Teams and Teamwork 284 (27)
Origins of Work Teams 285 (2)
Level of Analysis 287 (1)
Types of Teams 288 (2)
The Changing Nature of Work: Multiteam 290 (1)
Systems
Principles of Teamwork 290 (1)
Team Structure 291 (2)
Team Processes 293 (8)
Socialization 294 (1)
Interpersonal Processes in Teams 295 (3)
Field Note 1: Orchestrated Conflict 296 (2)
Shared Mental Models 298 (2)
Decision Making in Teams 300 (1)
Virtual Teams 301 (3)
Field Note 2: "What's a Good Time to Get 302 (1)
Together?"
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology: Human 303 (1)
Interaction in Virtual Teams
Personnel Selection for Teams 304 (2)
Training for Teams 306 (1)
Performance Appraisal ire Teams 307 (1)
Field Note 3: Teams in Education 308 (1)
Concluding Comments 308 (2)
Case Study The Grenoble Marketing Company 309 (1)
Chapter Summary 310 (1)
Web Resources 311 (1)
Chapter 10 Organizational Attitudes and Behavior 311 (33)
Job Satisfaction 313 (5)
Changing Nature of Work: Emotions in the 317 (1)
Workplace
Job Involvement 318 (3)
Organizational Commitment t319
Organizational Justice 321 (5)
Distributive Justice 322 (1)
Procedural Justice 323 (2)
Field Note 1: What Is "Fair"? 324 (1)
Interactional Justice 325 (1)
Organizational Citizenship Behavior 326 (2)
The Psychological Contract 328 (5)
Violations of the Psychological Contract 330 (3)
Field Note 2: Mutual Expectations 332 (1)
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology: 333 (1)
Cross-Cultural Influences on
Organizational Attitudes and Behavior
Individual Responses to Downsizing 333 (3)
Terminated Personnel 334 (1)
Surviving Personnel 334 (3)
Field Note 3: The Loss of Resources 335 (1)
The Psychology of Mergers and Acquisitions 336 (1)
Antisocial Behavior in the Workplace 337 (5)
Violence in the Workplace 338 (13)
Case Study Where Should the Axe Fall? 341 (1)
Chapter Summary 342 (1)
Web Resources 343 (1)
Chapter 11 Occupational Health 344 (36)
The Origins of Occupational Health 345 (3)
Field Note 1: The Meaning of Work 347 (1)
Environmental Influences on Mental Health 348 (1)
The Concept of Mental Health 349 (2)
Work Stress 351 (7)
A Model of Stress 352 (6)
Field Note 2: Just Waiting Can Be 355 (3)
Stressful
Prevention and Intervention 358 (1)
Work/Family Conflict 358 (5)
The Changing Nature of Work: Occupational 361 (2)
Health and National Policy
Dual-Career Families 363 (2)
Work Schedules 365 (4)
Shift Work 365 (2)
Flexible Working Hours 367 (1)
Compressed Workweek 368 (1)
Alcoholism and Drug Abuse in the Workplace 369 (2)
The Psychological Effects of Unemployment 371 (3)
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology: 372 (2)
Unemployment in China
Child Labor and Exploitation 374 (3)
Field Note 3: Child Labor by U.S. 375 (2)
Companies
Concluding Comments 377 (1)
Case Study Two Siblings, Two Lifestyles 377 (1)
Chapter Summary 378 (1)
Web Resources 379 (1)
Chapter 12 Work Motivation 380 (39)
Five Critical Concepts in Motivation 381 (2)
The Changing Nature of Work: The Work 382 (1)
Motivation of Older Employees
Work Motivation Theories 383 (27)
Need Hierarchy Theory 384 (3)
Equity Theory 387 (5)
Field Note 1: Equity Theory Applied to 391 (1)
Baseball
Expectancy Theory 392 (4)
Reinforcement Theory 396 (3)
Goal-Setting Theory 399 (4)
Field Note 2: What Gets Rewarded? 400 (3)
Self-Regulation Theory 403 (3)
Field Note 3: Conscious or Nonconscious 406 (1)
Self-Regulation?
Work Design Theory 406 (4)
Overview and Synthesis of Work Motivation 410 (5)
Theories
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology: 414 (1)
Cross-Cultural Differences in Incentives
The Application of Motivational Strategies 415 (3)
Case Study What to Do with Harry? 416 (2)
Chapter Summary 418 (1)
Web Resources 418 (1)
Chapter 13 Leadership 419 (29)
Major Topics in Leadership Research 421 (3)
Positional Power 421 (1)
The Leader 421 (1)
The Led 422 (1)
The Influence Process 422 (1)
The Situation 423 (1)
Leader Emergence Versus Leader Effectiveness 423 (1)
Overview 423 (1)
Theoretical Approaches to Leadership 424 (15)
The Trait Approach 424 (2)
The Behavioral Approach 426 (1)
The Power and Influence Approach 427 (5)
The Situational Approach 432 (2)
Field Note 1: Participation As Shared 433 (1)
Power
Transformational and Charismatic Leadership 434 (3)
Field Note 2: Use of Props by Leaders 436 (1)
The Implicit Leadership Theory 437 (1)
Substitutes for Leadership 438 (1)
Points of Convergence Among Approaches 439 (2)
Field Note 3: One CEO's Office 441 (1)
Cross-Cultural Leadership Issues 441 (2)
The Changing Nature of Work: e-Leadership 442 (1)
Diversity Issues in Leadership 443 (2)
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology: 444 (1)
Self-Protective Leadership Style
Concluding Comments 445 (2)
Case Study Which Direction Should We 445 (2)
Follow?
Chapter Summary 447 (1)
Web Resources 447 (1)
Chapter 14 Union/Management Relations 448 (32)
What Is a Union? 450 (2)
Field Note 1: Why Study Unions? 451 (1)
Field Note 2: Is History Repeating Itself? 452 (1)
Unions As Organizations 452 (1)
The Formation of a Union 453 (2)
The Labor Contract 455 (10)
Collective Bargaining and Impasse Resolution 457 (2)
Responses to Impasse 459 (4)
Field Note 3: Overuse of Arbitration? 460 (3)
Grievances 463 (2)
Influence of Unions on Nonunionized Companies 465 (1)
Behavioral Research on Union/Management 465 (7)
Relations
Employee Support for Unions 465 (2)
Union Influence 467 (1)
Dispute Settlement 468 (1)
Commitment to the Union 469 (3)
Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology: 470 (2)
Cross-National Labor Unions?
I/O Psychology and Industrial Relations 472 (5)
The Changing Nature of Work: Union 473 (4)
Influence on Personnel Selection
Concluding Comments 477 (2)
Case Study Should We Let in a Labor Union? 477 (2)
Chapter Summary 479 (1)
Web Resources 479 (1)
Glossary 480 (11)
References 491 (38)
Name Index 529 (12)
Subject Index 541