Writing for Psychology (2ND)

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Writing for Psychology (2ND)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 226 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495092063
  • DDC分類 808.06615

Table of Contents

To the Student                                     ix
To the Professor xiii
Acknowledgments xiii
CHAPTER 1 What Every Student Should Know About 1 (24)
Writing Psychology Papers
1.1 Understanding Your Assignment 1 (2)
1.2 Understanding Academic Values 3 (4)
1.2.1 Be Informed 3 (1)
1.2.2 Make a Claim 3 (1)
1.2.3 Defend Your Claim 4 (1)
1.2.4 Be Honest 4 (2)
1.2.5 Use Your Own Words 6 (1)
1.3 Understanding APA Style 7 (4)
1.3.1 Ideals 7 (1)
1.3.2 Appropriately Personal Prose 8 (1)
1.3.3 Simple Language 9 (1)
1.3.4 Respectful Language 10 (1)
1.4 Writing and Revising 11 (10)
1.4.1 Plan to Finish Early 11 (2)
1.4.2 Think, Search, Read, and Get 13 (1)
Organized
1.4.3 Write Your First Draft 13 (1)
1.4.4 Revise Your First Draft: Reorganize, 14 (2)
Rethink, Reread, and Rewrite
1.4.5 Help the Reader Navigate Through 16 (1)
Your Paper
1.4.6 Address Readers' Objections 17 (1)
1.4.7 Polish Your Writing 17 (1)
1.4.8 Check Language, Grammar, Spelling, 18 (2)
Usage, and Punctuation
1.4.9 Final Formatting 20 (1)
1.4.10 Five Final Checks 20 (1)
1.5 Submitting the Finished Product 21 (1)
1.6 Avoiding Common Problems: A Checklist 21 (2)
1.7 Summary 23 (2)
CHAPTER 2 Writing Term Papers 25 (28)
2.1 Thesis Statement 26 (1)
2.2 Basic Sections, Headings 27 (1)
2.3 Title Page 28 (1)
2.4 Abstract 29 (1)
2.5 Introduction 29 (2)
2.5.1 Introduce Generally and Gently 30 (1)
2.5.2 Introduce Key Issues 30 (1)
2.5.3 Introduce Key Definitions 30 (1)
2.5.4 Introduce and Present Your Thesis 30 (1)
Statement
2.5.5 Invite Inquiry 31 (1)
2.6 Body 31 (1)
2.6.1 Integrate Material 31 (1)
2.6.2 Be Both Concise and Precise 32 (1)
2.7 Conclusion 32 (1)
2.7.1 Conclude 32 (1)
2.7.2 Follow the Body's Logic to Your 32 (1)
Conclusion
2.8 References 33 (1)
2.9 Author Note 33 (1)
2.10 Tense 34 (1)
2.11 Sample Term Paper 34 (16)
2.12 Checklist for Evaluating Your Term Paper 50 (1)
2.13 Summary 51 (2)
CHAPTER 3 Writing Research Reports and Proposals 53 (48)
3.1 Basic Sections, Headings 53 (4)
3.2 Title Page 57 (1)
3.3 Abstract 58 (1)
3.4 Introduction 59 (3)
3.4.1 Introduce the Broader Issue 60 (1)
3.4.2 Introduce the Hypothesis 61 (1)
3.5 Method 62 (3)
3.5.1 Participants or Subjects 62 (2)
3.5.2 Apparatus 64 (1)
3.5.3 Materials 64 (1)
3.5.4 Design and Other Optional Subsections 64 (1)
3.5.5 Procedure 65 (1)
3.6 Results 65 (12)
3.6.1 Statistical Significance 67 (1)
3.6.2 Formatting Statistical Information 67 (1)
3.6.3 Deciding Whether You Need Either a 68 (1)
Figure or a Table
3.6.4 When to Use Tables 68 (1)
3.6.5 Creating Tables 69 (2)
3.6.6 When to Use Figures 71 (1)
3.6.7 Creating Figures 71 (6)
3.6.8 Units 77 (1)
3.7 Discussion 77 (4)
3.7.1 Briefly Restate the Results 79 (1)
3.7.2 State Qualifications and Reservations 79 (1)
3.7.3 State the Theoretical Importance 80 (1)
3.7.4 Conclude 80 (1)
3.8 References 81 (1)
3.9 Appendixes 82 (1)
3.10 Author Note 82 (1)
3.11 Tense 83 (1)
3.12 Sample Research Report 83 (13)
3.13 Report and Proposal Content Checklist 96 (3)
3.14 Summary 99 (2)
CHAPTER 4 Finding, Reading, Citing, and 101 (44)
Referencing Sources
4.1 Finding Information 102 (7)
4.1.1 Starting Your Search 102 (2)
4.1.2 Using One Reference to Find More 104 (1)
References
4.1.3 Reading the Right Stuff 105 (4)
4.2 Reading 109 (3)
4.2.1 Read Purposefully 109 (1)
4.2.2 Take Notes 109 (1)
4.2.3 Reread 110 (2)
4.2.4 Revise Your Notes 112 (1)
4.3 Citing 112 (5)
4.3.1 Choosing a Citation Type 113 (3)
4.3.2 Citing From Secondary Sources 116 (1)
4.3.3 Citing Personal Communications 117 (1)
4.3.4 Citing Information Obtained From the 117 (1)
Internet
4.4 Formatting Individual Citations 117 (3)
4.4.1 Work by One Author 118 (1)
4.4.2 Work by Two Authors 119 (1)
4.4.3 Work by Three, Four, or Five Authors 119 (1)
4.4.4 Work by Six or More Authors 120 (1)
4.4.5 Work by Author Sharing Same Last Name 120 (1)
as Another Cited Author
4.4.6 Work With No Author 120 (1)
4.5 Formatting Multiple Citations 120 (1)
4.5.1 More Than Two Works by Different 120 (1)
Authors
4.5.2 More Than Two Works by the Same Author 121 (1)
4.6 Paraphrasing 121 (1)
4.7 Quoting 122 (2)
4.7.1 Embedded Quotations 122 (2)
4.7.2 Block Quotations 124 (1)
4.8 Deciding What to Reference 124 (1)
4.8.1 Referencing Nonstandard Sources 124 (1)
4.8.2 Referencing Secondary Sources 125 (1)
4.9 Formatting References 125 (13)
4.9.1 Starting the Reference Page 125 (1)
4.9.2 Form of Each Reference 126 (1)
4.9.3 Order 127 (1)
4.9.4 Author Names 128 (1)
4.9.5 Date of Publication 129 (1)
4.9.6 Title 129 (1)
4.9.7 Abbreviations 130 (1)
4.9.8 Book Reference 130 (2)
4.9.9 Book-Chapter Reference 132 (1)
4.9.10 Journal-Article Reference 132 (2)
4.9.11 Journal-Article-Abstract Reference 134 (1)
4.9.12 Referencing Internet Sources 135 (3)
4.10 Checklists 138 (3)
4.10.1 Academic Honesty Checklist 138 (1)
4.10.2 Formatting Citations Checklist 139 (1)
4.10.3 Finding and Using Sources Checklist 140 (1)
4.10.4 Reference Page Checklist 140 (1)
4.11 Summary 141 (4)
CHAPTER 5 Making Your Case: A Guide to 145 (18)
Skeptical Reading and Logical Writing
5.1 Theses 146 (1)
5.2 Deductive Arguments 147 (3)
5.3 Inductive Arguments 150 (1)
5.4 Hypotheses 151 (1)
5.5 Problems in Making Arguments 152 (1)
5.6 Stating an Unarguable Thesis 152 (1)
5.7 Substituting Appeals for Reasoning: 153 (1)
Nonobjective Thinking
5.7.1 Appeal to Emotion 153 (1)
5.7.2 Appeal to Faith 153 (1)
5.7.3 Appeal to Authority 154 (1)
5.8 Unfair Arguments 154 (1)
5.8.1 Ad Hominem Arguments 154 (1)
5.8.2 Ignoring Contradictory Evidence 154 (1)
5.8.3 Straw Man Arguments 155 (1)
5.9 General Errors in Reasoning From Evidence 155 (6)
5.9.1 Inferring Causation From Correlation 156 (2)
5.9.2 Making Something Out of Nothing: 158 (1)
Misinterpreting Null Results
5.9.3 Adding Meaning to Significance: 158 (1)
Misinterpreting Significant Results
5.9.4 Trusting Labels Too Much: Not 159 (1)
Questioning Construct Validity
5.9.5 Not Questioning Generalizations 160 (1)
5.10 Critical Thinking Checklist 161 (1)
5.11 Summary 162 (1)
CHAPTER 6 Writing the Wrongs: How to Avoid 163 (32)
Gruesome Grammar, Putrid Punctuation, and Saggy
Style
6.1 Elements of Grammar 164 (11)
6.1.1 Nouns 164 (1)
6.1.2 Personal and Impersonal Pronouns 165 (3)
6.1.3 Verbs 168 (1)
6.1.4 Articles 169 (1)
6.1.5 Adjectives 169 (1)
6.1.6 Adverbs 170 (1)
6.1.7 Prepositions 171 (1)
6.1.8 Conjunctions 171 (1)
6.1.9 Relative Pronouns 172 (1)
6.1.10 Phrases 173 (1)
6.1.11 Clauses 173 (1)
6.1.12 Sentences 174 (1)
6.1.13 Paragraphs 175 (1)
6.2 Punctuation 175 (4)
6.2.1 End Marks (Periods, Question Marks, 175 (1)
Exclamation Points)
6.2.2 Commas 175 (1)
6.2.3 Semicolons 176 (1)
6.2.4 Colons 176 (1)
6.2.5 Apostrophes 177 (1)
6.2.6 Parentheses 177 (1)
6.2.7 Dashes 177 (1)
6.2.8 Hyphens 178 (1)
6.2.9 Quotation Marks 178 (1)
6.3 Usage 179 (6)
6.3.1 Know What You Mean 179 (4)
6.3.2 Complete Comparisons 183 (1)
6.3.3 Distinguish Comparatives From 183 (1)
Superlatives
6.3.4 Divide Run-On Sentences 183 (1)
6.3.5 Specify Nonspecific Referents 184 (1)
6.3.6 Attribute Humanity Only to Humans 184 (1)
6.4 Writing With Style 185 (5)
6.4.1 Accentuate the Positive 185 (1)
6.4.2 Point the Way Within and Between 185 (1)
Paragraphs
6.4.3 Use Parallel Construction 186 (1)
6.4.4 Use a Consistent, Formal Tone 187 (1)
6.4.5 Use Small Words and Short Sentences 187 (1)
6.4.6 Be Precise 188 (1)
6.4.7 Be Concise 188 (2)
6.4.8 Be Cautious 190 (1)
6.5 Your Own Style 190 (1)
6.6 Checklists 190 (3)
6.6.1 Parts of Speech 190 (1)
6.6.2 Punctuation 191 (1)
6.6.3 Style 192 (1)
6.7 Summary 193 (2)
CHAPTER 7 Preparing the Final Draft 195 (12)
7.1 Presentation 195 (1)
7.1.1 Paper, Margins, Spacing 195 (1)
7.1.2 Word Processing Versus Typing 195 (1)
7.2 APA Formats 196 (7)
7.2.1 Running Head Versus Short Title 196 (1)
7.2.2 Paragraphs 197 (1)
7.2.3 Headings 197 (2)
7.2.4 Italics or Underlining 199 (1)
7.2.5 Abbreviations 200 (2)
7.2.6 Numbers 202 (1)
7.2.7 Tables and Figures 203 (1)
7.3 Conclusions 203 (1)
7.4 Format Checklists 203 (2)
7.4.1 General Appearance Checklist 203 (1)
7.4.2 Headings and Headers Checklist 204 (1)
7.4.3 Numbers, Tables, and Figures Checklist 204 (1)
7.4.4 Citations and References Checklist 204 (1)
7.4.5 Abbreviations Checklist 204 (1)
7.4.6 Title Page Checklist 205 (1)
7.5 Summary 205 (2)
References 207 (2)
Appendix A APA Copy Style Versus APA Final-Form 209 (2)
Style
Appendix B Problem Plurals 211 (2)
Index 213