A classic textbook desrcibes the physical and organic chemistry of the reactions that produce polymers. New and expanded sections on: metallovene polymerization catalysts; dendritic and other polymer architectures and assemblies; and more.
The new edition of a classic text and reference The large chains of molecules known as polymers are currently used in everything from "wash and wear" clothing to rubber tires to protective enamels and paints. Yet the practical applications of polymers are only increasing; innovations in polymer chemistry constantly bring both improved and entirely new uses for polymers onto the technological playing field. Principles of Polymerization, Fourth Edition presents the classic text on polymer synthesis, fully updated to reflect today's state of the art. New and expanded coverage in the Fourth Edition includes: Metallocene and post-metallocene polymerization catalysts Living polymerizations (radical, cationic, anionic) Dendrimer, hyperbranched, brush, and other polymer architectures and assemblies Graft and block copolymers High-temperature polymers Inorganic and organometallic polymers Conducting polymers Ring-opening polymer ization In vivo and in vitro polymerization Appropriate for both novice and advanced students as well as professionals, this comprehensive yet accessible resource enables the reader to achieve an advanced, up-to-date understanding of polymer synthesis.Different methods of polymerization, reaction parameters for synthesis, molecular weight, branching and crosslinking, and the chemical and physical structure of polymers all receive ample coverage. A thorough discussion at the elementary level prefaces each topic, with a more advanced treatment following. Yet the language throughout remains straightforward and geared towards the student. Extensively updated, Principles of Polymerization, Fourth Edition provides an excellent textbook for today's students of polymer chemistry, chemical engineering, and materials science, as well as a current reference for the researcher or other practitioner working in these areas.
Preface. 1. Introduction. 1.1 Types of Polymers and Polymerizations. 1.2 Nomenclature of Polymers. 1.3 Linear, Branched, and Crosslinked Polymers. 1.4 Molecular Weight. 1.5 Physical State. 1.6 Applications of Polymers. 2. Step Polymerization. 2.1 Reactivity of Functional Groups. 2.2 Kinetics of Step Polymerization. 2.3 Accessibility of Functional Groups. 2.4 Equilibrium Considerations. 2.5 Cyclization versus Linear Polymerization. 2.6 Molecular Weight Control in Linear Polymerization. 2.7 Molecular Weight Distribution in Linear Polymerization. 2.8 Process Condition. 2.9 Multichain Polymerization. 2.10 Crosslinking. 2.11 Molecular Weight Distributions in Nonlinear Polymerizations. 2.12 Crosslinking Technology. 2.13 Step Copolymerization. 2.14 High-Performance Polymers. 2.15 Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers. 2.16 Dendric (Highly Branched) Polymers. 3. Radical Chain Polymerization. 3.1 Nature and Radical Chain Polymerization. 3.2 Structural Arrangement of Monomer Units. 3.3 Rate of Radical Chain Polymerization. 3.4 Initiation. 3.5 Molecular Weight. 3.6 Chain Transfer. 3.7 Inhibition and Retardation. 3.8 Determination of Absolute Rate Constants. 3.9 Energetic Characteristics. 3.10 Autoacceleration. 3.11 Molecular Weight Distribution. 3.12 Effect of Pressure. 3.13 Process Conditions. 3.14 Specific Commercial Polymers. 3.15 Living Radical Polymerization. 3.16 Other Polymerizations. 4. Emulsion Polymerization. 4.1 Description of Process. 4.2 Quantitative Aspects. 4.3 Other Characteristics of Emulsion Polymerization. 5. Ionic Chain Polymerization. 5.1 Comparison of Radical and Ionic Polymerization. 5.2 Cationic Polymerization of the Carbon-Carbon Double Bond. 5.3 Anionic Polymerization of the Carbon-Carbon Double. 5.4 Block and Other Polymer Architecture. 5.5 Distinguishing Between Radical, Cationic, and Anionic Polymerizations. 5.6 Carbonyl Polymerization. 5.7 Miscellaneous Polymerizations. 6. Chain Copolymerization. 6.1 General Considerations. 6.2 Copolymer Composition. 6.3 Radical Copolymerization. 6.4 Ionic Copolymerization. 6.5 Deviations from Terminal Copolymerization Model. 6.6 Copolymerizations Involving Dienes. 6.7 Other Copolymerizations. 6.8 Applications of Copolymerizations. 7. Ring-Opening Polymerization. 7.1 General Characteristics. 7.2 Cyclic Ethers. 7.3 Lactams. 7.4 N-Carboxy-alphaAmino Acid Anhydrides. 7.5 Lactones. 7.6 Nitrogen Heterocyclics. 7.7 Sulfur Heterocyclics. 7.8 Cycloalkenes. 7.9 Miscellaneous Oxygen Heterocyclics. 7.10 Other Ring-Opening Polymerizations. 7.11 Inorganic and Partially Inorganic Polymers. 7.12 Copolymerization. 8. Stereochemistry of Polymerizaton. 8.1 Types of Stereoisomerism in Polymers. 8.2 Properties of Stereoregular Polymers. 8.3 Forces of Stereoregulation in Alkene Polymerization. 8.4 Traditional Ziegler-Natta Polymerization of Nonpolar Alkene Monomers. 8.5 Metallocene Polymerization of Nonpolar Alkene Monomers. 8.6 Other Hydrocarbon Monomers. 8.7 Copolymerization. 8.8 Postmetallocene: Chelate Initiators. 8.9 Living Polymerization. 8.10 Polymerization of 1,3-Dienes. 8.11 Commercial Applications. 8.12 Polymerization of Polar Vinyl Monomers. 8.13 Alehydes. 8.14 Optical Activity in Polymers. 8.15 Ring-Opening Polymerization. 8.16 Statistical Models of Propagation. 9. Reactions of Polymers. 9.1 Principles of Polymers Reactivity. 9.2 Crosslinking. 9.3 Reactions of Cellulose. 9.4 Reactions of Poly(vinyl) acetate). 9.5 Halogenation. 9.6 Aromatic Substitution. 9.7 Cyclization. 9.8 Other Reactions. 9.9 Graft Copolymers. 9.10 Block Copolymers. 9.11 Polymers as Carriers or Supports. 9.12 Polymer Reagents. 9.13 Polymer Catalysts. 9.14 Polymer Substrates. Index.