Mid-Latitude Atmospheric Dynamics : A First Course

Mid-Latitude Atmospheric Dynamics : A First Course

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 324 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470864654
  • DDC分類 551.5

基本説明

Provides a mathematically rigorous yet accessible textbook that is primarily aimed at atmospheric science majors.

Full Description


This exciting text provides a mathematically rigorous yet accessible textbook that is primarily aimed at atmospheric science majors. Its accessibility is due to the texts emphasis on conceptual understanding. The first five chapters constitute a companion text to introductory courses covering the dynamics of the mid-latitude atmosphere. The final four chapters constitute a more advanced course, and provide insights into the diagnostic power of the quasi-geostrophic approximation of the equations outlined in the previous chapters, the meso-scale dynamics of thefrontal zone, the alternative PV perspective for cyclone interpretation, and the dynamics of the life-cycle of mid-latitude cyclones.* Written in a clear and accessible style* Features real weather examples and global case studies* Each chapter sets out clear learning objectives and tests students' knowledge with concluding questions and answers A Solutions Manual is also available for this textbook on the Instructor Companion Site www.wileyeurope.com/college/martin. "...a student-friendly yet rigorous textbook that accomplishes what no other textbook has done before...I highly recommend this textbook.For instructors, this is a great book if they don't have their own class notes - one can teach straight from the book. And for students, this is a great book if they don't take good class notes - one can learn straight from the book. This is a rare attribute of advanced textbooks." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS), 2008

Table of Contents

Preface                                            ix
Acknowledgments xi
1 Introduction and Review of Mathematical Tools 1 (24)
Objectives 1 (1)
1.1 Fluids and the nature of fluid dynamics 2 (1)
1.2 Review of useful mathematical tools 2 (12)
1.2.1 Elements of vector calculus 3 (6)
1.2.2 The Taylor series expansion 9 (1)
1.2.3 Centered difference approximations to 10 (2)
derivatives
1.2.4 Temporal changes of a continuous 12 (2)
variable
1.3 Estimating with scale analysis 14 (1)
1.4 Basic kinematics of fluids 15 (5)
1.4.1 Pure vorticity 17 (1)
1.4.2 Pure divergence 17 (1)
1.4.3 Pure stretching deformation 17 (2)
1.4.4 Pure shearing deformation 19 (1)
1.5 Mensuration 20 (1)
Selected references 21 (1)
Problems 21 (2)
Solutions 23 (2)
2 Fundamental and Apparent Forces 25 (18)
Objectives 25 (1)
2.1 The fundamental forces 26 (6)
2.1.1 The pressure gradient force 26 (1)
2.1.2 The gravitational force 27 (1)
2.1.3 The frictional force 28 (4)
2.2 Apparent forces 32 (8)
2.2.1 The centrifugal force 33 (2)
2.2.2 The Coriolis force 35 (5)
Selected references 40 (1)
Problems 40 (1)
Solutions 41 (2)
3 Mass, Momentum, and Energy: The Fundamental 43 (34)
Quantities of the Physical World
Objectives 43 (1)
3.1 Mass in the Atmosphere 43 (6)
3.1.1 The hypsometric equation 45 (4)
3.2 Conservation of momentum: The equations 49 (18)
of motion
3.2.1 The equations of motion in spherical 53 (12)
coordinates
3.2.2 Conservation of mass 65 (2)
3.3 Conservation of energy: The energy 67 (6)
equation
Selected references 73 (1)
Problems 73 (3)
Solutions 76 (1)
4 Applications of the Equations of Motion 77 (38)
Objectives 77 (1)
4.1 Pressure as a vertical coordinate 77 (6)
4.2 Potential temperature as a vertical 83 (6)
coordinate
4.3 The thermal wind balance 89 (4)
4.4 Natural coordinates and balanced flows 93 (15)
4.4.1 Geostrophic flow 97 (1)
4.4.2 Inertial flow 98 (1)
4.4.3 Cyclostrophic flow 99 (3)
4.4.4 Gradient flow 102(6)
4.5 The relationship between trajectories and 108(3)
streamlines
Selected references 111(3)
Problems ' '11
Solutions 114(1)
5 Circulation, Vorticity, and Divergence 115(32)
Objectives
5.1 The Circulation theorem and its physical 117(55)
interpretation
5.2 Vorticity and potential vorticity 172
5.3 The relationship between vorticity and 130(8)
divergence
5.4 The quasi-geostrophic system of equations 138(4)
Selected references 142(1)
Problems 142(2)
Solutions 144(3)
6 The Diagnosis of Mid-Latitude Synoptic-Scale 147(40)
Vertical Motions
Objectives 147(1)
6.1 The nature of the ageostrophic wind: 148(9)
Isolating the acceleration vector
6.1.1 Sutcliffe's expression for net 150(4)
ageostrophic divergence in a column
6.1.2 Another perspective on the 154(3)
ageostrophic wind
6.2 The Sutcliffe development theorem 157(3)
6.3 The quasi-geostrophic omega equation 160(6)
6.4 The Q-vector 166(15)
6.4.1 The geostrophic paradox and its 167(4)
resolution
6.4.2 A natural coordinate version of the 171(7)
->Q -vector
6.4.3 The along- and across-isentrope 178(3)
components of ->Q
Selected references 181(1)
Problems 181(5)
Solutions 186(1)
7 The Vertical Circulation at Fronts 187(50)
Objectives 187(2)
7.1 The structural and dynamical 189(4)
characteristics of mid-latitude fronts
7.2 Frontogenesis and vertical motions 193(11)
7.3 The semi-geostrophic equations 204(7)
7.4 Upper-level frontogenesis 211(9)
7.5 Precipitation processes at fronts 220(9)
Selected references 229(1)
Problems 229(5)
Solutions 234(3)
8 Dynamical Aspects of the Life Cycle of the 237(38)
Mid-Latitude Cyclone
Objectives 237(1)
8.1 Introduction: The polar front theory of 237(5)
cyclones
8.2 Basic structural and energetic 242(4)
characteristics of the cyclone
8.3 The cyclogenesis stage: The QG tendency 246(4)
equation perspective
8.4 The cyclogenesis stage: The QG omega 250(2)
equation perspective
8.5 The cyclogenetic influence of diabatic 252(6)
processes: Explosive cyclogenesis
8.6 The post-mature stage: Characteristic 258(6)
thermal structure
8.7 The post-mature stage: The QG dynamics of 264(1)
the occluded quadrant
8.8 The Decay Stage 265(4)
Selected references 269(1)
Problems 269(4)
Solutions 273(2)
9 Potential Vorticity and Applications to 275(36)
Mid-Latitude Weather Systems
Objectives 275(1)
9.1 Potential vorticity and isentropic 276(4)
divergence
9.2 Characteristics of a positive PV anomaly 280(6)
9.3 Cyclogenesis from the PV perspective 286(4)
9.4 The influence of diabatic heating on PV 290(5)
9.5 Additional applications of the PV 295(12)
perspective
9.5.1 Piecewise PV inversion and some 295(2)
applications
9.5.2 A PV perspective on occlusion 297(5)
9.5.3 A PV perspective on leeside 302(1)
cyclogenesis
9.5.4 The effects of PV superposition and 302(5)
attenuation
Selected references 307(1)
Problems 307(3)
Solutions 310(1)
Appendix A: Virtual Temperature 311(2)
Bibliography 313(4)
Index 317