Pharmaceutical Systems

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Pharmaceutical Systems

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 356 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470725672
  • DDC分類 615

Full Description


Offers a social view of the activities leading to the timely patient access to medicines including: drug research, drug production, drug distribution, drug prescribing, drug information and drug controlProvides theoretical models to enable pharmacists to understand the organization of drug systems in their particular global territoryWritten specifically with the needs of pharmacy students taking Master's degrees in mind

Table of Contents

Preface                                            ix
About the authors xi
Introduction 1 (38)
Economic development 1 (2)
Systems analysis 3 (5)
Actors in the pharmaceutical systems 8 (9)
Evaluations 17 (3)
Data collection 20 (1)
Summary of results and formulation of 20 (1)
conclusions
Social constructionism and social 21 (4)
representation theory
The actor-spectator paradox 25 (1)
Decision-making processes in the drug 26 (3)
system
How attitudes and beliefs change - the 29 (3)
balance model
Summary 32 (7)
References 33 (6)
A historical perspective of drug research 39 (22)
and diffusion
The period of folk medicine 39 (1)
The merchant period (1500 AD to the end 39 (5)
of the eighteenth century)
The chemical period (the nineteenth 44 (3)
century)
The animal testing period (from 1900 to 47 (2)
the end of the 1930s)
The drug innovation period (from 1940 to 49 (2)
1964)
The post-Thalidomide period (1965 to 51 (5)
present)
Future perspectives 56 (1)
Summary 56 (5)
References 57 (4)
National drug policies 61 (20)
Efficient organization of drug support 62 (1)
Efficient organization of drug research 63 (2)
Efficient organization of drug production 65 (1)
Efficient organization of drug 66 (2)
distribution
An efficient system for drug consumption 68 (1)
A satisfactory system of drug information 69 (1)
Choice of drugs with high therapeutic 70 (5)
powers
Choice of drugs with few side effects 75 (2)
Low drug costs 77 (1)
How to develop and implement a national 77 (1)
policy
Summary 78 (3)
References 78 (3)
Planning the drug support 81 (28)
Patent and exclusivity policies 81 (3)
Trade name policy vs. generic name policy 84 (1)
Generic and therapeutic substitution 85 (2)
Generic prescribing 87 (1)
Drug registration 88 (2)
Drug reimbursement policies/national 90 (3)
health insurance systems
The public and private drug sectors of 93 (2)
developing countries
The primary health care policy 95 (4)
The essential drugs (ED) policy 99 (3)
Summary 102(7)
References 103(6)
Drug research 109(20)
Drug company strategies 110(2)
Factors which determine the resources a 112(3)
drug company spends on R&D
The selection of research areas by a drug 115(1)
company
The research process 116(2)
The project decision 118(2)
The research administration after a 120(2)
project has been accepted
Research productivity 122(2)
Ethical concerns in drug research 124(1)
Summary 125(4)
References 126(3)
Drug production 129(22)
Background 129(4)
Variations between countries 133(1)
The decision regarding which drug(s) to 134(5)
produce
The organization of production lines 139(2)
Production of drug raw materials 141(1)
Drug quality 142(2)
Principles of technical assistance support 144(1)
The decision where to locate the plant 145(1)
Determination of production quantities 146(1)
Export decisions 146(1)
Summary 147(4)
References 148(3)
Drug prices, cost controls and profits in 151(20)
the drug industry
Price setting of raw drug materials 151(3)
Price setting of ready-made drugs 154(2)
Price setting of patented drugs 156(1)
Price setting of non-patented drugs 157(1)
(generic drugs)
Price Competition 158(2)
Cost controls 160(3)
The prices a patient has to pay in the 163(1)
public sector in countries which have a
public distribution system
Drug prices at private pharmacies in 164(1)
developing countries
The profits of drug companies 164(2)
Summary 166(5)
References 167(4)
Drug wholesaling and procurement 171(10)
Importation 172(1)
Different types of wholesale systems 173(1)
How to evaluate a wholesaling system 174(2)
Procurement 176(2)
Summary 178(3)
References 178(3)
Drug retail distribution 181(24)
Pharmaceutical care 182(2)
The degree of formal government control 184(4)
of outpatient pharmacies
Drug distribution aims 188(12)
Summary 200(5)
References 200(5)
Drug consumption 205(14)
Historical perspective 205(1)
Measurement of drug consumption 206(3)
Factors which determine the volume of a 209(2)
drug consumed in a country
Factors found to be related to the volume 211(2)
of drug consumption
Factors which influence drug consumption 213(2)
at the individual level
Qualitative studies of drug consumption 215(1)
Summary 216(3)
References 217(2)
Marketing of drugs 219(18)
Historical background 219(2)
The contextual factors which affect the 221(1)
diffusion of a drug
The marketing goals of drug companies 222(1)
Factors determining what a drug company 223(5)
spends on the marketing of a new drug
The relative effects of different media 228(2)
and messages in commercial drug
information to prescribers
Commercial media directed at the general 230(1)
public
A national perspective on commercial drug 230(3)
information
Summary 233(4)
References 233(4)
The market structure 237(6)
The existing international market 237(2)
structure
The market structure in a specific country 239(1)
Summary 240(3)
References 241(2)
Drug control 243(12)
Definition of drug control 243(1)
Process model of the drug control system 244(3)
in a country
The processes to ensure that each aspect 247(1)
of drug control complies with the
necessary norms or standards
Control measures 248(3)
Clinical trials 251(1)
Summary 251(4)
References 252(3)
Drug prescribing 255(22)
Normative studies 255(3)
Sociological studies 258(2)
Information process studies of drug 260(2)
prescribing
Prescription studies based on a cognitive 262(5)
perspective
How standard selections change 267(1)
Making a diagnosis 268(1)
Placebo prescribing 269(1)
Summary 270(7)
References 271(6)
Patients' attitudes and behaviour 277(24)
Background 277(1)
Explanatory models 278(2)
A process model: how a layperson deals 280(8)
with medical symptoms
OTC drugs 288(1)
Patient compliance 289(5)
Summary 294(7)
References 294(7)
Drug information 301(18)
Background 301(2)
The role of mass media 303(2)
Drug information sources used 305(3)
Drug information from a sender's 308(5)
perspective
Mass media campaigns 313(1)
The value problem 314(1)
Summary 315(4)
References 316(3)
Index 319