Building Fire Performance Analysis

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Building Fire Performance Analysis

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 515 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470863268
  • DDC分類 693.82

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xiii
Acknowledgement xv
1 Understanding, deciding, communicating 1 (10)
1.1 The destination 1 (1)
1.2 Codes and standards 1 (2)
1.3 Routine practices 3 (1)
1.4 A way of thinking 4 (1)
1.5 Evaluation levels 5 (1)
1.6 Applications 6 (2)
1.7 Road map 8 (1)
References 8 (3)
2 Fire defenses 11 (8)
2.1 Introduction 11 (1)
2.2 Building fire defenses 11 (1)
2.3 Active fire defenses 12 (4)
2.4 Passive fire defenses 16 (2)
2.5 Closure 18 (1)
3 Basic concepts 19 (8)
3.1 Introduction 19 (1)
3.2 Concepts and definitions 19 (5)
3.3 Performance evaluations 24 (3)
4 The anatomy of building fires 27 (12)
4.1 Introduction 27 (1)
4.2 The building 27 (2)
4.3 The fire protection systems 29 (1)
4.4 The fire 30 (1)
4.5 The anatomy of a building fire 31 (1)
4.6 Fire in the room of origin 32 (1)
4.7 Barrier effectiveness and fire 33 (1)
propagation
4.8 Fire department operations 33 (1)
4.9 The structural frame 34 (1)
4.10 Smoke movement 35 (1)
4.11 Life safety 35 (1)
4.12 Performance evaluations and risk 36 (1)
characterizations
4.13 Summary 36 (3)
5 A way of thinking 39 (14)
5.1 Introduction 39 (1)
5.2 The building/fire performance system 39 (2)
5.3 Performance evaluations 41 (1)
5.4 The window of uncertainty 42 (2)
5.5 Estimating performance 44 (1)
5.6 Evaluation levels 45 (1)
5.7 Visual thinking 46 (3)
5.8 Example of effective communication 49 (2)
5.9 Summary 51 (2)
6 Framework for analysis 53 (26)
6.1 Introduction 53 (1)
6.2 Network diagrams 53 (1)
6.3 Continuous value networks: concepts 54 (2)
6.4 Continuous value networks: 56 (5)
calculations and graphing
6.5 Single value networks: concepts 61 (2)
6.6 Single value networks: calculations 63 (2)
6.7 Networks and performance curves: 65 (1)
discussion
6.8 The L curve 65 (2)
6.9 The L curve for a room of origin 67 (3)
6.10 The L curve for a building fire path 70 (4)
6.11 L curve communication 74 (5)
7 Prolog to applications 79 (16)
7.1 Introduction 79 (1)
7.2 Tools of the trade 79 (1)
7.3 Fire prevention 80 (1)
7.4 Building types 81 (1)
7.5 Selection of the room of origin 81 (2)
7.6 Design fire concepts 83 (1)
7.7 The design fire 84 (2)
7.8 Performance analysis overview 86 (1)
7.9 Fire performance: M curve analysis 86 (1)
7.10 Fire performance: A curve analysis 87 (1)
7.11 Putting it together: the L curve 88 (1)
7.12 Structural frame behavior: the Fr 89 (1)
curve
7.13 Smoke analysis 90 (2)
7.14 Risk characterizations 92 (1)
7.15 Summary 93 (1)
Reference 94 (1)
8 Design fires 95 (36)
8.1 The need 95 (1)
8.2 Fire in a room 96 (1)
8.3 Fire development in small rooms 97 (1)
8.4 Interior design and model rooms 98 (1)
8.5 Realms of fire growth 99 (3)
8.6 Level 2 concepts 102 (1)
8.7 Level 2 framework 102 (6)
8.8 Discussion 108 (1)
8.9 Large room concepts 109 (1)
8.10 Level 2 framework for large rooms 110 (5)
8.11 Level 3 evaluations 115 (1)
8.12 Level 1 concepts 116 (1)
8.13 Concepts of fire growth potential 116 (1)
classification
8.14 Fire growth potential classifications 117 (1)
8.15 Illustrations of the classification 117 (5)
process
8.16 Discussion for room classifications 122 (2)
8.17 ατイ fires 124 (1)
8.18 The design fire 124 (1)
8.19 The I curve 124 (3)
8.20 Thoughts on design fires 127 (2)
8.21 Summary 129 (1)
Reference 129 (2)
9 Barriers and multiroom fires 131 (16)
9.1 Introduction 131 (1)
9.2 Barrier functions 132 (1)
9.3 Concepts for barrier evaluations 132 (2)
9.4 Barrier performance descriptors 134 (2)
9.5 The barrier/space module 136 (9)
9.6 Summary 145 (2)
10 Barrier performance 147 (46)
10.1 Pause for review 147 (1)
10.2 Chapter organization 147 (1)
10.3 The standard fire test 148 (2)
10.4 Standard test discussion 150 (1)
10.5 Fuel load 151 (3)
10.6 Ingberg theory 154 (2)
10.7 Understanding fire severity better 156 (2)
10.8 Other theories 158 (2)
10.9 Discussion 160 (1)
10.10 Awareness pause 161 (1)
10.11 Estimating barrier performance 162 (2)
10.12 Catalog barrier curves 164 (2)
10.13 Mathematical cohesiveness 166 (1)
10.14 Material behavior in fires 167 (8)
10.15 Heat energy application 175 (1)
10.16 Real-Time estimates 176 (1)
10.17 Constructing catalog curves 177 (4)
10.18 Barrier effectiveness factors 181 (2)
10.19 Automatic protection equipment 183 (1)
10.20 Field performance T and D curves 183 (6)
10.21 Applied heat energy 189 (1)
10.22 Combustible barriers 189 (1)
10.23 Summary 190 (2)
References 192 (1)
11 Detection and Initial Actions 193 (36)
11.1 Introduction 193 (1)
PART A: DETECTION 193 (1)
11.2 Instrument detection 193 (1)
11.3 Detection instruments 194 (2)
11.4 Detection operational performance 196 (1)
11.5 Detector reliability 197 (3)
11.6 Instrument detector evaluations 200 (3)
11.7 Human fire detection 203 (1)
11.8 Combined detection modes 203 (4)
11.9 Level 3 detection evaluation 207 (1)
11.10 Level 1 detection 208 (1)
11.11 Instrument detection analysis 209 (6)
11.12 Human detection analysis 215 (1)
PART B: ALARM AND NOTIFICATION 216 (1)
11.13 Alarm and subsequent actions 216 (1)
11.14 Proprietary supervising station 217 (1)
system functions
11.15 Central station functions 218 (1)
11.16 Remote station functions 219 (1)
11.17 Auxiliary fire alarm system functions 219 (1)
11.18 Occupant actions 220 (1)
11.19 Human notification of the fire 220 (1)
department
11.20 Fire department notification analysis 221 (3)
11.21 Level 3 analysis 224 (1)
11.22 Level 1 analysis 224 (1)
11.23 Summary 225 (4)
12 Fire service manual suppression 229 (40)
12.1 Introduction 229 (1)
12.2 Overview of the M curve analysis 229 (2)
12.3 First steps 231 (1)
12.4 Fire department response 232 (1)
12.5 Types of fire department 232 (1)
12.6 Fire companies 233 (2)
12.7 Alarm handling 235 (1)
12.8 Turnout procedures 235 (1)
12.9 Travel time 236 (1)
12.10 Setup time 236 (1)
12.11 Fire ground operations 237 (3)
12.12 Finding the fire 240 (1)
12.13 Establishing supply water 240 (1)
12.14 Initial fire suppression 241 (1)
considerations
12.15 Critical fire size 242 (1)
12.16 Interior fire attack 243 (3)
12.17 Callery method 246 (1)
12.18 Concepts in fire extinguishment 247 (1)
12.19 M curve construction procedure 248 (4)
12.20 Level 2 analysis 252 (9)
12.21 M curve construction 261 (1)
12.22 Building fire brigades 262 (1)
12.23 Level 3 analysis 263 (1)
12.24 Level 1 analysis 263 (2)
12.25 Summary 265 (3)
References 268 (1)
13 Automatic sprinkler suppression 269 (32)
13.1 Introduction 269 (1)
13.2 Sprinkler extinguishment 269 (2)
13.3 The sprinkler system 271 (1)
13.4 Types of sprinkler system 271 (2)
13.5 Agent application 273 (1)
13.6 Framework for analysis: agent 274 (4)
application
13.7 Operational effectiveness 278 (1)
13.8 Sprinkler fusing 278 (1)
13.9 Water flow 279 (2)
13.10 Water discharge 281 (3)
13.11 Obstructions 284 (1)
13.12 Framework for analysis: operational 285 (3)
effectiveness
13.13 Calculating A curve coordinates 288 (3)
13.14 The A curve 291 (4)
13.15 Quality comparisons 295 (1)
13.16 Level 3 analysis 295 (1)
13.17 Level 1 evaluations 296 (2)
13.18 Partially sprinklered buildings 298 (1)
13.19 Fire department mutual aid 299 (1)
13.20 Automatic suppression 300 (1)
Reference 300 (1)
14 Putting it together: the L curve 301 (16)
14.1 Introduction 301 (1)
14.2 Fire in a space 301 (2)
14.3 Performance descriptors 303 (1)
14.4 The L curve for the room of origin 303 (3)
14.5 Building L curve networks 306 (3)
14.6 L curve calculations 309 (5)
14.7 L curve discussion 314 (2)
14.8 Summary 316 (1)
Reference 316 (1)
15 Concepts in structural frame analysis 317 (12)
15.1 Introduction 317 (1)
15.2 Structural design 317 (1)
15.3 What are we looking for? 318 (1)
15.4 Structural frame and barriers 318 (1)
15.5 The structural frame 318 (1)
15.6 Performance concepts 319 (5)
15.7 Structural performance description 324 (2)
15.8 Discussion 326 (1)
15.9 Level 1 evaluations 327 (1)
15.10 Summary 328 (1)
16 Smoke analysis 329 (24)
16.1 Introduction 329 (1)
16.2 Overview of the process 329 (1)
16.3 Smoke 330 (2)
16.4 Smoke movement 332 (2)
16.5 Buoyancy forces 334 (1)
16.6 Natural air movement 334 (4)
16.7 Influences of mechanical air 338 (1)
pressures
16.8 Fire department ventilation 338 (1)
16.9 Tenability 339 (1)
16.10 Visibility in smoke 340 (1)
16.11 Building geometry 341 (2)
16.12 The Sm curve 343 (1)
16.13 Sm curve construction 343 (3)
16.14 Design fire smoke characteristics 346 (1)
16.15 Computer smoke modeling 346 (1)
16.16 Building analysis 347 (5)
16.17 Closure 352 (1)
References 352 (1)
17 Building performance 353 (14)
17.1 Introduction 353 (1)
17.2 Scenario analysis 354 (1)
17.3 Building performance summary 354 (2)
17.4 Information organization 356 (6)
17.5 Alternative comparisons 362 (5)
18 Risk characterizations 367 (28)
18.1 Introduction 367 (1)
18.2 Risk characterizations 367 (1)
PART A: HUMAN SAFETY 368 (1)
18.3 Human safety 368 (1)
18.4 Overview for life safety analysis 369 (1)
18.5 Human reaction to products of 370 (2)
combustion
18.6 Prescriptive code egress 372 (1)
18.7 Plans approval for prescriptive code 373 (1)
egress
18.8 Overview of egress performance 374 (1)
evaluations
18.9 Tenability 374 (1)
18.10 The analytical process 374 (7)
18.11 Preevacuation activity analysis 381 (6)
18.12 Movement times 387 (1)
18.13 Defend in place 388 (1)
18.14 Areas of refuge 389 (1)
18.15 Fire department rescue 389 (1)
18.16 Evaluating fire department rescue 390 (1)
18.17 Fire-fighter safety 391 (1)
PART B: PROPERTY SAFETY 392 (1)
18.18 Other risks 392 (1)
18.19 Property protection analysis 392 (1)
18.20 Continuity of operations analysis 393 (1)
18.21 Threat to neighboring exposures 393 (1)
18.22 Threat to the environment 394 (1)
18.23 Closure 394 (1)
References 394 (1)
19 Introduction to risk management 395 (12)
19.1 Introduction 395 (1)
19.2 Comparisons 395 (1)
19.3 Process overview 396 (2)
19.4 Understand the problem 398 (1)
19.5 Describe the building 399 (1)
19.6 Evaluate building performance 399 (1)
19.7 Characterize risk 400 (1)
19.8 Structure a risk management program 400 (2)
19.9 Evaluate EB prevention 402 (1)
19.10 Emergency preparedness 402 (1)
19.11 Decision analysis 403 (2)
19.12 Decision making 405 (2)
20 Prevent established burning 407 (36)
20.1 Introduction 407 (1)
20.2 Prevent EB 408 (2)
20.3 Ignition potential 410 (1)
20.4 Initial fire growth potential 411 (1)
20.5 Occupant extinguishment 412 (1)
20.6 Portable fire extinguishers 413 (4)
20.7 Evaluating occupant extinguishment 417 (2)
20.8 Prevent EB: discussion 419 (1)
20.9 Automatic special hazard suppression 420 (1)
20.10 Carbon dioxide systems 421 (1)
20.11 Dry chemical extinguishing systems 422 (1)
20.12 Halogenated extinguishing systems 422 (1)
20.13 Water-Spray extinguishing systems 423 (1)
20.14 Foam extinguishing systems 423 (1)
20.15 Explosion suppression systems 424 (1)
20.16 Building evaluations for special 424 (3)
hazard installations
20.17 Special hazard evaluations 427 (13)
20.18 Closure 440 (1)
Reference 441 (2)
21 Decision making and communication 443 (6)
21.1 Applications 443 (1)
21.2 The big picture 444 (1)
21.3 Prescriptive codes and performance 444 (1)
21.4 Risk management 444 (2)
21.5 Performance alternatives 446 (1)
21.6 Packaging alternatives 447 (1)
21.7 Summary 448 (1)
Appendix A: Analytical foundations 449 (10)
Appendix B: What about the Numbers? 459 (10)
Appendix C: The role of judgment in engineering 469 (16)
evaluations
Appendix D: Inspection Report Forms 485 (10)
Appendix E: Fire Safety Evaluators 495 (2)
Symbols and Abbreviations 497 (4)
Index 501