Ultrasonic Inspection Technology Development and Search Unit Design : Examples of Practical Applications

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Ultrasonic Inspection Technology Development and Search Unit Design : Examples of Practical Applications

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  • IEEE(2011/12発売)
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  • ポイント 364pt
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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 288 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470874349
  • DDC分類 681.2

Full Description


Ultrasonic testing is a relatively new branch of science and industry. The development of ultrasonic testing started in the late 1920s. At the beginning, the fundamentals of this method were borrowed from basic physics, geometrical and wave optics, acoustics and seismology. Later it became clear that some of these theories and calculation methods could not always explain the phenomena observed in many specific cases of ultrasonic testing. Without knowing the nuances of the ultrasonic wave propagation in the test object it is impossible to design effective inspection technique and search units for it realization. This book clarifies the theoretical differences of ultrasonics from the other wave propagation theories presenting both basics of physics in the wave propagation, elementary mathematic and advanced practical applications. Almost every specific technique presented in this book is proofed by actual experimental data and examples of calculations.

Table of Contents

Foreword                                           xiii
Preface xv
List of Figures xxi
List of Tables xxxi
1 Introduction 1 (12)
1.1 General Characteristic of 1 (5)
Nondestructive Testing (NDT) Method
1.2 Ultrasonic Wave Type Overview 6 (7)
2 Introduction to Search Unit Design 13 (52)
2.1 Principles of Search Unit Design 13 (19)
2.1.1 Basic Types of Ultrasonic Search 13 (4)
Units
2.1.2 Essential Facts about Ultrasonic 17 (3)
Wave Propagation
2.1.3 Basic Considerations for Delay 20 (1)
Line and Wedge Design
Delay Line for Straight Beam Probes 20 (3)
(Figure 2.5)
Wedge for Angle Beam Probe 23 (2)
2.1.4 Examples of Probe Design for 25 (2)
Automated Inspection
2.1.5 Wedge Design for Surface Wave 27 (5)
Probe
2.2 Considerations for Transducer 32 (25)
Selection
2.2.1 Basics of Transducer Design 32 (1)
Matching Layer 33 (1)
Backing 34 (1)
Tuning Components 35 (1)
2.2.2 Acoustic Properties of Crystal 35 (3)
Materials
2.2.3 Velocity Measurement in Metals 38 (1)
Bulk Velocity Measurement in Thick Metal 38 (1)
Bulk Velocity Measurement Using a Thin 39 (3)
Metal Strip
2.2.4 Velocity and Attenuation 42 (1)
Measurement in Wedge Materials
Velocity Measurement in Wedge Materials 42 (3)
Attenuation Measurement in Wedge 45 (7)
Materials
2.2.5 Crystal Size Selection 52 (5)
2.3 Calculation of Straight Beam 57 (8)
Transducer Directional Characteristic
2.3.1 Acoustic Field of a Straight Beam 57 (3)
Transducer
2.3.2 Angle of Divergence Calculation 60 (2)
2.3.3 Main Lobe Profile Calculation of 62 (1)
a Round Crystal in Far Field
2.3.4 Coefficient K Calculation at Any 63 (2)
Decibel Level
3 Single Angle Beam Probe Design 65 (12)
3.1 Basics of Probe Design 65 (2)
3.2 Considerations Related to the 67 (2)
Practical Concept of Wedge Design
3.3 Measurement of Refracted Angles 69 (4)
3.4 Deviation of Refracted Angle Related 73 (4)
to Thick Wall Test Object Inspection
4 Dual Straight and Angle Beam Probe Design 77 (22)
4.1 Principles of Dual Straight Beam 77 (1)
Probe Design
4.2 Sequence of Wedge Calculation 78 (3)
4.3 Sensitivity Curves 81 (1)
4.4 Example of Dual Straight Beam Probe 82 (4)
Design
4.5 Basics of Dual Angle Beam Probe Design 86 (1)
4.6 Wedge Conceptual Design 87 (1)
4.7 Wedge Design for Inspection of a Test 88 (4)
Object with Flat and Parallel Surfaces
4.7.1 The Wedge Calculation for the 91 (1)
Inspection of Test Objects with Flat
and Parallel Surfaces
4.8 Wedge Design for the Inspection of a 92 (7)
Test Object with a Curved Surface
4.8.1 Wedge Calculation for the 92 (1)
Inspection of a Test Object with
Concentric Surfaces
The Case of Axial Direction of Beam 92 (1)
Propagation
The Case of Circumferential Direction 93 (6)
of Beam Propagation
5 Multiple Crystal Probe Design 99 (12)
5.1 Concept of "Packaging" 99 (4)
5.1.1 Triplex Probes 100 (1)
5.1.2 Dual Duplex Angle Beam Probes 101 (1)
5.1.3 Five Crystal Assemblies Probe 102 (1)
5.2 Example of Triplex Probe Design 103 (8)
5.2.1 Requirements for Triplex Probe 103 (1)
Design
5.2.2 Wedge Design for 60°S 104 (2)
Refracted Angle
5.2.3 Wedge Design for 45°S 106 (1)
Refracted Angle
5.2.4 Dual Straight Beam Probe Design 107 (4)
as Portion of Triplex Probe
6 Technique Development and Probe Design 111 (24)
for TOFD Method Application
6.1 Introduction to Techniques Based on 111 (2)
Diffraction Phenomena
6.2 TOFD Forward Scattering Technique 113 (5)
6.2.1 Flat Surface Test Object 115 (2)
Inspection
6.2.2 Curved Surface Test Object 117 (1)
Inspection (Figure 6.5)
6.3 Examples of Probe Calculation for 118 (5)
Curved Surface Test Object Inspection
6.3.1 Axial Crack Detection and Sizing 118 (2)
6.3.2 Circumferential Crack Detection 120 (1)
and Sizing (Figure 6.7)
6.3.3 Probe Design 121 (1)
6.3.4 Comments 122 (1)
6.4 Probe Design for TOFD Back Scattering 123 (12)
Technique
6.4.1 Basics of TOFD Back Scattering 123 (4)
Technique
6.4.2 Examples of Tandem Probe Design 127 (6)
6.4.3 Gliding Diffracted Waves Technique 133 (2)
7 Technique Development and Probe Design 135 (28)
for Cylindrical Rod Inspection
7.1 Boundary Effect 135 (1)
7.2 Symmetric and Asymmetric Cylindrical 136 (4)
Rod-Guided Waves
7.3 Technique Development and Probe 140 (4)
Design for Inspection of Stepped Shaft
7.4 Technique Development and Probe 144 (13)
Design for Stud Inspection
7.4.1 Stud Inspection from the Top 144 (4)
Surface
7.4.2 Stud Inspection from a 148 (9)
Center-Drilled Bore
7.5 Notch Dimension Calculation for Stud 157 (6)
Calibration Standards
8 Technique Development and Probe Design 163 (56)
for Hollow Cylinder Inspection
8.1 Lamb Wave Generation 163 (13)
8.1.1 Phase and Group Velocities 167 (3)
8.1.2 Lamb Wave Propagation Parameters 170 (3)
Selection of the Best Modes and 173 (1)
Frequencies
Lamb Wave Attenuation 174 (1)
Reflected Signal Shape 175 (1)
8.2 Technique Development and Probe 176 (8)
Design for the Inspection of Hollow
Cylinders from the Inside Surface
8.2.1 Test Object Description and 176 (6)
Inspection Consideration
8.2.2 Lamb-Type Guided Wave Mode 182 (2)
Selection for Practical Application
8.3 Technique Development and Probe 184 (35)
Design for the Inspection of Hollow
Cylinder from the Outside Surface
8.3.1 Technique Development and Probe 184 (1)
Design for Inspection of Cylinders with
Welded Adapters
Test Object Description and Inspection 184 (2)
Consideration
Selection of the Best Modes and 186 (3)
Frequencies
Group Velocity Measurement 189 (3)
8.3.2 Technique Development and Probe 192 (1)
Design for Heater Sleeve Inspection
Test Object Description and Inspection 192 (3)
Consideration
Lamb-Type Guided Wave Mode Selection 195 (1)
Experiments to Measure Wave Propagation 196 (8)
Parameters
8.3.3 Technique Development and Probe 204 (1)
Design for a Thick Wall Hollow Cylinder
Inspection
Test Object Description 204 (4)
Mode Selection for Transducer with 208 (5)
Standard Frequencies
Energy Distribution along the Hollow 213 (2)
Cylinder
Influence of Water Gap Thickness on 215 (1)
Wave Propagation for S0 Mode
Rayleigh Wave Velocity Measurement 216 (3)
9 Technique Development and Focuse Probe 219 (18)
Design for Immersion Method Inspection
9.1 Basics of Focused Immersion Probe 219 (5)
Design
9.1.1 General Observation 219 (2)
9.1.2 Consideration Relative to 221 (1)
Straight Beam Immersion Focused Probe
Design
Spherical Aberrations Phenomenon 221 (2)
9.1.3 Acoustic Parameters of Focused 223 (1)
Probe
9.2 Geometric and Acoustic Parameter 224 (2)
Calculation
9.3 Straight Beam Spherical Focused Probe 226 (11)
Design
9.3.1 Assessment of Design Feasibility 226 (2)
9.3.2 Consequence of Calculation 228 (3)
9.3.3 Example of Focused Immersion 231 (6)
Probe Calculation with a Single-Surface
Lens
10 Technique Development and Probe Design 237 (10)
for Reactor Pressure Vessel Nozzle Inner
Radius Inspection
10.1 Inspection Zone Configuration 237 (1)
10.2 Inspection from the Outside Nozzle 238 (2)
Surfaces: Contact Method
10.3 Example of Wedge Design for Inner 240 (3)
Radius Inspection from the Outer Surface
10.4 Inspection from the Inside Nozzle 243 (4)
Surface: Immersion Method
11 Search Unit Functioning Test 247 (10)
11.1 Evaluation of Certain 247 (3)
Characteristics of a Search Unit
11.1.1 Definition and Examples of 248 (2)
Bandwidth
11.2 Measurement of Specific Parameters 250 (7)
of Selected Search Units
11.2.1 IIW Reference Blocks 251 (2)
11.2.2 Additional Test Blocks 253 (4)
Appendix A System of Units and Symbols That Are 257 (4)
Accepted for This Book
Appendix B American Societies Engaged in 261 (4)
Activities Related to Nondestructive Testing
and Serving the Needs of NDT Professionals
Appendix C An Example of Applying the Third 265 (2)
Critical Angle
Appendix D WesDyne International Computer 267 (6)
Program for Lamb Wave Dispersion Curve
Calculation
Glossary of Terms Specific to This Book 273 (6)
Bibliography 279 (4)
About the Author 283 (2)
Index 285