Three main components of precipitation studies: meteorology, climatology and hydrology, are integrated in this book which provides a broad treatment starting from basic theory. The book deals with precipitation specifically, rather than treating it as part of meteorology, climatology or hydrology. Divided into two main sections, the book first concentrates on the atmospheric processes involved in the production of clouds and on yield precipitation of one form or another. The emphasis in the second part is on our attempts to monitor precipitation at or near the earth's surface and analyse its distribution in time and space. The book will be of use to geographers, hydrologists and environmental scientists who specialize in precipitation studies and to those who require a greater depth of knowledge of the subject.
Part 1 Water in the atmosphere: the global picture; atmospheric water as a part of the hydrological cycle; evaporation, transpiration and evapotranspiration; determination of evaporation and transpiration rates. Part 2 The formation of clouds: setting the stage; uplift in the atmosphere; cloud types and morphology. Part 3 Precipitation formation: not all clouds precipitate; precipitation form; precipitation characteristics; precipitation type. Part 4 Local and small-scale precipitation: shower and storm generation and movement; multicell and supercell storms; squall-line storms; mesoscale convective complexes; locally-forced precipitation. Part 5 Synoptic-scale precipitation - temperate systems: small-scale synoptic features; the temperate latitude frontal depression. Part 6 Synoptic-scale precipitation - tropical systems: atmospheric circulation in the tropics; disturbance in the tropics; monsoon circulations; longer term larger scale precipitation variations in the tropics. Part 7 Precipitation measurement and observation: measurement by gauges; - by ground-based radar; - by satellite. Part 8 Precipitation analysis - in time: precipitation climatologies; trends and oscillations; system signatures; probability studies; probable maximum precipitation (PMP). Part 9 Precipitation analysis - in space: mapping precipitation; areal mean precipitation; the spatial organization of precipitation.