The transition zone is the toughest area in which to maintain quality turf. It is a zone where temperature and precipitation vary greatly from season to season and where more intensive maintenance of seasonal grasses is required.This is the only book to cover the maintenance of intensive turfgrasses found in such zones. Easy to read and practical this book offers the superintendent or turf manager accessible information in a complex and difficult area. This is the only book to cover the maintenance of intensive turfgrasses found in the transition zones It addresses the basic science of growth cycles, nutrients and fertilisers, in an accessible way, so that that turf managers can easily locate and understand the information they need It covers all aspects of cultural practices including mowing and irrigation Features information on diseases and insects specific to the transition zone
Preface. 1. Introduction. Need for Turfgrass Management. Turfgrass Plant Anatomy and Physiology. Selected References. 2. Grass Species. Naming Conventions. Kentucky Bluegrass. Perennial Ryegrass. Tall Fescue. Fine-Leaved Fescues. Bentgrasses. Annual Bluegrass. Rough Bluegrass. Zoysiagrass. Bermudagrass. Buffalograss. Selected References. 3. Growth Cycle Considerations. Cool-Season Grasses. Warm-Season Grasses. Selected References. 4. Nutrient Requirements. Nutrient Absorption. Macroelements. Microelements. Selected References. 5. Fertilizers. Fast-Release Nitrogen Fertilizers. Slow-Release Nitrogen Fertilizers. Synthetic Organic Nitrogen Compounds. Fertilizer Ratio. Salt Index and Osmotic Potential. 6. Fertilization. Ferti lizing Cool-Season Grasses. Fertilizing Warm-Season Grasses. Nitrogen Application. Other Nutrients. Liquid Fertilizers. Calibration. Selected References. 7. Mowing Considerations. Mowing Guidelines. Mower Selection and Operation. Growth-Regulating Chemicals. Clipping Heights and Interspecies Dynamics. Selected References. 8. Soil Management. Chemical Properties of Soils. Soil Organisms. Organic Matter. Soil Acidity. Physical Properties of Soils. Addressing Soil Compaction. Selected References. 9. Moisture Management. The Need for Moisture. How Turfgrasses Absorb Water. Soil Water-Holding Capacity. Movement of Moisture to Roots. Mechanical Irrigation Systems. Determining the Need for Irrigation. Hand Watering. Irrigation Guidelines. Irrigation Technique: Some Final Considerations. Outlook for Moisture Management. Selected References. 10. Thatch Management. Thatch Development. Why Thatch Is Bad. Preventing Excessive Thatch. Selected References. 11. Weed Management. Weed Classifications. Weeds of the Transition Zone. Weed Control. Herbicides. User and Environmental Safety Precautions. Guidelines for Use of Herbicides. Calibration. Alternatives to Chemical Weed Control. Selected References. 12. Disease Management. Disease Classifications. Abiotic Influences. Common Turfgrass Diseases. Disease Control. Fungicides. Selected References. 13. Insect Management. Insect Growth and Morphology. Common Turfgrass Insects. Insect Control. Insecticides. Nuisance Predators. Selected References. 14. Establishing Turf. Dealing with Existing Vegetation. Soil Grading and Drainage. Spreading Topsoil. Amending the Soil. Adding Nutrients. Fumigating. Final Grading and Smoothing. Applying a Starter Fertilizer. Seeding. Alternatives to Seeding. Selected References. Index.