The Psychology of Women with Infotrac (6TH)

The Psychology of Women with Infotrac (6TH)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 638 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780495091547
  • DDC分類 616

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xviii
Introduction 1 (34)
Central Concepts in the Psychology of 3 (7)
Women
Sex and Gender 3 (1)
The Scope of Social Biases 4 (1)
Feminist Approaches 5 (2)
Psychological Approaches to Gender 7 (3)
Similarity and Difference
A Brief History of the Psychology of Women 10 (3)
Early Studies of Gender Comparisons 10 (1)
The Emergence of the Psychology of 10 (2)
Women as a Discipline
The Current Status of the Psychology of 12 (1)
Women
Women and Ethnicity 13 (6)
The White-as-Normative Concept 13 (1)
Women of Color 14 (4)
U.S.-Centered Nationalism 18 (1)
Problems and Biases in Current Research 19 (9)
Formulating the Hypothesis 20 (1)
Designing the Study 21 (2)
Conducting the Study 23 (1)
Interpreting the Data 24 (1)
Communicating the Findings 25 (1)
Critical Thinking and the Psychology of 26 (2)
Women
About This Textbook 28 (7)
Themes of the Book 28 (2)
How to Use This Book Effectively 30 (5)
Gender Stereotypes and Other Gender Biases 35 (40)
Biased Representations of Women and Men 37 (12)
Gender Biases Throughout History 38 (1)
Gender Biases in Religion and Mythology 39 (1)
Gender Biases in Language 40 (4)
Gender Biases in the Media 44 (5)
People's Beliefs About Women and Men 49 (15)
The Content of Stereotypes 50 (3)
Implicit Gender Stereotypes 53 (1)
The Complexity of Contemporary Sexism 54 (5)
Gender Discrimination in Interpersonal 59 (2)
Interactions
Heterosexism 61 (3)
The Personal Consequences of Gender 64 (11)
Stereotypes
Gender Stereotypes and Cognitive Errors 64 (4)
Gender Stereotypes and Behavior 68 (1)
Internalizing Gender Stereotypes 69 (6)
Infancy and Childhood 75 (36)
Background on Gender Development 77 (11)
Prenatal Sex Development 77 (3)
People's Responses to Infant Girls and 80 (4)
Boys
Theories of Gender Development 84 (4)
Factors That Shape Gender Typing 88 (16)
Parents 88 (5)
Peers 93 (3)
School 96 (3)
The Media 99 (5)
Children's Knowledge About Gender 104 (7)
Children's Stereotypes About Activities 105 (2)
and Occupations
Children's Stereotypes About Personality 107 (1)
Factors Related to Children's Gender 107 (4)
Stereotypes
Adolescence 111 (33)
Puberty and Menstruation 113 (10)
Puberty 113 (1)
Biological Aspects of the Menstrual 114 (2)
Cycle
Menstrual Pain 116 (1)
The Controversial Premenstrual Syndrome 117 (3)
Menstrual Joy 120 (1)
Cultural Attitudes Toward Menstruation 121 (2)
Self-Concept and Identity During 123 (5)
Adolescence
Body Image and Physical Attractiveness 123 (1)
Feminist Identity 124 (2)
Ethnic Identity 126 (1)
Self-Esteem 127 (1)
Education and Career Planning 128 (7)
Young Women's Experiences in Middle 129 (1)
School and High School
Early Experiences in Math and Science 129 (1)
Higher Education 130 (2)
Career Aspirations 132 (1)
Career Aspirations Versus Reality 133 (2)
Interpersonal Relationships During 135 (9)
Adolescence
Family Relationships 135 (1)
Friendships 136 (1)
Romantic Relationships 137 (7)
Gender Comparisons in Cognitive Abilities 144 (31)
and Attitudes About Success
Background on Gender Comparisons 146 (4)
Cautions About Research on Gender 146 (3)
Comparisons
The Meta-Analysis Approach to 149 (1)
Summarizing Multiple Studies
Cognitive Abilities 150 (15)
Cognitive Abilities That Show No 150 (1)
Consistent Gender Differences
Memory Ability 151 (1)
Verbal Ability 152 (3)
Mathematics Ability 155 (2)
Spatial Ability 157 (3)
Explaining the Gender Comparisons 160 (5)
Achievement Motivation and Attitudes 165 (10)
About Success
Biases in the Research on Achievement 166 (1)
Motivation
Achievement Motivation 166 (1)
Fear of Success 167 (1)
Confidence in Your Own Achievement and 167 (3)
Ability
Attributions for Your Own Success 170 (5)
Gender Comparisons in Social and 175 (34)
Personality Characteristics
Communication Patterns 178 (11)
Verbal Communication 179 (3)
Nonverbal Communication 182 (4)
Potential Explanations of Gender 186 (3)
Differences in Communication
Characteristics Related to Helping and 189 (9)
Caring
Altruism 190 (1)
Nurturance 191 (1)
Empathy 192 (1)
Moral Judgments About Social 193 (2)
Relationships
Friendship 195 (3)
Characteristics Related to Aggression and 198 (11)
Power
Gender and Aggression: The Social 198 (1)
Constructionist Perspective
Physical Aggression Versus Relational 199 (2)
Aggression
Gender and Aggression: Other Important 201 (1)
Factors
Leadership 202 (2)
Persuasion 204 (5)
Women and Work 209 (39)
Background Factors Related to Women's 211 (7)
Employment
General Information About Employed Women 212 (1)
Women and Welfare 213 (1)
Discrimination in Hiring Patterns 214 (4)
Discrimination in the Workplace 218 (9)
Salary Discrimination 218 (4)
Discrimination in Promotions 222 (1)
Other Kinds of Treatment Discrimination 223 (1)
Discrimination Against Lesbians in the 224 (1)
Workplace
What to Do About Treatment 225 (2)
Discrimination
Women's Experiences in Selected 227 (10)
Occupations
Employment in Traditionally Female 227 (4)
Occupations
Employment in Traditionally Male 231 (2)
Professions
Employment in Traditionally Male 233 (1)
Blue-Collar Jobs
Why Are Women Scarce in Certain 234 (1)
Occupations?
Homemakers 235 (2)
Coordinating Employment With Personal Life 237 (11)
Marriage 238 (2)
Children 240 (2)
Personal Adjustment 242 (6)
Love Relationships 248 (41)
Dating and Living Together 250 (10)
The Ideal Romantic Partner 250 (3)
Explanations for Gender Differences in 253 (2)
Preference Patterns
Characteristics of Heterosexual Love 255 (2)
Relationships
Living Together 257 (1)
Breaking Up 257 (3)
Marriage and Divorce 260 (9)
Marital Satisfaction 261 (2)
Distribution of Power in Marriages 263 (1)
Marriage and Women of Color 264 (2)
Divorce 266 (3)
Lesbians and Bisexual Women 269 (13)
The Psychological Adjustment of Lesbians 270 (1)
Characteristics of Lesbian Relationships 271 (2)
Lesbian Women of Color 273 (2)
The Fluidity of Female Sexual 275 (1)
Orientation
Legal Status of Lesbian Relationships 276 (1)
Bisexual Women 277 (1)
Theoretical Explanations About Sexual 278 (4)
Orientation
Single Women 282 (7)
Characteristics of Single Women 283 (1)
Attitudes Toward Single Women 284 (1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Being 284 (1)
Single
Single Women of Color 285 (4)
Sexuality 289 (33)
Background on Women's Sexuality 291 (5)
Theoretical Perspectives 291 (1)
Female Sexual Anatomy 292 (1)
Sexual Responses 293 (1)
Sexual Desire 294 (2)
Sexual Attitudes and Behavior 296 (10)
Attitudes About Female and Male 297 (1)
Sexuality
Sexual Scripts 298 (1)
Sex Education 299 (2)
Sexual Behavior in Heterosexual 301 (1)
Adolescents
Sexual Behavior in Heterosexual Adults 302 (1)
Communication About Sexuality 302 (2)
Lesbians and Sexuality 304 (1)
Older Women and Sexuality 304 (2)
Sexual Disorders 306 (4)
Low Sexual Desire 307 (1)
Female Orgasmic Disorder 307 (1)
How Gender Roles Contribute to Sexual 308 (1)
Disorders
Therapy for Sexual Disorders 309 (1)
Birth Control and Abortion 310 (12)
Birth Control Methods 312 (1)
Who Uses Birth Control? 313 (1)
Obstacles to Using Birth Control 313 (2)
Contraception and Family Planning in 315 (1)
Developing Countries
Abortion 316 (6)
Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Motherhood 322 (32)
Pregnancy 324 (6)
The Biology of Pregnancy 324 (1)
Physical Reactions During Pregnancy 325 (1)
Emotional Reactions During Pregnancy 325 (3)
Attitudes Toward Pregnant Women 328 (1)
Employment During Pregnancy 329 (1)
Childbirth 330 (5)
The Biology of Childbirth 330 (2)
Emotional Reactions to Childbirth 332 (1)
Alternative Models of Childbirth 333 (2)
Motherhood 335 (19)
Stereotypes About Motherhood 335 (1)
The Reality of Motherhood 336 (3)
Motherhood and Women of Color 339 (2)
Lesbian Mothers 341 (1)
Breast Feeding 342 (1)
Postpartum Disturbances 343 (2)
Returning to Employment After Childbirth 345 (1)
Deciding Whether to Have Children 346 (3)
Infertility 349 (5)
Women and Physical Health 354 (35)
The Health Care and Health Status of Women 357 (13)
Biases Against Women 357 (2)
Gender Comparisons in Life Expectancy 359 (1)
Gender Comparisons in Overall Health 360 (1)
How Social Class Influences U.S. 361 (1)
Women's Health
Health Issues for Women in Developing 361 (2)
Countries
Cardiovascular Disease, Breast Cancer, 363 (7)
and Other Specific Health Problems
Women With Disabilities 370 (3)
Background Information on Disability 370 (1)
Studies
Education and Work Patterns of Women 371 (1)
With Disabilities
Personal Relationships of Women With 372 (1)
Disabilities
AIDS and Other Sexually Transmitted 373 (8)
Diseases
Background Information on AIDS 373 (1)
The Transmission of AIDS 374 (1)
Medical Aspects of HIV and AIDS 375 (1)
Psychological Aspects of HIV and AIDS 376 (2)
Preventing AIDS 378 (1)
Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases 379 (2)
Women and Substance Abuse 381 (8)
Smoking 381 (2)
Alcohol Abuse 383 (2)
Other Substance-Abuse Problems 385 (4)
Women and Psychological Disorders 389 (32)
Depression 391 (7)
Characteristics of Depression 392 (1)
Explanations for the Gender Difference 392 (6)
in Depression
Eating Disorders and Related Problems 398 (8)
Anorexia Nervosa 399 (1)
Bulimia Nervosa 400 (1)
Binge-Eating Disorder 400 (1)
The Culture of Thinness 401 (3)
Being Overweight and Dieting 404 (2)
Treating Psychological Disorders in Women 406 (15)
Psychotherapy and Sexism 407 (1)
Psychotherapy With Lesbian and Bisexual 408 (1)
Women
Psychotherapy and Social Class 409 (1)
Psychotherapy With Women of Color 409 (4)
Traditional Therapies and Women 413 (3)
Feminist Therapy 416 (5)
Violence Against Women 421 (38)
Sexual Harassment 423 (7)
Why Is Sexual Harassment an Important 425 (1)
Issue?
How Often Does Sexual Harassment Occur? 425 (1)
Women's Reactions to Being Sexually 426 (1)
Harassed
The Public's Attitudes About Sexual 426 (1)
Harassment
What to Do About Sexual Harassment 427 (3)
Sexual Assault and Rape 430 (16)
How Often Does Rape Occur? 430 (1)
Acquaintance Rape 431 (1)
The Role of Alcohol and Drugs 432 (1)
Women's Reactions to Rape 433 (2)
Fear of Rape 435 (1)
The Public's Attitudes About Rape 436 (1)
Myths About Rape 437 (2)
Child Sexual Abuse 439 (2)
The Prevention of Sexual Assault and 441 (5)
Rape
The Abuse of Women 446 (13)
How Often Does the Abuse of Women Occur? 446 (2)
The Dynamics of Abuse 448 (1)
Women's Reactions to Abuse 448 (1)
Characteristics Related to Abusive 449 (1)
Relationships
The Public's Attitudes About the Abuse 450 (1)
of Women
Myths About the Abuse of Women 451 (1)
How Abused Women Take Action 452 (2)
Society's Response to the Problem of 454 (5)
Abuse
Women and Older Adulthood 459 (29)
Attitudes Toward Older Women 461 (6)
Older Women and the Media 462 (1)
The Double Standard of Aging 463 (3)
Cross-Cultural Views of Older Women 466 (1)
Older Women, Retirement, and Financial 467 (3)
Problems
Planning for Retirement 467 (1)
Adjusting to Retirement 467 (1)
Financial Problems 468 (2)
Menopause 470 (5)
Physical Changes During Menopause 470 (1)
Current Status of Hormone Replacement 471 (1)
Therapy
Attitudes Toward Menopause 472 (1)
Psychological Reactions to Menopause 473 (2)
Social Relationships in Older Women's 475 (13)
Lives
Family Relationships 475 (3)
Widowhood and the Death of Life Partners 478 (1)
Older Women of Color 479 (2)
Satisfaction With Life 481 (1)
Rewriting Our Life Stories 482 (1)
Final Words 482 (6)
Moving Onward 488 (19)
The Future of the Discipline of the 490 (2)
Psychology of Women
The Increasing Number of Women in 490 (1)
Psychology
Developing a More Inclusive Psychology 491 (1)
of Women
Women of Color and the Feminist Movement 492 (3)
Black Feminists 492 (1)
Latinalo Feminists 492 (1)
Asian American Feminists 493 (2)
The Men's Movement 495 (3)
Profeminist Approaches 495 (1)
Mythopoetic Approaches 496 (1)
Religious Approaches 497 (1)
Current Trends in Feminism 498 (9)
Women's Studies Courses 498 (1)
The Women's Movement in North America 499 (2)
The Women's Movement Worldwide 501 (2)
Helping to Change the Future: Becoming 503 (4)
an Activist
References 507 (89)
Name Index 596 (21)
Subject Index 617