When Computers Went to Sea : The Digitization of the United States Navy

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When Computers Went to Sea : The Digitization of the United States Navy

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 467 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780471472209
  • DDC分類 004

Full Description


When Computers Went to Sea explores the history of the United States Navy's secret development of code-breaking computers and their adaptation to solve a critical fleet radar data handling problem in the Navy's first seaborne digital computer system - that went to sea in 1962. This is the only book written on the United States Navy's initial application of shipboard digital computers to naval warfare. Considered one of the most successful projects ever undertaken by the US Navy, the Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS) was the subject of numerous studies attempting to pinpoint the reason for the systems inordinate success in the face of seemingly impossible technical challenges and stiff resistance from some in the military. The system's success precipitated a digital revolution in naval warfare systems. Dave Boslaugh details the innovations developed by the NTDS project managers including: project management techniques, modular digital hardware for ship systems, top-down modular computer programming techniques, innovative computer program documentation, and other novel real-time computer system concepts.Automated military systems users and developers, real-time process control systems designers, automated system project managers, and digital technology history students will find this account of a United States military organization's initial foray into computerization interesting and thought provoking.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xxiii
Introduction 1 (4)
Radar---New Eyes for the Fleet 5 (48)
Beginnings of Radar 5 (21)
May Day---24 October 1944 5 (6)
Creation of Radar in the U.S. Navy 11 (1)
Start of the Naval Research Laboratory 11 (2)
Radio Location Project
Tracking Projectiles in Flight---The 13 (1)
Battleship New York Tests
The Plan Position Indicator 14 (1)
The Baby Gets a Name 15 (1)
Mass Production 16 (1)
London---An Easy Target 16 (1)
Chain Home 16 (3)
Learning to Use Radar at Sea 19 (2)
The Most Valuable Cargo 21 (5)
Radar at War in the Pacific 26 (27)
McNally's Day of Infamy 26 (6)
Aboard Lexington 32 (1)
Aboard the Flying Boats 33 (1)
The Fighter Director Officers 34 (3)
CXAM in Action 37 (2)
Rest in Peace CXAM 39 (2)
The CXAM Lives On 41 (1)
Turning Point for McNally 42 (2)
Evolution of the Combat Information 44 (5)
Center
The Kamikazes 49 (1)
Divine Wind 49 (2)
Floating Chrysanthemum 51 (2)
A Lingering Problem 53 (18)
Legacy of the Kamikazes 53 (1)
Legacy of Radar 54 (1)
Problems 55 (2)
Quest for Solutions 57 (14)
The Three Ts 57 (3)
The Guided Missile Frigates 60 (1)
Too Much Data and Not Enough Information 61 (1)
Three Digital Attempts 62 (1)
The Canadian Navy's Digital Automated 62 (1)
Tracking and Resolving System
Early Digital Experiments at the Navy 62 (3)
Electronics Laboratory
The Semi-Automatic Air Intercept 65 (1)
Control System
Trouble with Analogs 66 (1)
The Royal Navy Comprehensive Display 66 (1)
System
NRL's Electronic Data System 67 (1)
The Intercept Tracking and Control 68 (1)
Console
Project Cosmos 68 (1)
Project Cornfield 69 (2)
The Codebreaking Computers---A Digital 71 (46)
Solution
The Navy Codebreakers 71 (6)
A Place Named Seesaw 71 (2)
From Steam to Electrons 73 (1)
A Machine Named Ice Cream 73 (3)
The Naval Computing Machine Laboratory 76 (1)
A Computer Named von Neumann 77 (4)
ENIAC 77 (2)
EDVAC 79 (2)
The Navy Computers 81 (18)
From Gliders to Codebreaking Machines 81 (9)
The Moore School Lectures 90 (2)
Whirlwind 92 (1)
Atlas is Built 92 (6)
A Hint of Scandal 98 (1)
Univac Persists 99 (1)
Whirlwind and Sage 100 (7)
Whirlwind Saved by the Soviets 100 (2)
Chain Home a Thousand Times Over 102 (1)
Magnetic Donuts for Whirlwind 103 (2)
Sage Goes into Production 105 (1)
Sage in Operation 106 (1)
From Tubes to Transistors 107 (10)
Magnetic Donuts for Atlas II 107 (1)
The Undercapitalization Syndrome at ERA 108 (1)
We Can Do it With Transistors 109 (1)
Bogart 109 (1)
Enter the Transistor 110 (2)
Solo, The All-Transistorized Computer 112 (1)
Magstec and Transtec 113 (1)
Athena 113 (4)
Conception of a New System 117 (14)
Project Lamplight---Conception of a New 117 (4)
System
Continental Air Defense Coordination? 117 (1)
McNally's Mission 118 (1)
One of Us is Wrong, Mac 118 (3)
A Good Man to Have on Your Side 121 (1)
From Concept to Technology---The NTDS 121 (10)
Technical and Operational Requirements
Document
I Have Just the Man You Need 121 (2)
Building Blocks for Growth 123 (1)
A Digital Frankenstein Monster? 124 (1)
General-Purpose or Special-Purpose 124 (1)
Computers?
Built to Go in Harm's Way 125 (1)
Marrying the Digital to the Analog 126 (1)
Drums or Magnetic Cores? 127 (1)
Automatic Communications 128 (1)
OPNAV Buys It 128 (3)
Building a New System 131 (80)
Who Should Build the System? 131 (3)
Project Organization 134 (21)
The NTDS Project Office 134 (2)
Support from the Buships Technical 136 (1)
Organization
The Special Applications Branch 137 (2)
The Radar Branch 139 (1)
Staffing the Project Office 140 (6)
An Evolving Modus Operandi 146 (2)
The Chief of Naval Operations Project 148 (7)
Office
Navy Electronics Laboratory Role 155 (1)
A Computer With a Dipstick 156 (12)
Selection of Univac 156 (3)
Conception of the Unit Computer 159 (2)
The AN/USQ-17 Prototype Computer 161 (3)
Turmoil in a Young Industry 164 (1)
Building the Unit Computers 165 (3)
Fuzzy Scopes and Elliptical Circles 168 (9)
Selection of Hughes Aircraft 168 (2)
Like No Cathode Ray Tubes Ever Seen 170 (1)
Before
More Than Just Displays 171 (2)
Building Blocks 173 (1)
Trials and Tribulations of Transistors 173 (4)
Computers on the Airwaves 177 (5)
A Link---The Primary Long Range 177 (1)
Tactical Data Link
Selection of Collins Radio 177 (1)
From Digits to Music 178 (3)
B Link---For Those Without 181 (1)
The Interceptor Control Link 181 (1)
C Link---The UHF Short Range Tactical 182 (1)
Data Link
Digits in an Analog World 182 (1)
Developing the Operational Computer 183 (14)
Program
A New Thing Under the Sun 183 (1)
Who Should Build the Seagoing 184 (1)
Operational Computer Programs?
Real-Programmers Write in Machine 185 (2)
Language
Real-Programmers Do Not Need to 187 (1)
Document Their Programs
Building the Prototype Computer Program 188 (1)
Programming a Real-Time Computer 188 (1)
First Steps 189 (1)
Force Tracking and Data Linking 190 (3)
TEWA 193 (2)
Interceptor Control 195 (2)
The Stores 197 (1)
A System that Never Sailed 197 (10)
The Fleet Comes In 207 (4)
No Damned Computer Is Going To Tell Me What 211 (56)
To Do
Getting the Ships 211 (5)
The Guided Missile Frigates 211 (1)
Not on Our Ship!---How Oriskany Was Won 212 (1)
Ready or Not, I Want it on the 213 (1)
Nuclear-Powered Ships
The Billboard Radars 213 (2)
Long Beach and Enterprise 215 (1)
Building for Service Test 216 (18)
The Q-17 Does Not Make It 216 (5)
The Purple Plague 221 (7)
The NTDS Interface Specification 228 (1)
Good Bye to the Cigarette Lighter 229 (3)
Service Test Communications Subsystems 232 (2)
Service Test Computer Programs 234 (1)
New Faces in the Project Office 234 (4)
Service Test Installation 238 (3)
No Damned Computer 241 (4)
Service Test 245 (14)
Getting Ready for Service Test 245 (4)
The Navy Meets the Software Monster 249 (1)
Where Did All Those Tracks Come From? 250 (2)
If You Don't Have a Sense of Humor, 252 (1)
Don't Use Computers
Hell, It Don't Hardly Ever Fail Sir! 253 (2)
Saved by Equipment Reliability 255 (3)
Service Approval 258 (1)
So What Did They Get for the Money? 259 (8)
Money Spent 260 (3)
What Was the End Product? 263 (4)
In the Air, on Land, and Sea 267 (30)
On the Land as on the Sea---The Marine 267 (5)
Tactical Data System
The Amphibious Force Flagships 272 (2)
Hawkeye and the Airborne Tactical Data 274 (9)
System
Advent of USN Airborne Early Warning 274 (2)
Radar
Hawkeye 276 (1)
The E-2A `Hawkeye' Airborne Early 276 (5)
Warning Aircraft
The E-2B Hawkeye 281 (1)
The E-2C Hawkeye 282 (1)
Digitizing the Antisubmarine Airplanes 283 (1)
Other Navies and NTDS 284 (13)
The Royal Navy and ADA 284 (7)
New Names for NTDS 291 (6)
New Horizons for Tactical Computers 297 (50)
First Production 297 (5)
First-Production Ships 297 (1)
First-Production NTDS Equipment 298 (4)
The Watch Changes 302 (3)
Maybe these Digital Computers are Good 305 (10)
for Something After All
No Kid Named Joe Randolph 315 (15)
Troubles with the Three Ts 315 (2)
Seconds are Precious---Weapons 317 (1)
Direction System Mark 11 and the
AN/SPS-48 Radar
The Birth of Weapons Direction System 317 (2)
Mark 11
Genesis of the AN/SPS-48 Radar 319 (3)
No Kid Named Joe Randolph is Going to 322 (2)
Tell Me How to Run my Business
Mare Island, the Testing Ground 324 (1)
Shoehorning a New System into Wainwright 325 (2)
Life in Main Navy 327 (3)
The Anti--Submarine Warfare Ship Command 330 (9)
and Control System
The Requirement 330 (3)
A Concept for Automating 333 (1)
Anti--Submarine Warfare
New Link 11 Equipment 334 (1)
A New Display Subsystem 335 (2)
Analog Leaves Center Stage 337 (1)
ASWSC&CS Aftermath 338 (1)
Time to Go Competitive? 339 (1)
The System Evolves 340 (7)
Automatic Detection and Tracking 340 (2)
A Large Screen Display? 342 (5)
Twilight of the Analogs 347 (54)
In Combat 347 (9)
Early NTDS and ATDS Deployment in 347 (2)
Vietnam
On PIRAZ 349 (1)
The Beacon Video Processor 350 (2)
The Marine Tactical Data System in 352 (2)
Vietnam
Interceptor Control and Missile 354 (1)
Operations
NTDS Vietnam Summary 355 (1)
Give Us More Memory! 356 (1)
The Fleet Goes Digital 357 (10)
The First Wave 357 (1)
The Second Wave 358 (1)
New Computers for New Purposes 358 (2)
Finally, 32 Bits---The AN/UYK-7 Computer 360 (1)
Moving on to Digital Weapons Control 361 (1)
Working Out the Fundamentals 361 (1)
Digital Talos 362 (2)
Digital Tartar 364 (1)
Digital Terrier 365 (1)
Closing the Loop 365 (1)
The Guns Go Digital 366 (1)
A Line of Standards 367 (11)
Last Decade of the Analogs 367 (1)
Too Many Computers! 368 (2)
A Standard Minicomputer 370 (2)
The Navy Embedded Computer Program 372 (5)
The Politics of Computers 377 (1)
Shield of the Fleet 378 (10)
The Advanced Surface Missile System 378 (6)
From ASMS to Aegis 384 (2)
More Boundary Line Adjustments 386 (2)
Problems of Success 388 (1)
A New Name 389 (4)
Do Old Computers Ever Die? 393 (1)
Summary 394 (7)
Legacy of NTDS 394 (1)
Recognition 395 (2)
How Could They Possibly Have Succeeded? 397 (4)
A Joint Electronics Equipment Designation System 401 (4)
B Table of Acronyms and Abbreviations 405 (10)
C Unlvac NTDS Organization, December 1, 1959 415 (6)
Bibliography 421 (20)
Index 441